URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS – CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS – CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS – CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

Environmental hazard is a broad term used in defining such phenomenon as earthquake, and pollution, which are brought about as a result of active forces within the earth or on the earth’s surface, or by man’s activities.

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Considering ever present threat of these hazards to the destruction, are likely to damage both lives and property. It is necessary to conduct research and studies into the nature causes and consequences of urban environmental hazard and also to know the different ways in which the Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency (EBSEPA) have contributed in solving these problems. To appreciate this work, it will be important to look into the brief on the Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agencies (EBSEPA) is an organisation, which was established on December 1999 following he creation of Ebonyi State

The EBSEPA’s major statutory function is to maintain a programme of technical assistance for individuals and bodies whether public or private in order to achieve excellent standard of environmental cleanliness, regulations an standards set out under the Edicts, the agency applied for the excellency’s approval of an environmental tribunal/court as recommended in the EBSEPA Edict of 1999. The spontaneous reaction and approval of His excellency made EBSEPA’s dream a reality as the tribunal come into being in December 1999.

This paper was organised in an attempt to foster a better understanding of environmental hazard mitigation and the management of their effects on physical properties and human resources as well as to examine the situation as it exists today in Ebonyi State for instance Uyo’s episode in the West African sub-region is prone to effects of earthquake and volcanism.

Flood and other hazards have also occurred in different parts of the sub-region in the pest. There is a need therefore, for more information from the policy of these phenomenon which should pave w ay for a policy readiness so that the countries, states, towns an villages in the sub-region can no longer continue with the consequences of the socio-economic aspects of these hazards in the future.

There is a major aim of the planned project as well as field study. The above organisation (EBSEPA) started as a result of a task force charged with the responsibility to restrict and control every forms of pollution in both federal and state capitals.

Industrialization is vital to a nation’s socio-economic development as well as its political stature in the international committee of nations. It provides employment opportunities for a good percentage of the population in medium to highly developed economies however, industries vary according to products, characteristics by complexity of waters discharged. In developing countries such as Nigeria, siting industries is determined by various criteria, some of which are environmentally unacceptable threat posing serious threat to public health.

Although industrialization is inevitable, various devastating ecological and human disaster, which have continuously occurred over the last three decades or so implicate industries as major contributors to environmental degradation and pollution problems of various magnitudes. Industrial waste and emissions contain toxic and hazardous substances most of which can be detrimental to human health. These include heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and toxic organic chemicals such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBS) dioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS), petrochemicals and phenolic compounds. For instance, there was the case of the “Minamata disease” in Japan, which the patient has received untreated effluents from the low level of environmental awareness in developing countries such as Nigeria, coupled with the non-existence of environmental protection laws, and the abject poverty of these nations the developed countries have within the last decade, embarked upon “toxic waste trade or illegal dumping of toxic wastes in poor, debt-strapped developing countries.

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Several views and concern have been expressed by various people about pollution and its effects on living organisms especially in man. Pollution is the contamination of the environment by biological, chemical and physical agents that may arise through natural events, human activity or the interaction of

the two. Natural pollution, as from volcanic eruption tends to be short-lived an overtime, self-correcting. Pollution resulting from human action is often persists longer in terms duration and may be only partially remediable especially when the natural characteristics of local or global ecosystems are altered, for example through the destruction of forests, depletion of the ozone layers, or acid rain, environmental pollution effects human health both directly. Acute or long term, direct effects result from exposure to pathogens, toxics or radiation, indirect effects arise from loss of the land, water, air or food resources, required to sustain life and well being.

The environmental conditions that determine human health depends on the relationship between ecosystems, their populations and the patterns of economic and social development which may contribute positively to human health or when the side-effects of development are not controlled may have negative effects.

Four main ways in which the environment can be polluted are as follows:

 

a. Physical Alteration of the Natural Environment.

This occurs when physical growth and development been takes place in the cities, the construction of large scale water impoundments, the destruction of forests areas or the paving of major highways. As ecosystems changes, further compensating alterations may be included.

b. Improper Management of Human Waste

Excretion, domestic waste and discarded finishing improperly managed may spread disease, increase vector population, consume land, contain innate air, increase the probability of injury an destroy natural beauty.

