Word Processing for the Typing Impaired
By the End of This Tutorial, You’ll Be Able To:
Type a simple letter without going insane
Rearrange text with electronic scissors and tape
Eliminate spelling errors, even if you don’t know how to spell
Name the three most popular word processing programsTo place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to
GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183
Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.
A word processing program essentially transforms your computer into a, overpriced typewriter that not only makes typing a lot easier, but can actually help you compose and perfect your work. It has an endless supply of electronic paper that scrolls past the screen is you type, and because it’s electronic, you don’t have to worry about mistakes. Just go rack and type over the errors—no messy correction fluid, no erasing, no wasted paper (for the environmentally conscious), and best of all, you don’t have to replace typewriter ribbons!
A Bird’s-Eye View of Word Processing
Most word processing programs that are worth their salt come with a lot of features that let you do somersaults with text and pictures. Many users spend a good part of their adult lives learning how to use these features to improve their work and to save time.
However, if you just want to type and print a simple document such as a letter, you need to know how to perform only a few simple tasks:
Type You need to type the first draft of whatever you’re working on.
Edit Once you have created a draft of your document, you can change the information on-screen until it is just the way you want it.
Format At any time, you can begin working on the appearance of the document. This includes setting margins and line spacing, setting tabs, changing the way the text is aligned, and changing typestyles and type sizes.
Print You can print the document when it’s complete or at any time during its creation.
Typing on Electronic Paper
Most word processing programs start you out with a blank “sheet of paper,” something like the one shown here. The screen is about a third as long as a real sheet of paper, and ~ may be black instead of white, so you’ll have to use your imagination. The program also displays a cursor or insertion point:, anything you type will be inserted at this point.
Easing the Transition
Moving from a typewriter to a word processing program can be a traumatic experience. I’ve known several people who developed nervous tics during the transition. To prevent you from going stark raving mad during this transitional phase, I’ll give you some free advice:
Press Enter only to end a paragraph. The program automatically wraps text from one line to the next as you type. Press Enter or Return to end a paragraph or to insert a blank line.
Don’t move down until there is something to move down to. If you press the down-arrow key on a blank screen, the cursor will not move down. If you want to move the cursor down on a blank screen, you have to press Enter to start new paragraphs.
Text that floats off the top of the screen is NOT gone. If you type more than a screenful of text, any text that does not fit on the screen is scrolled off the top of the screen. You can see the text by pressing PgUp or using the up arrow key to move the cursor to the top of the document.
Use the arrow keys or the mouse to move the cursor. Many people try to move the cursor down by pressing the Enter key. This starts a new paragraph. Worse, some people try to move the cursor left by pressing the Backspace key. This moves the cursor, but it deletes any characters that get in its way. To move the cursor safely, use the arrow keys or move the mouse to the place where you want the cursor to be and click.
Delete to the right; Backspace to the left. To delete a character that the cursor is on or a character to the right of the insertion point, press the Del (Delete) key. To delete characters to the left of the cursor or insertion point, press the Backspace key.
Just do it! Once you’ve grasped the behavior of word processing programs, typing is easy—just do it.
To Insert or To Overstrike?
In most programs, if you move the cursor between two words or two characters and st’ typing, whatever you type is inserted at the cursor. Any surrounding text is bumper* the right to make room for the new kids. This is known as Insert mode, and it is & that most programs work in (unless you specify otherwise).
When a program starts in a certain mode, that mode is referred to as the default mode. Because nothing was specified, the program defaults to a particular setting, usually the safest or most common setting.
You can switch modes to Overstrike mode in order to type over what’s already on-screen. If you want to replace one word with another, you simply type over the won you want to delete. In most programs, you can switch back and forth between Insert and Overstrike modes h^ pressing the Ins (Insert) key.
Editing: The Tools of the Trade
In a word processing program, text is like clay. You can add text anywhere, delete text, and even lop off a paragraph or two and slap them somewhere else in the document. The next few sections explain some of the word processing tools and tech¬niques you can use to move around in a document, shuffle your text around, and make other changes.
