Marketing Agricultural Products In Nigeria – Contribution Of Road Transport Network

Marketing Agricultural Products In Nigeria – Contribution Of Road Transport Network

Marketing Agricultural Products In Nigeria – Contribution Of Road Transport Network

Agriculture which is one of the major sectors of every economy has been accorded so much importance, and that is why the federal government of Nigeria has introduced a number of incentive measures to encourage the transportation of agricultural products from one area of concentration to other areas of intense demand.

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Government incentive measures to boost the transportation of agricultural products includes the establishment of a good road transport system network and the establishment of state owned transport, firm local government transport, state transport company as well as private transportation and the establishment of sea transport boats, canoes.

In Ebonyi state the ultimate goal of the agricultural policy is the attainment of self-sustaining growth in all sub-sector of agriculture as well as the realization, necessary for the overall socio-economic development of the rural areas.

Based on the above reasoning therefore, the influence as well as the importance of road transportation services is critically investigated in this study with particular reference to marketing of agricultural product in Ebonyi state because, agricultural products supplies from some of its products supplies from some of its local government area do not usually respond quickly to changes in demand.

Increases in production of smallholder farmers who dominate in the area depend on the assurance of good prices and market opportunities. Market opportunities, in particular, are constrained by poor transport network, which adversely affect accessibility and personal mobility.

Although often unaccounted for, farmers production activities and costs includes costs of trekking between home and field often over long distances, quite apart from the transport requirements for marketing agricultural products. The proportion of production costs represented by transport and travel costs usually increases rapidly with distance between villages and fields. These constraints in of-road transport limit farmers’ production to fields closer to the villages, and other factors include are inadequacy of infrastructure, high cost of production, and inadequate transport system due to bad roads in Ebonyi state.


Agricultural and transportation are two words that go together. This is because the source of food and other economic products must be reasonably accessible in distributing agricultural products to the markets, and factories. Therefore, adequate transportation network and efficient carrier services operations are a necessary conditions for affecting an efficient physical distribution of agricultural products.

In Ebonyi state therefore, most roads are in very poor condition. This hinders the transportation of agricultural products in the towns and other areas. Also poor transportation also has the added effect of preventing farmers from specializing, in the crops that offer them the best returns. If agriculture is to respond to the growing demand of consumers, then it will be necessary, to evolve a good progressive rural roods to expedite and reduce cost of the flow of agricultural commodities, information all sorts of rural services to enable it contribute meaningful economic growth of Ebonyi state and Nigeria as a whole.


The main objective of this study is to relate road transportation services to the economy with regards to the marketing of agricultural products in Ebonyi state, other objectives are:

I. To determine the extent, to which road transportation services affect marketing of agricultural products.

II. To determine those factors that are directly or indirectly related to the marketing of agricultural products and to what extents they have contributed to this.

III. To offer useful recommendations with a view to making the marketing of agricultural products in Ebonyi state area more successful and effective.


i. What are the influences of road transportation network on the marketing of agricultural products?

ii. Can inaccessibility into the rural area of Ebonyi state reduce the motivation of farmers to produce and distribute farm products?

iii. Does poor network in Ebonyi state area affects marketing of Agricultural products?


This study will seek to test two major hypothesis which are:


Ho: poor road network system in Ebonyi state does not

affects marketing of agricultural products.

Hi: poor road networks system in Ebonyi state affects

Marketing of Agricultural products.


Ho: The nature of the modes of transport influence

selling price of farm products in the open markets.

Hi: The nature of the modes of transport does not

influence selling prices of farm products in the open




The importance of the study is to find out the gainful and developmental, contributions agriculture can make to the Economy and most importantly to the tremendous influence of road transport infrastructure in Ebonyi state. This is because transport and development, as well as agriculture are usually regarded as closely related since each of them influences the fortunes and relative rate of growth of the others.


It is pertinent at this stage to know key terms, which includes:

1. AGRICULTURE: This is the science or art that involves all activities directed towards food production.

2. FARMING: This are activities that are directed towards the cultivation of agricultural products towards satisfying needs and wants.

3. MARKET: A set of people and organization with latent or manifest, needs to satisfy, the money to spend and the willingness to spend it on need-satisfying goods services either now or in the foreseeable future.

4. MARKETING: According to kotler is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through, creating, offering and freely exchanging products and services of value with others.

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5. RETAILER: Business whose sales come, primarily from retailing.

6. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS: Products bought by individuals and organizations for further proceeding or for use in conducting a business.

7. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING: Therefore, may be defined as the performance of all business activities involved in the flow agricultural products and services from the point of initial agricultural production until they are in hands of consumers. It involves the application of the knowledge of marketing to the formulation, implementation and control of activities, which are directly or related to agriculture.

8. AGENT: This is a wholesaler who represents buyers or sellers on relatively permanent basis performs, only a few functions and does not take title to goods.

9. CONSUMERS: They are individual groups and families that buys the produce to meet their satisfaction.

10. CONSUMER MARKET: This are all individuals and households who buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumption.


In Ebonyi state most of the agricultural products yam, potatoes, cassava, rice, sea-foods, vegetables etc are produced in the village located in IZZI, and IKWO.


TIME CONSTRAINT: The time range for the completion of

this research work is quite short and

this means that the researcher will be

working at a very lest rate to be able

to meet the allotted time for the

completion at the project.

FINANCIAL CONSTRAINT: There are also constraints due

to financial incapacitations of the

researcher, in carrying out detailed

work on the research.

LACK OF MATERIAL AND DATA: The researcher, would

have loved to increase the scope of

this research work but inadequate

material and data on marketing

Agricultural products are limited.


Agriculture which used to be main stay and backbone of the nations’ economy during the pre-colonial and colonial era has invariably, become the forgotten sector of our economy. Instead more emphasis is wants to identify oil sectors. Nobody wants to identify with agriculture products that used to be the commodities for both local and international markets. The story is the same in almost all the states of the federation.

Programmes and schemes which includes national Accelerated Food Production Programme (NEFP) national grains and Root Crops Production Company, the integrated rural development and direct production activities of the various river basin development Authorities were established to promote the effort of agriculture in Nigeria but schemes which was established did not last because only few people in Nigeria engage in agricultural production while the other engage in business activities.

A MARKET: Is an institution for exchange of goods and services. It can also be seen as an area or setting within which producers and consumers are or setting within which producers and consumers are in communication with one another, while supply and demand conditions operate and title of goods and services are transferred. Based on the foregoing, the following have emerged.(Umebali, 2002).


The following market exist:

(A) FARM GATE MARKETS: In this market agricultural products exchange from the producer to the middlemen or consumers. They are local markets where the farmers direct sales. They are obtained, raw and can be in a wholesale manner or retail.

(B) WHOLESALE MARKET: The back purchase from the farm gate are further sold in large qualities. This market sells to the market carries out some marketing functions.

(C) INDUSTRIAL MARKET: This market ensures the processing of the agricultural uses. Such produce include, cocoa, palm oil, cotton, rubber etc. the processor own their processing plant. However, in Ebonyi State the situation is quite different. This is because while majority of Local government out of the twenty one local government in Ebonyi State are respectively engaged in trading and commercial activities a particular local government named Ebonyi West Local Government area stood out in identifying with Agriculture.

Agriculture in Ebonyi West Local government in particular is carried out both in small and large scale. The people of Ebonyi west local government are predominately farmers practicing agriculture as a means of livelihood. But as you are aware the people of Ebonyi West are the most prolific farmer produces large qualities of the agriculture or farm produce you see in the major markers in Ebonyi State and other parts of Nigeria without any gain saying 70 percent of the farm product brought or sold at Onitsha markets and other markets in Nigeria are mostly produced from Ebonyi West Local Government area (report of state ministry of agriculture 2002.)


Agriculture, which used to be the basic of life in Nigeria and Ebonyi State, also play or contribute to our economy in numerous ways.

i. FOOD PROVISION: Agriculture sector is mainly responsible for food provision to the Nigeria populace.

ii. EMPLOYMENT: Its used to be the major source of employment to the Nigeria labour force but since the era of oil boom its has lost her pride in the scheme of things.

iii. INVESTMENT: Although, agricultural activities is not in high gear in Nigeria and Ebonyi State some businessmen still sees it as an viable investment arena and they have continued to invest in it.

iv. RAW MATERIALS PROVISION: The agriculture sector provides most manufacturing industries with raw materials they need for production.

v. FOR FOREIGN EXCHANGE: Agricultural marketing also contribute to the foreign exchange earnings of our nation that is its contributes to the gross domestic product (G. DP).


Road transport system can defined as any kind or type of transportation activities carried out on land. There are various types of road transport system. For example, we have the trekking system (transport of footing) the breast of builder system (transporting oneself or item using an animal) cycling either motorcar, Lorry, bus etc) for transport purposes.