 

d. Damage Caused by Industrial and Agricultural Waste Products

The pollutions resulting from industrial and agricultural production includes manufacturing process waste, discarded, packaging, used up products and leakages of toxic substances. Apart from the occupational hazard that are posed by these pollutions, the increase of agricultural chemicals can damage aquatic organisms and water quality. They can also introduce toxic substances into the water reaching consumers. Ancillary process of storage, transportation and handling can add to pollution burden.

 

d. Accidental Discharge and Spillage of Toxic Products

The accidental discharge into the environment of toxic gases or substances, including petroleum or of ionising radiation can have immediate and or long term consequences to human health, including plants in the food chain. One type of human activity often stimulates another industrial activity, for example, the concentration of human settlements and changes in consumption patterns. It is also associated with the extraction of resources from the discharge of waste into the environment which consequently is physically altered more advance technologies man increase the risk to accidents and produce unanticipated side effects making prevention and appropriate responses more difficult.

 

FACTORS THAT INCREASE OR CAUSE POLLUTION

When environmental pollution increases the rate of pollutants in the environment, the pollution burden becomes too great, local and regional ecosystems can no longer provide an environment that is friendly to human health. In some places, the pollution burden has increased geometrically in a very short time, some pollution problems have transcended local and regional ecosystems, and now threaten the geosphere/biosphere. Since this “closed” systems cannot expand, and open system of human activity make increasing demands on the resources and capacity of the environment to assimilate waste.

The growth in these demands can be measure by several indicators:

– Population pressure

– Urbanization

– Poverty

– Industrialisation

– Energy uses and

– Transportation.

 

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

i. Is it necessary to have clean and positive environment in Ebonyi State?

ii. Are there the availability of personnel and equipment for environmental sanitation in Ebonyi State?

iii. Are there environmental problems encountered on the streets?

iv. What are the strategies to adopt in order to solve the environmental problems of Ebonyi State?

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

i. The main objective of this paper is to commit ourselves to the targeted need for clean environment to achieve health for all.

ii. Diseases ratio has been high and so is infant mortality rate and natural deaths. All these come as a result of direct off-shoot of a general poor sanitary environment.

iii. In a memo published by the World Health Organisation in 1984, about seventy percentage of infantile death s in Africa is traceable to dirty surrounding.

iv. To a natural observer, this figure is a true pointer to the magnitude of our well-being.

v. Environmental sanitation through households word, is not as people looked at it. To a layman, it simply means taking one’s broom and sweeping the surroundings. But to us, it means much more than that.

 

a. The Provision of safe and adequate water supply to communities.

b. Management and supervision of waste disposal including refuse, garbage, industrial effluents and domestic wastes from kitchens and laundries.

c. Regulation of housing quality including the checking of overcrowding in housing units, ventilation arrangements and lighting.

d. Control of pests, rodents, and vermins some of which serve as reservoirs of disease agents.

e. Dis-infection and disinfestations of ships, vehicles, houses and personal effects.

Precisely speaking in order to achieve these components, it requires the efforts of the individual, the community and the government, again the health education of the public in order to expose and correct undesirable health habits, the articulation of individuals and community efforts in the maintenance and cleanliness of their working places, and dwelling units.

 

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Health cannot be maintained without adequate nutrition, nor can either health or nutrition be maintained without attention to the population aspects of programme and projects aimed at influencing either health or nutrition. In all developing countries , the most important causes of death are diseases and conditions which have not been completely eradicated or brought under adequate control in the more developed countries. He highest lead of both mortality and morbidity falls on infants and young children, and women in he fertile age group. The problems are compounded by unregulated fertility in the individual, rapid population growth and unplanned and even explosive urbanisation.

The origin of clean environment dates as far back as the origin of man as an integral part of the whole universe.

It is note-worthy however, that in no other time than now has environmental sanitation been given such publicity and prominence in Nigeria as being presently done. Healthcare service for settlements should be conceived as part of an overall national health, which in turn must be fully integrated in over all national development plans and programmes in planning to implement health services, it is necessary to remember that diseases and adverse health conditions which arise or are maintained in society through defects of the social, economic and cultural situations with that society, cannot be removed to be kept permanently under control, unless those defects in the socio-economic and cultural environment have been removed.

