The Impact Of Management Communication For Effective Organizational Performance

The Impact Of Management Communication For Effective Organizational Performance: (A Case Study Of Anammco Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company Ltd)

The Impact Of Management Communication For Effective Organizational Performance: (A Case Study Of Anammco Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company Ltd)



As stated in the introduction, communication is the act of transferring information from person to person, creature to creature and point. It could also be means of transferring, transmitting and conveying of ideas, attitudes, views and opinions from persons to person, generation to generation, communication to a very large audience and vice-versa.

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This makes communication very vital to our modern world. It is necessary and indispensability is because it is means of interaction between countries and continents.

According to Herbert, C.H et al (1987:315) communication is the only means by which managerial functions in an organization are performed. These managerial functions are performed in both formal and informal organizations. They are planning organizing, directing, co-ordinating and controlling formal and informal organization cannot survive.

Without communication , you can imagine what the situation will be like if there is no communication in the performance of managerial functions. The situation will be uncontrollable. Communication is indispensable in the performance of managerial functions.

Katz, D et al (1966:280) suggests that, communication exchange of information and the transmission of meaning is the essence of social system or organization.

Without communication, the survival of social system or organizations is clim since, it is the essence of social system.

Koontz & O’ Donnel in essentials of management (1986:590) communication is the means by which organization activity is unified social energetic inputs is fed social system, behaviour is modified; change is effected; information is made productive, and goods are achieved; whether we are considering a church, a family, a social club or a business organization the transfer of information from one individual to another is absolutely essential Koontz et al in management (7th edition) (1980:345) saw communication as the transfer of information from sender to receiver with the information been understood by the receiver.

Communication involves more than one person saying something and another listening for understanding. Writing of letters to friends and relations, speaking to someone on a telephone, sending of telegram, transmitting by radio, television and newspaper are communication.

Ubeku A. (1983:425) said that communication is the passing of relevant information to the person who needs to know or to the person in a position to use that information because it affects work.

Flippo & Misinger, G.M management 4th edition (1978:421) saw communication as the act of imparting a common idea or understand that communication is a means whereby the members of an organization can be motivated and attitudes directed towards the organizational plans willingly and diligently.

The above assertion by flippo et al gave credence to the statement at the introduction part that an organization without channel of communication or where it is not working well should need it or have the already existing ones re-enforced. The employers would like the feeling of the employees, customers and the general public communication to help streamline actions and activities in the organization.

Allen, L M his book management and organization (1958:421) asserted that communication is the sum of all the things one person does where he wants to create understanding in meaning of another, it is the bridge of meaning and involves a system and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.

It is evident that the term communication has many and varied meanings to different individuals, hence the definition given to it as many as management authority it is worthy noting that all the definitions generally highlight the same key words of communication, desired meaning for a desired response from the receiver.

Aside from the definition by the researcher in the introduction, it could also be seen as the act of imparting ideas and making oneself to be understood by others. Hence, it is an indispensably tool to every organization set-up that aims at maximum utilization of it’s human and material resources. It is no exaggeration to say that communication is basic to an organizations existence. It serves as the organizations life wire for the employees and their various activities it is through communication that people are linked together to achieve a common purpose. Good communication is necessary to co-operate physical and human elements of organization into an effective and efficient working unit. It is obvious that when communication fails, organized activities fails, un-cordinated activities or non-at all prevails.

The researcher maintains that communication is very important in an organization, since managing is getting things done through people. Communication is an indispensable tool as well as a cohesive bond between members of an organization in various ways. An effective communication no doubt help to promote productivity, bring awareness of business men to prevailing conditions all over the world, alleviate fears and established confidence. The importance of effective communication and willing co-operation, there fore should no longer be understated as is done by those managers who attack primary importance to their technical role such managers usually end up learning slowly and painfully that people often misunderstand and are in most cases suspicious of the managers intentions. Implementation will therefore go more smoothly and speedily if the manage, takes time to explain what is wanted and to listen to any explain. Indeed, the management equipment to :”a stitch in time saves nine” should be explanation at the start saves confusion and delay later on.