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However, this will be concerned with the vehicle system of transport as its affects the marketing of agricultural products in Ebonyi state, particularly Ebonyi west local government area. Earnings of our nation. That is its contributes to the gross domestic product, (G. DP)

vi. REVENUE GENERATION: Governments, both federal, state and local do generate revenue from agriculture activities carried our in their domain (taxation)


Road transport system can defined as any kind or type of transportation activities carried out on land. There are various types of road transport system. For example, we have the trekking system (transport of footing) the breast of builder system (transporting oneself or item using an animal) cycling either motorcar, Lorry, bus etc) for transport purposes. The road transport system in Ebonyi state and par6ticularly the once leading to Eb0onyi West local government area is in a general state of disorder.

This present condition of this road network, has really done a lot of havoc to the entire populace, ranging from like in transport fares, frequency breakdown on the way, inaccessibility, arm robbery attacks hampering of the marketing of agricultural products to mention few. All the farmer from Ebonyi west local government as really suffering from this problem of poor road connection in their domain. They lost 20% to 30% of the farm produce to this bad road condition. (Report of the state ministry of agricultural and natural resources 2002).


Aside from the agricultural producers who may be involved in the direct marketing of the their products, the major institutions involved in the handling and marketing of agricultural products include.

A. Wholesalers, trade associations and retailers of food products, and

B. Food processing industries.





Wholesales are the bulk buyers of agricultural and food products, both processed and unprocessed. They in turn, sell to retailers hotels, and other institutions. Among the wholesalers are such food handlers and marketers as distributors and forestallers. The forestaller who place themselves at strategic points on the road into our traditional markets or road leading from the farms and try to induce those going to the market or returning from the farmers to sell their agricultural products to them.


Trade associations are association of traders in particular communities that have banded themselves together to promote their own objectives.

According to Onakomaiya, trade associations perform two main functions one school the other political during important occasion like marriage and funeral ceremonies on the political side the associations labby the authorities to ensure adequate supply, maintenance and improvement of marketing facilities, at the traditional open markets.

We should add that trade association in agricultural markets performs economic functions such as restricting and regulation entry into the trade, the also control price through collusive price fixing.


In Nigeria it is difficult to distinguish between the wholesaler and the retailer since both categories of middlemen interchange the functions which they perform. Essentially, however, the retailer handles smaller qualities of agricultural products and sells primarily to the ultimate consumer.

Among the retailer are the supermarket, and most of the operators in our traditional open markets. In the handling and marketing of farm produce, it is not necessary to distinguish between the different classes of middlemen that are involved with moving the products to the consumers at markets. For example, Hooder and Ukwu have depicted in figure1, how the local farm produce is distributed.




In the marketing of agricultural products, a lot of bulk breaking and rebuking takes places at many points in the chain of distribution before the product reaches the consumers. These involve enormous costs as the products pass through the hand of different categories of middlemen. The channel of distribution that is therefore adopted, as well as the cost incurred in the process would depend on the following factors.

(1) If the product were a seasonal one in terms of production or demand pattern as in the case of onions, orange and kola nuts, traditional multi-link channel would normally be used instead of separately established distributive organisation every season.

(2) Where the products are perishable and long distances separate the producers and the retailers, traditional multi-link channels would be used to offset the hazards of long distance transportation.

However, processed or semi-processed commodities tend to have shorter channels as some of the strong functions are performed by

(3) Generally the higher the unit value of a commodity the greater the possibility of successfully marketing directly to the consumer.

(4) Highly divisible convenience goods generally used the traditional channel, while shopping goods can be more directly marketed.

(5) If the total sales volume is large middlemen can be successfully eliminated. However, if the sales volume is low, middlemen who handle other or similar products have to the used.

(6) A commodity having a widespread scattered market has to use existing traditional, channel of distribution.

(7) The existence of competitor and established channels with customers are already familiar with which have proved profitable to his competitors normally induces a producer or trader to follow those established channels.