 

1.6 OPERATIONALISATION OF RELEVANT CONCEPTS

In looking into the relevant concepts of the topic, causes and consequences of urban environmental hazards, It will be necessary to give a brief definition or meaning to the following concepts;

i. URBAN – This is defined as a city where a large number of people occupy.

ii. ENVIRONMENT – This has to do with surrounding.

iii. POLLUTION – is generally defined as the discharge of materials or energy into the environment at a level which damages (or defiles) it, makes it harmful to man, crops or animals.

iv. HAZARD – It is defined a s anything harmful to human health.

 

1.7 STUDY AREA

Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency (EBSEPA) was formerly situated within the premises of Ebonyi State Ministry of Works the then General manager, Engr. Paul Okorie requested the military administrator to provide a new site for the Agency. The requested as granted and EBSEPA as relocated to 22 Afikpo Road, Abakaliki, (ENVIRONMENT HOUSE). The shift was made in the year 1998. after Engr. Paul Okorie, came Kingsley Edeogu who piloted the affairs of the

Agency for some months before Itapa Azeohu took over on November 2000. Currently, the Agency is being administered by an acting General Manager Okeh C. Okeh.

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The Export Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 1950 reported that “the maintenance of proper sanitary conditions now to be reorganized as one of the strongest degree measures to prevent the out break or spread to transmittable diseases the world over to lessen the spread of disease in the cities and from one country to another, there should be a highly efficient control of Environmental conditions at all levels which should include provision of safe water, pure food, and milk supplies served under sanitary conditions free from insects or parasites capable of transmitting diseases and general sanitation of a high order. (WHO. Technical report series, vol 10, 1950).

Necessity for clear and positive Environment

According to lucas and Gullas (1977) “Environmental sanitation is meant to create and maintain conditions in the environment that will promote health and prevent diseases.”

Chima (1981) stated that sanitation implies the elimination of those things in the environmental for man that are likely to pose danger to his health. The world health organization maintained that persons handling food, drinking water and waste matter should be supervised by the national health Authority, although the immediate inspection and control of the water and food supplies and other sanitary factors may well be carried out by regional or local health units.

According to Okwor (1983) “Good environmental sanitation includes disease prevention and health promotion which means the recognition and the action to obtain correlation of physical and social environmental conditions that threaten health safely, comfort or working efficiency:

Many factors have been identified as being necessary for making the environment less hazardous and good for human or habitation dwelling places. For instance, Ezenwa (1976) made mention that water is the major importance to health when it is palatable for drinking and available other domestic purpose such as cooking washing clothes and kitchen utensils.

 

2.2 THE TYPES CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF POLLUTION.

Authors differs in the types of pollution while Kimbal in his Biology identified three types of pollution mainly. But before that, the world pollution is a Greek word meaning defilement.

Pollution generally may be defined as the discharge of materials or energy into the environment which damages (or defiles) it, making it harmful to mn, crops or animals. Pollution usually occurs as a result of the activities of humans materials and energy, which causes pollution are called pollutants which accumulate in the environment and cannot be taken down into simple harmless sustenance are known as non biodegradable examples plastics, glass, tins, cans, metal scarlet. Pollutants which are removed by the lycles that operate in nature, are known as biodegradable example are, excreta, flesh animals, leave etc. therefore the types of pollution includes the following:

i. Air pollution

ii. Water pollution

iii. Land pollution

iv. Noise is also a kind of pollution.

Air pollution:- Result from accumulation of any substances in the air. In a concentration sufficient to produce measurable effects on man and his environmental and industrial activities, as it has been mentioned earlier before now a very large percentage of man made air pollution is as a result of combustion of fossil fuels, coals oils. As a result of the combustion of fuel rich in sulphur. Some of the sulphur is oxides to different oxides of sulphur.

The highest oxided in combination with water vapour present in the fuel forms steroxo sulphate, acid which either is emitter as persitents must or causes corrosion of metal surface where the acid condenses. It is now known that the activities of those industries and waste products of the industry produce a lot of smoke and dangerous lives of the people by impairing respiratory activities. More so, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide (20) which primarily result from the burning of petroleum products toxic and mosquio coils and cigarette smoke causes illness like lung cancer, asthma when inhaled.