Save Early and Often
Keep in mind that until you save your work, whatever you type is stored only in your computer’s electronic memory. If you turn off your com¬puter or if the power goes out, even for a split second, your computer “forgets” your work. You have to start over. To prevent such a painful loss, open the program’s File menu, and select Save.
Zipping Around Inside a Document
When you’re in a document, it’s like being in a crowded city. You have all these little characters on-screen elbowing each other for a peek at the parade. You are the cursor – the little on-screen light—and you can weave your way through the crowds. To move cursor (or insertion point), you have several options:
Mouse pointer To move the cursor with the mouse pointer, simply move the pointer to where you want the cursor or insertion point, and then click the left mouse button.
Arrow keys The arrow keys let you move the cursor up, down, left, or right : character at a time.
Ctrl+Arrow keys To move faster (one word at a time), most programs let you use the Ctrl (Control) key along with the arrow keys. You hold down the Ctrl key while pressing the arrow key to leap from one word to the next.
Home and End keys To move at warp speed, you can use the Home and End keys. The Home key usually moves the cursor to the beginning of a line. End moves the cursor to the end of a line. In some programs, you can use Ctrl+Home to move to the top of the page or document, or Ctrl+End to move to the bottom.
PgUp and PgDn keys Use the PgUp key to move up one screen at a time, or use PgDn to move down one screen at a time. Remember, a screen is shorter than an actual page.
Scroll bars Most programs also offer a scroll bar, which allows you to page up or page down with the mouse. You can click on an arrow at either end of the scroll bar to move up or down one line, drag the scroll box to scroll faster, or click inside the scroll bar (above or below the scroll box) to move up or down one screenful of text.
Robbing Out Undesirable Characters
The simplest way to delete characters on-screen is TO move the cursor to the left of the character you want to delete and press Del. This key works a little differently from program to program—sometimes, the cursor deletes the character it’s on; other times it deletes the character to the right. You can use the Backspace key to delete characters, too, but it works a little differently: place the cursor to the right of the character you what to delete and press Backspace.
As you type corrections, add or delete words, and insert phrases into your document, you’ll notice that you don’t have to adjust the surrounding text to accommodate the change. The word processing program does it automatically, rewrapping the words to a paragraph to com¬pensate for whatever change you make
Selecting Chunks of Text
Whenever you want to do anything with the text you’ve typed (cut or copy the text, change the type size, or even center it), you first have to select the text. Although each word processing program has its own techniques for selecting text, the following are fairly standard:
Drag over text to select it.
Double-click on a word to select the entire word.
Triple-click inside a paragraph to select the paragraph.
Drag inside the selection area (the far left margin) to select lines of text.
Hold down the Shift key while pressing the arrow keys to stretch the highlighting over text.
Open the Edit menu and click Select All to select the entire document.
Copying, Cutting, and Pasting Text
Usually, revising a document is not a simple matter of changing a word here or there or correcting typos. You may need to delete an entire sentence or even rearrange the para¬graphs to present your ideas in a more logical flow. To help you get it done, most word processing programs offer cut, copy, and paste commands. Using these commands is a simple four-step process:
1. Select the text.
2. Open the Edit menu and select Cut or Copy. The selected text is placed in a temporary holding area typically called a Clipboard. The Cut command removes the marked block from the document. Copy places a clone of the marked block on the Clipboard, but leaves the original alone.
3. Move the cursor to where you want the cut or copied text placed.
4. Open the Edit menu and select Paste. The text that is on the Clipboard is pasted z: the cursor position. Here’s a picture that illustrates what’s going on.
What happens if you cut or delete text by mistake?1 you unintentionally cut some text, you can usually back by pasting it. If you delete text (by pressing the key), however, the deleted text is not placed on the Clipboard, so you can’t paste it back in. Is the text lost forever? Probably not. Most word processors offer an Undo command that can help you reverse the last one or more commands you entered. (If your program has pull-down menus, check the Edit menu for this command.) If you enter the Undo command right after ~ deleted the text (and before entering another command), you have a good chance of recovering the text.
Cool Windows 95 Tip!
