Truancy Among Secondary School Students In Ebonyi South Education Zone



The School is a social unit established by members of the society as a formal agency of education in which the young (students) attend to learn about themselves, other people, as well as the language, custom, attitude and the ways of doing things.

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Staying in school is the first step to a good education and in order to achieve academic excellence, the students are mandated by the school laws to attend school daily but due to some factors (which work will unravel) most students absent themselves from formal school activities hence engaging in truancy. When this happens, every one loses; students lose the benefits of instruction, the society loses income and the community suffers from increase juvenile crime.

Historically, the origin of truancy can be traced to the Massachusetts compulsory Education Act of 1647 and its subsequent school Attendance Act of 1852, which forced parents to send their children for at least 12 weeks in a term (Michael, 2005).

To this Act, every school is by law required to notify any student who acquires five unexcused absence within a school year.

However, it is through this unexcused absence from school without legitimate or legal knowledge of parents, guardian or the school that truancy among students came into being. Conceptually, the term “Truancy” has been defined in various ways by different people and agencies such as counsellors, psychologist, sociologist, welfare Authorities and Educators in general.

Stoll (2002) defines truancy as “absence from school for no legitimate reason”. He went further to state that many students do skip either single class or even a full day school at least once during their academic career. This is because they may want to attend a special event, prepare for promotion night or simply take what is known in the world of work as a “Mental health day”. This Isolated incidence (truancy) is quite typical and likely to create problems which can lead to varied set of negative and even more dangerous consequences.

Peninsky (2000) wrote that when a child is a truant, it implies that he has been constantly absent from school for so many days, weeks or even moths. Truancy, he further explains is a deliberate absence from school for no medial or justifiable reason, with or without parental knowledge. Peninsky’s explanation of truancy agrees very well with the definition given in Collin’s English dictionary in which a truant is described as one’s absent from duty without leave especially children who absent themselves from school. In the same manner, Nwana (2004) explained truancy to include Intentionally absenting of oneself from school without permission, leaving without authorization and dodging of specific lesson periods.

Truancy on academic in secondary school is a situation in which students develop and show adverse attitude and behaviour to learning. They absent themselves from classes using unnecessary excuses such as in genuine sickness, fake suspension by the class teacher or school authority and involvement in sport activities. Truancy can equally occur in a boring and boredom classes, harsh teachers who are difficulty to approach and in an unconducive school environment (Osarenren, 1999)).

The causes of truancy among secondary school students have been attributed to lack of writing materials such as pen, pencil, exercise book, recommended text books, school uniform and midday meal (Obe, 1998).

The government is also another major cause of student truancy. This is attributed to the fact that Government do not pay teachers regularly and most of their allowance such as leave allowance, sport and science allowance etc are being withheld, most teachers find it difficulty to be committed and dedicated to their primary duties of teaching.

When this occurs and the students do not find their teacher in the class, the next plan of action is truancy. It is common these days to see students roaming about in streets during school hours. Such act has often been followed by incidence of aggressiveness and other terrible negative actions.

Some parents due to the nature of their jobs, show nonchalant attitudes to their wards and as such, they grow up to be corrupt and aggressive hence getting nothing and giving out nothing. Most parents do give too much money to their wards thus contributing to their truant behaviours.

Also, with the breakthrough in the Information Communication Technology (ICT) which led to the emergence of Internet system in the World Wide Web. The use of internet system, though very beneficial to students, especially in the areas of research work as it provides them with a medium of Interaction with renowned scholars and authors whom they wouldn’t have ordinarily met in their life time. Conversely, internet system have equally contribution much to the promotion of truancy among secondary school students. This is because most students especially those in secondary school do abandon their lessons to visit Internet cafes thereby spending much of their valuable time and resource only to visit pornographic sites and some other sex related sites which will in turn ruin their lives thereby increasing the rate of immoral behaviour among youths in our society (Shyam, 2006).

The introduction of Internet use had denied students the chance of thorough research work as ready-made materials are readily found on the Internet. This makes them to lack the in-depth knowledge about the object of inquiry hence resulting to “educated illiterates” (Pam Willenz, 2006).

All these have drastically reduce the level of students academic performance in both Internal and external examinations. Below is a review of students performance on six subjects in west Africa Examination Council between 2000 to 2003 in one of selected secondary school in Ebonyi South Educational zone(Onicha Technical College, Enuagu Onicha).


The objective of secondary school education in Nigeria is to provide students with academic and vocational skills as well as moral ethics, but it is quite unfortunate that these objectives have not been fully achieved due to the high level of students involvement in truant behaviours. Due to this, this study aims at investigating truancy among secondary school students in Ebonyi South Educational zone.