Air pollution:- mostly occur through the following.

i. Substance are produced from burnt fossile fuel,

ii. Chlorofluoro carbons (CFC) are derived from refrigerants

iii. Noise from vehicles, air crafts, motorcycle, heavy machinery and humans.

iv. Radiation:- could be from nuclear plants

The following Air pollutants are usually very common.

(a) Carbon monoxide:- derived from burning of fuel in engine and industrial processes it is very harmful to men since it combines with Hemoglobin or reduce the blood power ability to carry oxygen.

(b) Carbon iv oxide:- obtained from burning of wood, coal, cooking gas and kerosene. Its increase in the atmosphere cause increase in the temperature, affecting crops

(c) Sulphur iv oxide :- comes from burning of sulphur containing petrol and fuel industrial process. It causes illness eg cough emphysema, and respiratory tract disease.

(d) Nitrogen iv oxide:- from electric discharge in air and from industrial process. It forms anioxonitrate v oxide with waste corroding zinc, irritating the skin and respiratory system.

(e) Dust particles:- derived from mining, industrial process and quarry. It irritates the respiratory system and may cause respiratory problems such as emphysema.

(f) Smoke and soot:- from burning of coal and other fuel in industry causes blackness of paint on buildings, cuts down sulphur reaching green plants and may also cause smog.

(g) Herbicides and pesticides:- from spraying of crops with herbicides and pesticides (fumigants and insecticides). Can lead respiratory problems and very dangerous to health.

(h) Radioactive ray:- from industrial process such as electric plants and also from radioactive substances. Radioactive rays can lead to alteration of the gene sequence (mutuation).

(i) Heat:- from electric plant, in industrial furnace and engine causes discomfort to life

(j) Noise :- from heavy gens, big engines, big amplifier instrument etc causes discomfort to life and can damage the ear.

WATER POLLUTION: on the other hand is something that makes waste physical impure, dirty, foul or stained, it includes the addition of a water source, anything which changes its natural quality so that down stream users no longer receive the natural water of the stream. However, it is necessary to differentiate between water pollution per se-something adversely and unreasonably impairs the beneficial use of water, though without involving health hazards and water contamination, water pollution and moreover, textile, chemical and pharmaceutical factories turn out enormous liquid wastes as large amount of water is used in the factory process. Due to this facts fresh clean water is used by aquatic organism, for drinking growing of crops, for leisure and for industrial activities. In many places the uses of water are seriously being hampered by pollution of water.

Therefore, water pollution are commonly caused by the following.

(a) Fertilizers :- used for agricultural purposes, it leads to Enthrophication and makes water unfit for drinking.

(b) Chemical wastes:- from industries such as paint industries, soap, cream, detergent industries, soap, cream, detergent industries etc. chemicals poisons aquatic animals used as food by man example lead, mercury zinc, etc can pass through food chain to man.

(c) Detergents :- from industrial and man washing activities, it can kill aquatic animals such as fish.

(d) Untreated sewage: – from human and animals it can lead to Europhication out break of diseases from bacteria such as Escherichia coli.

(e) Refuse :- from household and office waste can cause blockage of drainages leading to flooding.

(f) Organic matter:- from social and organic refuse causes water to become unfit for drinking and can lead Eutrophication

(g) Petroleum:- from tanker accidents leakage of pipes. It can lead to destruction of beaches, water and soil.

(h) Thermal pollution:- from industrial discharge of waste water kills off aquatic life.

LAND POLLUTION:- Land or soil destroys the thin layer of fertile top soil, which covers the surface of earths land. This layer is very important for growth in plants which could be sometimes called soil pollution, resulting from the pollutant derived mainly from agricultural and mining activities, causes of land pollution includes refuse dump, animal waste, pesticides bush burning and also, improper disposal of industrial waste constitutes the major causes of land pollution.

In regard to land pollution , industrialization is inevitable various devastating ecological and human disaster, which have continuously occurred over the last three decades or so implicate industries as major contributors to environmental degradation and pollution problems of various magnitudes.

Industrial wastes and emissions contain toxic and hazardous substance most of which can be detrimental to human health.