There are certain qualities which makes communication to be distinct from other aspects of living. They are as follows:

i. Communication is basic to the working of an organization, hence the moment communication ceases, management and all organized activities will come to a stand still.

ii. Communication is behaviour the only way by which one person can influence another is the behaviour exhibitions.

iii. Communication is dynamic. It seeks to change some one, some group or something or to a head off unfavourable trend.

iv. Communication is human. This means it is some thing done by people and such, to understand the communication process, one must understand how people relate to one another.

V. Communication is a two way process.

a. It is based on “give and take” one person speaks and another listens and acts accordingly; one directs, another obeys. Mere sending of message is not enough. A company may publish many things, even in letters of gold, these may be distributed in packets made with platinum but, if nobody reads them and guide his behaviour according to them, it is no communication.

b. It is both downward and upward. Downward communication takes place through orders, directions, interpretations conveyed by a superior to his subordinates while upward is the reversed side of downward.

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The purpose of communication can be summed up under the following five broad headings:

2.3.1 TO INFORM: It helps to make people aware of certain things. It provides a means of attaining the joint purpose of organizational members

2.3.2 EVALUATING ONE’S OWN INPUT OR ANOTHER’S OUTPUT OR SOME IDEOLOGICAL SCHEME: The dynamic nature of a functioning organization demands that constant evaluat6ion should be made of the activities in order that progress towards the desired objectives can be evaluated. Hence, complete communication system is necessary for feedback.

2.3.3 DIRECTION OTHERS OR BEEN DIRECTED OR INSTRUCTED:A manager’s function of directing the combination of persons and material towards goals required that communication occurs between the responsible manager and the human and physical resources within his authority. Job training and delegation of authority depends on communication.

2.3.4 INFLUENCING OTHERS OR BEEN INFLUENCED: The motivation forces not inherent in an individual are provided and then stimulated through communication. The balance between efficiency and inefficiency lies with the ability to persuade or influence.

2.3.5 NEUTRAL FUNCTIONS: Many communication within organizational contents have no direct connection with accomplishment of the objectives of the organization. However, as auxiliary communication, they may contribute indirectly to organizational objectives and directly to satisfaction of individual needs that are compatible with organizational goals.


The communication process comprise of a set of components. The components in the; channel; destination; feedback and noise. According to Agbo, B. (1999:156).

The process of communication is the way by which information is communicated from the sender to the receiver.

i. The source: The source formulates the message. Put differently, he could be said to be the one that initiates the communication. When the source is the encoder as well, he selects significant symbols and channels having the destination in mind.

ii. Message: This is the essence or substance of or item of communication process. It is used to arrest and sustain the interest of the receiver. It must further convey meaning intended by the sender.

iii. Channel: The process of communication does not occur in a vacuum. In small group communication the process is the air wave through which the information passes. However, as the world developed, and the scope of communication widened to embrace unprecedented wide mass, more Complex channels surfaced so that we now have radio, TV, books magazine, posters, billboards.

iv. Destination: Any product of communication is meant for definite audience. The audience may be the same as the receiver and the destination. In it, the receiver extracts meaning from the message both connotatively and denotatively. It is only when there is harmonization or similarity of meaning between the source and the receiver that claim effectiveness in the communication system process.

v. Noise: We have to note that it is not always the case that the intended message is receiver undistorted. What ever impedes communication process is known as noise. Noise could be psychological e.g. Hunger, illness, sadness, physical eg. Aero plane landing, or taking off, thunder, shouts or even linguistic eg. Improperly spelt words/arranged material inappropriate vocabulary.

vi. Feedback: An important element in the communication process is the reverse component. The feedback enable the source to assess his success or failure where on he can then modify or emphasis his message. In doing this, the destination now becomes the sender and vice-versa.


The purpose of communication in business is to create good relationship between the organization and the outside world and between superiors and subordinates of the same organization. People in an organization are faced with the problem of choosing media with which to communicate. The choice of the most effective medium for any message will depend on what it’s aims and objectives are. Whichever medium that is chosen must be simple enough for every body’s understanding and application.

The types of communication includes internal and external, formal or informal, downward or upward or lateral.

INTERNAL COMMUNICATION: This is communication that exists within an organization. It could be between superiors and subordinates, person or departments within the organization or between works manager and sales manager. Internal communication can be written or oral. It can take the form of interpersonal or face to face discussion like meeting, person to person conversation, written telephone message.

EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION: This is the communication that exists between the organization and the outside world. It could be between person in the organization and outside eg. A salesman and a customer. It could be between one organization and a customer. It could be between one organization and other organization, it could be national as well as international ie. Communication between and among nations incase of international trade. External communication could be inform of mass communication could be inform of mass communication.

FORMAL COMMUNICATION: This is the communication along the channel of the formal organizational structure. As quoted by Hicks et al (1987:313)

The defined relationships within an organization for formal communication may be partially determined by the formal organization chart which describes the official line of authority, power, responsibility and accountability of the organization.

Without communication, these relationships typical of organized activity may not be possible.

INFORMAL COMMUNICATION: This informal system comes into been as a result of the failure of a formal system to meet with the changing system of a dynamic organization which it tries to activate. It is an dynamic supplement to the formal channel and is often referred to as the :grapevine” because it fans pout through the organization without regard to the formal structure. Informal communication is determined by the relationship which exists among organizational members, peers and colleagues. It can take the form of discussion between two or more employees form two different departments over a bottle of mineral in the canteen.

DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION: This is a communication in vertical lines of the organization eg. From manager to supervisor, downward communication takes place through orders, direction, interpretation conveyed by a supervisor to a subordinate.

UPWARD COMMUNICATION: This is communication in vertical line from lower to higher level eg. From workmen to supervisors subordinates transmits reports, suggestions, grievance and the like upward to their supervisors.

LATERAL COMMUNICATION: This is communication between persons of same rank or between different department in an organization eg. Between supervisors or heads of department. It is very necessary in every organization for exchange of view and mutual understanding among the department heads and their activities.

Methods of communication includes written, verbal/oral mechanical, graphical otherwise known as visual or pictorial. Other methods include sient language like gestures, eye movement, smiles, crying, touching, and use of hands and lips as in the case of deaf and dumb.

WRITTEN COMMUNICATION: This is put down on paper in black and white and comprises letters, memoranda, reports, post cards, notes bulletins, notices, questionnaires, forms, magazine, purchase orders and specifications, advertising literature.

VERBAL/ORAL COMMUNICATION: This is communication by words of the mouth and could be interpersonal, intra-personal or internal/external. It is a kind of local international which conveys information through air wave.

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MECHANICAL COMMUNICATION: This communication method includes mechanical devices like telex, computer, Braille, recorders etc. It can have evidence in writing and transmits information fast and very expensive to maintain.


This is communication through graph or chart or pictures. A graph or chart is a pictorial device for representing statistical/quantitative data which as a visual aid to the user.

Graphic communication includes charts, graphs, posters, drawings, picture and symbols. Photographs and a whole range of visual aids used in training and teaching eg. Videotapes, chased circuit, television films, and other over head transparencies.

In some organizations, the nature of their business require that certain information be displayed in visual form. For some activities like advertisements, media like television, radio and the press are used to achieve wide publication. In some cases, both audio and visual translation are needed by his audience.

Department like accounts, sales, marketing and production often express information clearly supply in form of tables, charts and graphs. All the workers with in the organization should be familiar with the system for quick and correct interpretation.

DESIGNED QUESTIONNAIRES: These are special written communication tailored epically towards specific operations and subjects. It is used apparently to establish relevant information required for further planning. A good questionnaires content must contain a cross-section of opinion samples related to a defined class of people, society, country, state or even covering length and breadth of the nation. Questionnaires are usually used by researchers to gather information needed for perfect reports.

TRADE UNIONS: This provides an important channel through which business policies can be interpreted and the interest of both management and employees reconciled.

THE GRAPEVINE/INFORMAL COMMUNICATION: This is an un-official but powerful channel of communication in every business organization. It is the communication system of informal organization and co-social groups (ie. Informal or pressure group) arise as a result of bonds of attachment and friendship which tend to develop among those who associated together in an organization. The informal grouping of employees may correspond to the units and sections of the formal organizational structure. There can be department social grouping since a group of people who can work together in a location over time, tend to establish those tie, share common values and interact frequently on an informal bases. The groups from spontaneously and the members interact frequently.