In Windows 95, you can drag selected text (or graphics) to the Windows desktop to create scraps. Scraps are clippings that you can insert into other documents. An icon appears on the desktop. You can now drag this icon into the current document or another document to paste it.
Finding and Replacing Text
Say you write a 500-page company training manual that explains how to make a widget. The marketing department decides that the product will sell better if it is called a gadget. Now, you have to hunt down and replace all occurrences of the word “widget” with gadget.” Never fear, most word processing programs can do it for you. Simply open the Edit menu and choose Replace. You’ll get a dialog box something like the one shown here that lets you specify the word you want to replace and the word you want to use as the replacement.
An On-Screen Proofreader
If spelling isn’t your forte, your favorite word processing feature just might be the spell checker. Many word processing programs include a spell checker that can check your document for spelling errors, typos, repeated words (such as “the the”), and incorrect capitalization (tHe). These spell checkers cannot, however, spot mistyped words; for example, it wouldn’t notice if you typed “two” instead of “too” or “its” instead of “it’s.”
When you enter the command to spell check the document, the spell checker starts sniffing around in your document and then stops on the first questionable word it finds. as shown here. You can then skip the questionable word, replace it with a correction from the suggestion list, or type your own correction.
Jogging Your Memory with a Thesaurus
If you can’t think of the right word, press a button to open the thesaurus. Type the re¬word you can come up with, and your word processing program will display a list of synonyms (words that have the same or similar meaning). You simply select a word from the list.
Formatting Your Document to Make It Look Pretty
Once you have the content of your document under control and you’ve fixed all your typos, misspellings, and ungrammatical grammar, you can start working on the appearance of your document—how you want it to look on paper. This is called formatting the document.
You can enter formatting changes before or after you type. For example, you can type an entire letter, select all the text, and then increase the type size. Or you can increase the type size before you start typing. It really doesn’t matter.
You will basically format two aspects of the document: the overall page and line layout, and the look of the characters.
Changing the Page Margins
You can usually change margin settings for the entire page or for selected paragraphs. To change the page margins, look for a Page Setup command, usually on the File menu. When you enter the command, a Page Setup dialog box appears, allowing you to enter the desired margin settings in inches. Try setting the top and bottom margins to one inch, and the left and right margins to .75-inch.
Changing Paragraph Settings
In addition to changing the settings for an entire page, you can control the look of individual para¬graphs. For example, you can center a title on a page, increase the space before or after a paragraph, or change the line spacing.
To format paragraphs, first select the paragraphs you want to format. Then, open the Format menu and select Paragraph. This displays a dialog box that allows you change -.he line spacing, alignment (left, right, or centered), and other features of the paragraph Inter the desired settings and click OK.
Many word processors also display a ruler just above the document. You can drag the margin markers in the ruler to change the margins for selected paragraphs.
Where Are the Definitions?!
Many spell checkers have dictionaries and boast the number of words included. Don’t expect these dictionaries to function as Webster’s Ninth. The dictionaries are used by the spell-checking feature to deter¬mine correct spellings; most of these dictionaries do not contain definitions.
Set Margins with Print Preview
If your program offers a Print preview feature, you might be able to set the page margins on the preview screen. Some programs display a set of dotted lines around the page that you can drag to set margins. In other word processors, you may have to turn on a ruler and use the ruler to change the page margins.
Giving Your Characters More Character
To emphasize key words and phrases, many word processing programs let you select from various fonts and typestyles. In other words, you can make the letters look big and fancy like in a magazine.
What’s a font?
A font is any set of characters of the same typeface (design) and type size (measured in points). For example, Helvetica 12-point is a font; Helvetica is the typeface, and 12-point is the size. (Just for reference, there are 72 points in an inch.) A typestyle is any variation that enhances the existing font. For example, boldface, italics, and underlining are all typestyles; the character’s design and size stay the same, but an aspect of the type is changed.
To change the appearance of your text, first select the text. Then, open the Format men and select Font. The Font dialog box allows you to specify the type size and typestyle. and apply enhancements such as bold and italic. After you enter your preferences and click OK, the word processing program displays the text with its new look.