These includes heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and toxic organic chemicals such as pesticides, polychlorinated iripheyls (PCBS), dioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PHS), petrochemicals and phenolic compounds. For instance, there was the case of the minamata disease in Japan which the patient had received untreated effluents from a plastic factory. Realizing the low level of environmental awareness in developing countries such as Nigeria, coupled with the nonexistence of environmental protection have within the last decade, embarked upon “Toxic waste trade or illegal Dumping of toxic wastes” in poor debt-strapped developing countries.

Nigeria has been a victim of this illegal act, when in 1988 about 8,880 tens of toxic and hazardous wastes were dumped in Koko in the part of Delta state by an Italian company.

In order to stem the tide to toxic wastes dumping in third world countries, the united nations environment programme (UNEP), passed the resolutions on the trans boundary movement of toxic and hazardous wastes at the 1989 Bassel convention, Appendix, a document to which Nigeria is a signatory, ie. At Rio’ 89 convention held in Brazil

Surface and ground water contamination, air pollution, solid wastes heaps are general environmental problems caused by industrialization in Nigeria. Improper disposal of untreated industrial wastes has resulted in coloured, Murky, Odourous and unwholesome surface water loss of aquatic and recreational amenities

In collaboration to this, the federal government places high premium on the environment. It established the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) by Decree 58 of 30th December, 1988 with the statutory responsibility for overall protection of the environment. The national environmental policy was put together and launched by the president in Abuja on 27th November,1989.

The major causes of land pollution areas follow

1. Erosion:- may be caused by careless methods of farming and extensive cropping. It normally washes off soil and its nutrients.

2. Refuse:- from house hold, markets offices and factories. They lead to space occupation, cause odour after decaying and is an eye sore example of refuse includes: papers, garbages etc.

3. sewage:- originate from household offices and industries. Gives off bad odour, may contain disease carrying organism which could find their way to water bodies, air or food.

4. Metal scrapes and old vehicle bodies originate from old vehicle bodies originate from unused machines and vehicles:- causes land space occupation, obstruction of land used for recreational and farming activities

5. Glass:- from bottling company and glass industries and occupy spaces.

6. Insecticides:- used for crop protection, control of diseases vectors example mosquitoes. They cause the rate of photosynthesis is to be lowered and can kill the consumers.

7. Radioactive waste:- from nuclear plant, accident, explosion of nuclear and atomic bombs causes mutation in living things.

NOISE: many be random sound of wasted sound. Noise pollution is a stress that injures man and other animals because man in particular needs peace and quietness environment to function efficiently, physically both in the environment. Some of the causes of noise pollution include air craft, automobiles, trucks, generators, cars, especially in urban areas and on expresses ways including noise from the factory machines. The psychic effect of noise is very important; irritability, tension, nervousness and anxiety are increased, rest and relaxation are interrupted and efficiency at work is decreased

Atomic Radiation:- finally, pollution by atomic radiation is as a result of nuclear exposing, leakages from nuclear power stations. This type of pollution damages living cells as well causes mutilation of plants and animals and loss of memory. Thus, these type of pollution have their aftermath effect on man.

 

According to functionalism, it is believed that the social environment is made up of different parts. The environment deserved to be kept neatly and with this, the health of the people included the peoples standard of living will be up-

dated. But when the environment is destroyed thereby, making it very dirty, the people health will be affected.

From this standpoint, the presence of dropping waste products from industries companies, factories, and even from domestic houses (resident) should be avoided, if not, will continue to destroy the purity of the environment. A lot of streets in Nigeria are very dirty because, residents have failed to take into consideration the need to have a clean environment, another good example is the road leading to Ishieke Campus, where people that own shops dumps refuse by the road side. Because of this, it causes a lot of traffic hold-up on the way and it some time causes accidents even when it comes to environmental sanitation. They do not care to partake. Many people are affected by this infections. In Nigeria, the environment has been the most neglected section in our society. Poor environments being a threat to the society, there were series of suggestions, ideas and techniques all meant for providing solutions to it by which the world health organization reported that “the maintenance of proper sanitary conditions is now to be recognized as one of the strongest defense measures to prevent the outbreak or spread of transmittable diseases in the world over not only this, Lucas and Gill as (1977) and tills etal 1969) experts in health gave definition to environmental sanitation and solution towards achieving its example to Lucas and Gills(1977), “Environmental sanitation is meant to create and maintain conditions in the environment that will promote health and prevent disease”. Then to Ellis, etal (1969) “among the problems surrounding environmental sanitation has been of great historical significance then the disposal of severage and solid wastes.