The main purpose of this study is to examine truancy among secondary school students in Ebonyi South Educational zone.  The research will further look into the following specific purposes:

  1. To determine the causes of truancy among secondary school students.
  2. To ascertain the extent to which truancy affects students academic performance.
  3. To find out how truancy manifest among secondary school students.
  4. To determine the effect of truancy on the society.


          It is hoped that the result of this study will be useful to the followings:

  1. To school administrators; this study, will examine the various causes and consequences of truancy and state the ways of curbing it which will serve as a vital instrument for effective school administration.
  2. To parents; the study will equally give parents an insight on how and why their wards engage in truancy.
  3. The study will also be of immense value to Graduate and undergraduate students who are studying administration in the field of education as it will give them an insight on how to handle truant students.
  4. The Study will also help in the discovery of the fundamental aspects of truancy that is mostly found among students. With this, proper guidance and counseling will be giving to them to enable them make the best out of education.



          To guide the proper conduct of this study, the following research questions were raised.

  1. What are the causes of truancy among students in secondary school?
  2. To what extend does truancy affect the academic performance of secondary school students?
  3. What are the ways through which truancy can manifest in students?
  4. What are the effect of truancy on the society?



          This research is designed to cover Ebonyi South Educational zone of Ebonyi  state. This study centres on truancy among secondary school students,  it is mainly limited to public secondary school students in Ebonyi South Educational Zone of Ebonyi State.



 The review of related literature is presented under the following sub-headings:

–         Concept of truancy

–         Types of Truancy.

–         Truancy as a disciplinary problem in secondary schools.

–         Causes of Truancy.

–         Effects of Truancy

–         Suggestions for reducing truancy

–         Empirical studies.

–         Summary of Review of Related Literature.


          The term truancy has been conceptualised by different authors in different ways. According to the International Dictionary of Education (2002), truancy is defined as a “deliberate absence from school without parental knowledge”. In the same manner, the New Western Comprehensive Dictionary Special Price Edition (2004), said that truancy is “when a student stays away without permission,  anyone who absent himself from work or duty without good reasons, the knowledge of the authority” . The above  definitions are in agreement that truancy occurs when a student absents himself from school without due permission either from parents or from the related authorities.

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On its popular meaning Carter (2000) considers truancy  as a:

deliberate absence from school on the part of the pupil without the knowledge and consent of parents; absence of the pupil from the school for which no reasonable or acceptable excuse is given (this latter concept broadens the definition considerably and makes it synonymous with unexcused absence.


Similarly Adeyemo (1999) defines truancy, as a delinquent act  which occurs when “a child often stays away from the school without good reasons”.

These definitions indicated certain elements of truancy that must be stressed and in order to have a proper understanding of the concept. Carter’s definition carries the implication that the act of truancy is deliberate and that the reason for absence is invalid from the view points of parents and school authorities and not from that  of the truant.


          There are three types of truancy which are as follows:

–         Habitual Truancy

–         Occasional Truancy

–         Casual Truancy



          This is the type of truancy that occurs when a student (truant) constantly and continually absent from school without the due knowledge or consent of his parents and school authorities. Habitual truants are mainly those students  who miss numerous full days of school academic activities. Their frequency of absenteeism have become a regular behaviour or habit. It is important to note that students who are habitual truants have high chances of falling behind in their  school  work, decline in their academic performance  and even lose their attachment or positive attitudes towards school (Ezeani, 2006).



          This type of truancy occurs when a student does not constantly and  continually absent himself from school. In this type of truancy, the student’s level of absenteeism from school without the permission of parents or school authority is irregular or not regular. For instance  a child whom the mother refuse  going to school and was kept at home to help  care for siblings, and the child taken out of school for an out-of-season family holiday e.t.c are all instance of occasional truant (Ezeani, 2006).



          This is the type of truancy which occurs when the students absence from school is by chance. This type of  truancy or unexcused absence from school is not regular and constant but happens by chance. For instance students who remained lurking within sound of the school bell, so that they could attend those lessons, which interested them (Ezeani, 2006).



          In every human society, there are norms and values which are socially and morally accepted ways of doing things within a societal set up. But in a situation where a person’s behaviour contradicts the accepted societal ways of doing things then such a person is regarded as a law breaker, a deviant or delinquent (Bolarin, 1999).

In the present day Ebonyi State, truancy as a delinquent act is commonly indulged in by both adults and young people. Just as some able bodied adults who are gainfully employed roam about the streets and absent themselves from work for no genuine reason – So also do some school children roam about the streets thus absenting themselves from school or classes regularly without concrete reasons or permission from the related school authorities. However, the problem of truancy is the most common among the youths and this is regarded as a child lacking “discipline”.

Discipline as a concept is very important in the practice of education. A learner who lacks self-discipline can not learn effectively. Discipline in the words of Adesina (1998) is referred to as  when students are taught to respect the school authorities, to observe the school laws, regulations and to maintain an established standard of behaviour.