According to Nwokoye (1981) that from basic economic theory production is never complete until what produced gets to the final consumers, and that is only through transportation that this objective can be effectively achieved. In his views, transportation in relation to agriculture in Ebonyi West Local Government area is mainly by road in which the vehicular traffic consists of cars, Lorries, buses, tippers etc, and sea which consist of canoes and boats also pedestrian traffic and by head are not entirely excluded, but are mainly used for short distance market within the rural areas. He asserted that this mode of transportation in mostly applicable to some agricultural products which require movement only over short distance to and from market places between adjoining villages an nearby town which s however a slow and inefficient mode of transportation, commonly called head portage, was the oldest in the system but was largely made possible by the existence of bush paths which were not conducive for vehicles and bicycles as means of agriculture.

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Similar views were also held by Totiola and Igben (1999) when they observed in the role of government in food and agricultural production in Nigeria. That apart from the poor conditions of the roads, all forms of carriers services Lorries, boats, and trains are inadequate and ill-equipped to meet boost cases, transport charged are not fixed, the very with the condition, of road, type of produce, season of the year, and prospect of relum road. They further observed that there is complete lack of regulation and standardization of the carrier trade especially with regards to marketing a distinction between passenger in one, and goods and services on the other. In their assertions Lorry owners refuse, to carry foodstuffs, but accepts passages and in cases they accepts to carry food stuffs, the rate are exploitative and highly variable, besides the inadequacies, road network services are inefficiently executed. They finally noted that the primary requirement of an efficient transport service is not only that cost to the cost to the users be lowest but also that goods be moved quickly with a little delay as possible and recommended, that rural road should be provided since they are very essential for the prompt evacuation of produce farms to market places. Adirika (2002) in recognition of the inputs of road transport system to agriculture observed that construction of rural road may induce an immediate response in improved agricultural output. This view is however, in the same line and reasoning with the previous one held by Titiola and Igben in his view new settlers often move in and begin to cultivate even before road construction in completed.

However, these results according to him can only be expected when a road is built through a fertile area inhabited by enterprising. He was however, quick to point out that there are many examples of roads that where built under less favorite condition which have led to title or no appreciable increase in agricultural output. For example where there is an absence of mark etc, or of puts necessary to increase production these factors individually or in combination will limit the development impacts of better access.

According to Aderemo (1991) marketing in Agriculture the said that the present sat state of transport is poor and does not encourage increased agricultural production. The services make the transportation of agricultural products from the gate to the areas of need difficult. It also encourage waste of products time and money.

Titiola and Igben (1981) observed that the role of motorable feed road is directly link to the amount of marketable surplus that can reach the mark etc. In their opinion, through the Nigeria farmers still consume an appreciable amount of their products the amount that could reach the markets from individuals farmers is determined by the mode of transportation.

In an attempt to highlight the contribution of rural road to agricultural marketing and rural roads to agricultural marketing and rural transportation, participants at a seminar on problems and prospects of agricultural credit and finance in Nigeria, organized by the central bank of Nigeria in April, 1981 identified the key areas as.


In their views, the massive infusion of new inputs and technology packages hold the key to the structural transportation of Nigeria agricultural. Also rural roads in turn hold to the prompt delivery of fertilizer seeds, pesticides, farm machinery etc to farmers, at the time they need them.

2. REDUCED TRANSPORTATION COST: The participants observed that over 60% of the power for transportation far inputs into the farm gate is currently being supplied by the human muscles. They therefore, recommended that the accelerated coverage of rural area with rural roads will considerably reduce input, transportation cost especially with regards to the human energy costs of head percentage and the opportunity cost of farmers time spent trekking long distances.

3. LASTLY ENHANCE SPATIAL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY: The participants were of the opinion that since coordinated production of farm produce, within different agro-climatologically zones according to comparative, advantage holds the key to the efficient utilization of the nations. Food resources, then rural road constitute perhaps the most important single element in the development of such an integrated food production system. They are of the view that road improve the structure, conduct and performance of rural markets, so as a result, the rural markets become more competitive resulting in higher farm gate crop producer price and lower farm gate inputs prices. They were quick to point our that efforts to accelerate food production bottleneck, especially if rural roads remain seasonal and grossly inadequate.

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to

GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183

Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.  

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  1. Factor affecting marketing of agricultural products

  2. Obiora Nkencho says:

    The work is restricted to transportation contribution to marketing agricultural products. However my topic appears unrestricted, I stand to be corrected. My topic is Operational issues in marketing of agricultural products in Nigeria.Please I need full materials on this while I pay your fee. Thank you so far

  3. Habib Ahmad Isah says:

    I want to know what is agricultural marketing in Nigeria

  4. onwuka Bartholomew says:

    Pls I need a phone no of a rice distributor

  5. adequate research

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