Informal groups often exert a strong influence upon the working of the formal organization. Some times, they control production, help or hinder the maintenance and guide the attitude of individuals towards companies policies and actions. Many a time, informal leaders develop within the group. They originate action and serve as group spokesmen when the occasion requires. There is considerable social pressure upon the members to contain to group standards of conduct and behaviour and members tend to belong to the same pay and status level in the organization.


According to Stephen Robbins (1985:150), there is nothing like effective communication because there are physical, individual and semantic (linguistic) barriers to communication. He pointed out that formal organization structures with excessive hierarchies, semantic problems and human limitations impede effective communication.

Koontz and O’ Donnel (1968:595) said, “noise” which is anything that hinders or interrupts communication by affecting the progress in one or more of the following ways.

1. A noisy and continued environment may hinder the development of a clear thought.

2. Encoding may be faulty because of the use of ambiguous symbols.

3. Transmission may be interrupted by a static on the channel such as may be experienced in a poor telephone connection.

4. Inaccurate reception may be caused by inattention.

5. Decoding may be faulty because the wrong meaning may be attached to the work and other symbols.

6. Understanding may be obstructed by prejudices

7 Desired change may not occur because of fear of possible consequences of the change.

They also maintained that barriers to adequate communication include badly expressed messages, faulty translation, unclarity assumptions and insufficient adjustment periods to change, lack of planning to communication, loss of transmission and poor retention, inattention, semantic distortion etc. others include distrust, threat and fear of communication, poor listening and premature evaluation as well as fear of failure to communicate.

According to Hicks and Gullet (1987:327) language have may characteristics that limit their accuracy in communication. The meaning one perceives, the meaning attached to the symbols received and the environment of communication.

These communication barriers should be seen as problems that need every body’s attention. This will negate the general feeling that the responsibility for communication in an organization is that of the management. Once every member is madder aware of the problems, the solution can be jointly and severally tackled.

According to Koontz and O’Donnel (ibid) it is a matter of some importance to understand that every person in organized enterprises shares responsibility for good communication.


The following are the principles of good communication or guidelines to good communication.

1. Clarity ideas before attempting to communication

2. Examine the purpose of communication

3. Understanding the physical and human environment when communicating

4. In planning communication, consult with others to obtain their support as well as the facts

5. Consider the contents and the overtone of the message

6. Whenever possible, communicate something that helps or is valued by the receiver.

7. For effectiveness, follow up your communication and make sure it has feedback

8. Communicate message that has short run and long-run importance

9. Actions must be congruent with communication (ie. Supporting communication with suitable actions)

10. Be a good listener and seek not only to be understood but understand others.


An effective communication in a business organization helps in all aspects of dealings with the human factors in recruitment. The role of communication in the development and functioning of growth structure deserves attention because business is dependent not only upon the contributions of individuals members but also upon the co-operation and team work that exist among them. The fact that even the ancient people had a way of communicating with one another helps to convince reader that good communication is an indispensable element of successful organization and no co- ordinate interaction can take place without it.

The importance of communication has attracted the attention of many authors. Such authors is Chester .

I Bernard (1979:43) who pointed out that:

The first executive function in any organization is to develop and maintain a system of communication. Communication is a means through which people are linked together in an organization to achieve organizational objectives.

Koontz and O’Donnel (1968:592) said that the purpose of communication in any organization is to effect change, to influence action in the direction of corporate welfare.

The human factors of productio9n required special attention and treatment since it has to absorb and take action in turn.

They went further to point out the following uses of communication in an organization.

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Uses Of Communication In An Organization

1. FOR RECRUITMENT: Communication is used here to persuade potential employees of the merits of working for the organization.

2. FOR ORIENTATION: Here, communication aims at giving the employee a sense of familiarity and security in his job. According, people working in an organization should be made emotionally and physically comfortable. Reasonable effort should be should geared towards making the individual acquainted with peers, superiors and subordinates towards familiarizing them with social and business groups, explaining procedures, acquainting them with staff and service facilities and making it certain that they understand the operation philosophy of the organization.

3. OPERATION INFORMATION: It is very important that each employee understands how his job handled. He has to understand how well he is doing and why he is doing something.

4. INDIVIDUAL APPRAISAL: It is very important for the superior manager to communicate to his subordinate his evaluation of their contribution to organization activities.