A part from those, the literature was reviewed among local contributors such as Okwor (1983) which said that environment sanitation means disease out break, Chima(1981) stated that sanitation implies the elimination of those things in the environment for man that are likely to pose danger to his health.

Ezenwa(1979) in his contribution said “water is of great importance to health when it is portable for drinking and available for other domestic purposes and as such, adequate care should always be taken to see that drinking water should always be kept pure. Asiegbu (1981) contributed by saying (heaps) of refuse in urban centers constitute nuisance and as such it pollutes the aim though the offensive odours they emit. Mowu (1984) in his own contribution, said that “in mordern waste management system, collection and transportation should receive greater priority, Fayo (1984) specialized in the equipment for refuse disposal said that all the equipment for disposal of refuse should be adequate and personal being ready to carry out environmental functions indiscriminately, Ugwu (1980) who contributed by saying that government should be involved actively in environmental sanitation by providing the equipment necessary for it and finally Nwaobodo made his own contribution by stating in the case of urban Environment. Fire detecting alarm bells should be provided to check the out break of fire which may cause the explosion of some gaseous cylinders to prevent air pollutions. All these contributions were made to bring good environment as required to good health.

WASTE MANAGEMENT

Waste is a by-product of human activities, which has no immediate use to the producer, waste once generated constitutes a nuisance and must therefore be disposed in order to remove its ugly sight. It is the process that is referred to as waste management waste is recognised in three main forms.

Solid

Liquid

Gas or particulate

For the purpose of this write-up, and the delight of the readers emphasise will be on solid waste management. It is estimated that about 48% of the rural communities have access to safe means of liquid waste disposal while the level of access in urban areas is about 52%.

The disposal of solid waste in urban areas of wastes being generated which has gone beyond managerial capacity of the local authority and state waste management agencies. The situation is further compounded by the present economic situation in the country, which has further encouraged rural-urban migration bring about high population density and overstretching of the existing facilities.

The direct consequences of the present situation is high rate of mortality an morbidity due to sanitaion related diseases. It is estimated that over 200,000 deaths occur annually due to diarrhoea diseases alone wth most of the casualties being children (0 – 5 years).

HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

1. The main risks to health from improper dumping of wastes arise from breading of disease vectors (particularly flies s and rodents). Improper storage an disposal of wastes provide favourable environment for the vectors.

2. The most obvious environmental damage caused by solid wastes is aesthetic, the ugliness of street and the destruction of the beauty of the countryside by uncontrolled dumping of wastes.

3. Most serous and often recognises is the transfer of pollution to water, which occurs when located from a refuse dump enters surface or ground water.

4. Air pollution causes by uncontrolled and inefficient burning of wastes.

5. Hazardous wastes from industries present risks dumping transportation and disposal.

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 STUDY DESIGN

This study gives the details of the research method, the population, sample and sampling techniques, research instruments and procedures for data collection and analysis.

The research study is designed to analyse the causes and consequences of urban environmental hazard. In Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency by applying questionnaire method.

 

3.2 SCOPE OF STUDY/LIMITATION

In the days gone by, whereas curative medicine was seen and regarded as the entirety of our health care delivery programme, preventive medicine as manifested in “clean culture”, was relegated to the background and our people were left to wallow in squalor and dirty style, resulting in the proliferation of slums and ghettoes in our major urban towns like Ebonyi or Enugu with particular reference to coal camp, Obiagu Kenyatta and areas of Abakpa and Emene. Heaps refuse were seen mounting at strategic point in these zones of Enugu and at flows of traffic greatly hampered.

Here, the researcher intend to foster a better understanding of environmental hazard mitigation an the management of their effects on physical properties and human resources as well as to examine the situation as it exists today in Ebonyi state.

Also, the concentration of this study will focus on pollution and then, the impact of environmental sanitation on the act of taming the environment so that it longer constitutes hazard to man’s health, and also the ability of man to adjust steady advances towards higher level of health.