In Windows, you’ll see some font names preceded by TT. TT stands for TrueType, a font designed especially for Windows. TrueType fonts are very flexible, allowing you to change the font size by less than one point at a time! Font names preceded by a printer icon are programmed into your printer and will usually print faster than other fonts; however, :u have less control over the size of printer fonts.
Formatting with Toolbars
Most word processing programs display a formatting toolbar, which allows you to quickly change the appearance of paragraphs and text. Simply select the text, and then click the appropriate button on the toolbar, as shown here.
Selects a typestyle
Selects a type size
Makes text bold, italic, or underlined
Aligns text left, right, centered, or justified
Creates a numbered or bulleted list
The Unveiling: Previewing Your Document
You’ve done all the hard work—the writing, editing, formatting, and reformatting. But how is your document going to look on paper? Before you waste paper and ink trying to find out, preview your document on-screen. The Print Preview features allows you to view entire pages of your document, so you can view its printed appearance without printing it. In most word processors, you simply open the File menu and select Print Preview. For details about actually printing the document, see “Program Rites and Rituals.”
More Power! Advanced Word Processing Tools
In documents addition to letting you type, edit, and format documents, most wore processing programs come with several advanced features to help you with your work. The following list describes many of these advanced features:
OLE support Most Windows applications support a technology called OLE pronounced “Oh-lay,” short for Object Linking and Embedding). OLE allows you to drag selected objects (for instance, text or graphics) from one document to azi Make sure all your applications support OLE, so you can freely share information among your documents.
Graphics A program that supports graphics allows you to place pictures, lines or graphs on a page. All newer word processing programs support graphics.
Multiple windows With multiple windows, you can divide your screen into two or more windows and open a different document in each window. You can switch between windows or cut and paste text from one window to the other
Mail merge Have you ever gotten a letter from Ed McMahon, personally addressed to you? Well, Ed personalizes those form letters by using mail merge. He combines a form letter with a list of names and addresses to create a series of letters all saying the same thing to different people.
Styles To save time formatting, you can save several format settings as a style and apply the style to various blocks of text (usually with a single keystroke). If you change a format setting in a style, that setting is changed for all text formatted with that style.
Tables The Tables feature can help you lay out text in columns and rows to align the text perfectly on a page. Most tables can even perform simple math, including addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication.
Which Word Processor Should I Get?
If all you want to do with your word processor is type letters, memos, and other simple documents, don’t waste your money on a word processing program. Windows comes with a word processor (Write for Windows 3.1, or WordPad for Windows 95), which can get the job done. However, if you need to create tables, insert graphics, add page numbers, create indexes and tables of contents, and perform other advanced page-layout chores, pick one of the following top three word processors:
Word Pro (formerly called Ami Pro) is the best of the bunch, and currently the least expensive. Because Lotus (creator of Word Pro) is trying to gain market share, it has drastically reduced the price of its products to compete with Microsoft. Grab a copy of this program while the price is low.
Microsoft Word is the most popular word processing program in the world. Because of its ease of use, capability to handle graphics, and its powerful desktop publishing tools, you can’t lose by selecting Word for Windows. (If you have Microsoft Works, you already have a slightly less powerful version of Word.)
WordPerfect used to be the most popular word processing program, but it had a difficult time figuring out how to do Windows, and its popularity took a dive. WordPerfect for Windows is still a fairly good word processing application, and if you have to use it at work, you might as well use it at home, too.
The Least You Need To Know
As you get more experienced with a word processing program, you will naturally start to use the more advanced features. When you are just starting out, however, stick to the basics:
When you start a word processing program, you get a blank screen with a cursor or insertion point. Anything you type is inserted at the cursor.
You can move text in most word processing programs by cutting and pasting the text.
Most word processors let you undo your last action. Make sure you know how to use the Undo feature before you need it.
To set the margins for your entire document, open the File menu and select Page Setup.
To change the alignment, line spacing, or other characteristics of a paragraph, first select the paragraphs, and then open the Format menu and select Paragraph.
You can format text to set off words, phrases, headings, or even entire sections of text.
Before printing a document, preview it to see how it will appear in print. This you from wasting time, paper, and ink.
GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183
Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.