5. PERSONAL SAFETY: It is essential to provide information about employee safety on the job because it keeps down the human cost of accidents, lowers the insurance premiums and legal cost of defence, reduce recruitment and training costs for replacements and above all contribute positively to the productivity of employees

6. DISCIPLINE: The purpose here is to make the rules and regulations of an organization known to the employees so that they can accommodate themselves to them.



Although communication is a different and complex process this research work have proved that ANAMMCO ltd is a company that uses the types and methods of communication necessary for the demands of the present business world. Each of the types and methods is applicable where it serves best for a particular purpose. Also, the types of communication communicated both within and outside the company make communication a two way affair to exist at all levels understanding by subordinate exist at all level and yield better employee satisfaction, loyalty and respect for the company other benefits accruing from these practice include increased democracy, improved leadership, strengthened self concepts and healthy interpersonal relationships through satisfaction of human needs for self expression. Logically, these advantage translate into improved efficiency and increased productivity.

The study also reveals that communication of polices and programmes is back lone of effective organizational management, misinformation and misunderstanding decreased work efficiency. Sharing information with subordinates tends to decrease common fear and suspicious of top management. It also proves that effective communication helps subordinate understand; accept and support the frequency changes that occur in dynamic company like ANAMMCO is enough to convince anyone that communication must be recognized and treated by every business manager as a vital management tool and the life wire without which no organization can function properly in both management and productivity.


It is considered worth while to put down few measures which may help to promote better understanding and more effective communication in Nigeria business organization.

1. An atmosphere of trust an honesty must be established in the organization so that subordinate will feel free to make contributions should be received with open mind by management.

2. Internal communication must be recognized as a vital tool of effective management and flow of information within the organization cannot be left to chance.

3. External communication techniques should be given equal attention and maintenance. Letters should be promptly replied, dumb telephone. Operation messengers and mail runners should be properly briefed on what is exerted of them as representatives of the organization. They should be made to realize of the importance of their maintaining good public relations in their job especially when dealing with the public. These minor thing that are often overlooked by business managers contribute to the poor performance of many Nigeria business firms.

4. The cultural differences of ethnic groups that are thrown together in a company can cause misunderstanding, conflicts and deep problem for management, labour unions and employee like. A knowledge of culture enables one to predict group behaviour with reasonable degree of accuracy. This will not only facilitate effective management but will also enable management to create a favourable climate for free communication


Managers must be willing to listen carefully without premature evaluation and judgment.

This will enable subordinates feel that top management will listen to them. The need to listen increases as one climbs the managerial ladder because the father a manager gets from firing line, the more he must depend on others for accurate information needed for correct decisions.

Managers decision rational actions must be taken when suggestion and complaints warrants it. The subordinates who is convinced that quick and decision action must be taken on suggestions, problem or ideas is stimulated to contribute to the success of the enterprise. One of strongest determinant to upward communication is failure of management to act promptly and judiciously, the result is that workers loose faith in the communication process because they do not see the utility.

Above all Nigeria managers must be willing to have exiting policies and practices questioned and changed when necessary and furnish employees with facts about polices and programmes not previsouly known or shared with subordinates, quick can did and sensitive responses by top management is the key.


This research on communication for effective organizational performance was not an exception to the usual constraints and other problems associated with similar researches in the Nigeria society. Such problems include these mentioned below:

a. Time

b. Finance

c. Inadequate data

d. Secrecy by the company.

e. Respondents

f. Bias

The researcher has to allot time to all her schedules. Allotting all the research and non to other engagements would have been disastrous. So, balancing time was one of the greatest problems faced by the researcher more so, there was no enough finance to carter for the research. Transportation to and from ANAMMCO almost milked the pocket of the research dry. Enough data were not provided by the workers of the company for fear that top management may get given with reservations. Some information about the company were referred to as top secret and cannot be dislodged to an outsider. In the same vain, some respondents has to reschedule their appointment with the researcher complaining that they did not meet up. Junior staff of the company were reluctant to give accurate answers to questions asked by the researcher for fear off a possible sanction by top management thereby making the research filled with bias.

The Impact Of Management Communication For Effective Organizational Performance: (A Case Study Of Anammco Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company Ltd)

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  1. I need material on this project topic “effective communication and managerial performance. A case study of flour mill plc, calabar

  2. john jovahn says:

    thanks for the information but may you please make it more detailed

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