Based on the limitation, this research work has not been easy, to gather the information at once, for the staff of (EBSEPA), because most of the staff especially those in the exhibit unit felt that he researcher, will expose their secret. Due to this reason, it took the researcher over 2 weeks to gather some necessary information. Including the transportation fare, not only hat , on the 24th of November, the researcher underwent for Appendicitis operation which has not been easy.

 

3.3 TARGET POPULATION

The target population to be used in this study should be accessible, which in this case, it will be easy to distribute questionnaire from one department to the other. The EBSEPA is made up of (4) departments, with a total population of (300) three hundred staff.

The distribution of the population according to the department is as follows:

S/N DEPARTMENT POPULATION

1 Office of the General Manager 80

2 Pollution control and waste management department 90

3 Engineering/Ecology and National Resources conservation Department including the operation unit 140

4 Financial Department 40

TOTAL 300

 

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, FINDING AND RECOMMENDATION/ CONTROL

5.1 INTRODUCTION OF RESEARCH SUMMARY

This research study was based on the causes and consequences of urban environmental hazard. The survey was carried out with the use of primary data, from the use of questionnaire administration in the field and secondary data which was gotten from vital documents from the library, and also based on the information given by the research through the staff of EBSEPA e.t.c. The sampling methods adopted for the purpose of this study was the simple random technique.

The Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency was made up of male and female and their main function is to maintain a programme of technical assistances for individuals and bodies whether public or private in order o achieve excellent standard by environmental cleanliness and protection based on the criteria, guidelines and regulations.

 

According to staff, most things that constitute hazards and pollution is known as industrial activities and agriculture including hawkers and stall ownership.

In the days gone by, whereas curative medicine was seen and regarded as the entity of our health cure delivery programme, preventive medicine manifested in “clean culture’ was relegated to the background and our people were left to wallow in squalor and dirty slums and ghettos in our major urban towns, places like Enugu with particular reference to coal camp, Obiagu and areas of Abakpa and Emene. Heaps of refuse were seen mounting at strategic points in these areas and the free flow of traffic were greatly hampered. While in Ebonyi State refuse is taken to a remote designated area where people do not live very close.

Environmental sanitation though a household word, is not as simple as people look at it. To a layman, it simply means taking one’s broom and sweeping the surroundings. But to us, it means much more than that.

 

5.2 CONCLUSION

The researcher went to EBSEPA to find out the causes and consequences of hazard with regard to human health and to know how active is EBSEPA staff. It was in this process that it was discovered that Ebonyi State is faced with so many environmental problem and complete scarcity of social services that could make lives worth living. Although according to the subject, clean environment is good for human beings but Ebonyi State environment is very bad ranging from the indiscriminate littering of the environment with pieces of paper, to the bad odours being perceived especially in Ebonyi State University by Education hall.

 

MAJOR FINDING

It could be understood that it is the hawkers and industrial activities including the stall owners that constitute the major hazard. Based on this fact hawkers should be properly educated on the awareness on hygiene and also industries should be built or should be located in remote areas.

 

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS, SOLUTIONS/CONTROL

The control of all forms of pollution has provided many of the most difficult economic, legislative, and administrative degrees or laws since the 20th century.

In the early 1970s, a number of countries were attacking the problem by legislative means. Technological approaches, like controlling land pollution include the salvage and recycling of solid waste such as paper, glass and scrap metals.

Pollution hazard from human waste can be dealt with by sewage treatment systems. Bucket system by disposing off excreta should be abolished by a task force, who should enforce it.

The sanitation of the environment of Ebonyi State is generally bad to the health of the dwellers. Therefore, I hereby recommend the following measures towards ensuring clean environment in Ebonyi State:

b. The government in Ebonyi State should give much attention to environmental sanitation exercise so that many people would be serious with the exercise.

c. Ebonyi State EBSEPA staff and the local government should mobilise some of their workers to see to the environmental sanitation in Ebonyi State.

d. Dustbin should be distributed to all the section of Ebonyi state so that refuse like pieces of papers, oranges, banana peels and polythene bags should not be littered indiscriminately in the urban areas.

URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS – CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

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