Uka (2003) sees discipline in modern classroom management as the provision of a suitable environment for pupils to  develop self-control, orderliness, good conduct, co-operation and the habit of getting the best out of themselves during and after school life. More so, both the English Reader’s Dictionary (2002) and the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2004) concurred that discipline is the training especially of the mind and character to produce self-control, habit of obedience e.t.c.

However, a child  who lacks  discipline is regarded as being indisciplined. Indiscipline is one of the  serious social problems facing Nigerian schools in general and Ebonyi State in particular and the aspect of indiscipline that is of greatest concern in the present day school students is “truancy” (this concept has been clearly explained in the earlier part of this work).

At the National Conference on Discipline and Motivation in schools held in 1999, Abia, Jatau, Ojomo, Ibrahim, Shakaraom, and Oloko pointed out the following factors as causes of  indiscipline in Nigeria schools; the home, prevailing situation in the society, the school physical facilities, teachers and school administrators, peer group, security agents, ineffective teaching, authoritarian methods of administration and policy  makers. As regards the above causes of indiscipline, parents are required to speak seriously to their wards on the effects of indiscipline especially truancy and lateness.

In the words of Ehimmora (2001), he stressed that truancy is an age-old aspect of indiscipline which brings the school authority into disrepute and in addition ,the unofficial coming and going of children at others times other than normal school day, naturally brings about indiscipline and interrupts normal school routine.

On the reasons why secondary school students absent from school without permission from appropriate authorities,  Tyerman (2005) suggest four reasons why truancy as an indiscipline act occurs;

  1. 1.     As a result of illness – the child who is sick may be deliberately kept at home. Most parents having kept the children at home in good faith will not think it necessary to inform the school authority.
  2. 2.     Parents withdrawal – In this case, a child is kept away from school by the parents for their own purpose, maybe to help them in household chores/business.
  3. 3.     The child absents himself in his own volition – in this case, the child absented himself without the permission of parents or school.
  4. 4.     School phobia – In this case a child seems to be afraid of going to school or leaving his home, yet his parents are anxious for him to attend school regularly.  


In all, truancy as a disciplinary problem cannot be left unchecked because of the likely effect it could have on the future truants. Healy (2006) states rightly that truancy is the kindergarten of crime. If a school child finds that he can avoid going to school without any serious repercussion, he will sooner or latter believe that he can succeed in other  offences. His idleness while playing truancy will set the  scene for other crime such as stealing of money and goods. For the problem of truancy as an indiscipline act in schools to be solved, all the related institutions that are involved in child upbringing such as the family, church and school must play active roles.



          The problem of secondary school truancy in recent times is so alarming and if the issue is not properly handled would greatly affect the effort of government in achieving the objectives of secondary education which so much resources has been spent on. On the causes of truancy, authors differ in their opinion as regards the factors that are responsible for truancy. Evidence from reviewed related literature has indicated that the following factors such as; poor home upbringing, school circumstances, psychological and personality factors, socio-economic situation of the students and societal demands, influence of peer group, social and government influence/factors are the major causes of truancy.



          Tracing the causes of truancy back to home upbringing, Cronbach (1998) writes”… the truants  came from unsatisfactory home situation, families on relief, broken home and the like”. In the same vein, Ezekwugo (2005) comments that training of children starts from home, and where this is  properly done, the foundation laid at home, the school will not find it difficult to continue the education properly.

Furthermore, authors stress that in most cases, the seeds of truancy are laid at home. Odueze (2001), asserts that for education to be real and effective, “there should be sound co-operation between the home and the school.

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This view is supported by English (1999) who wrote:

what children need most are parents who can control them. Many are over privileged by been permitted to do as they please.  Children who demand too much of their parents, demand too much of the society. The adult should exert control over children and also to mean the orderly and obedient behaviour that this control is designed to secure.  


Still relating home upbringing to students’ school behaviour, Shaw as reported by Odueze (2001) states:

Whilst few of us would doubt that the main influence on a child’s life is his home, that of school is a good second, the closer the co-operation between these two, the happier must be the child and the more successful his development in every aspect. 


Although, he brings in the idea of punishment, Odueze emphasizes parents’ role in the treatment of a truant. He, in one breath asserts that “corporal punishment leads to truancy in school and therefore  results in acts of indiscipline”. And in another breath he holds that punishment should be given to a child but by the parents. This last  assertion suggests that the teacher  and the parent operate together in the school and that the duty of the parent is to punish the truant while that of the teacher is to teach.

Carter (2000) Crobach (1998), English (1999), Odueze, (2001) and Ezekwugo (2005) indicated that the seed of truancy is laid at home. Poor home upbringing may manifest itself at school in the form of truancy. They emphasise the need for sound co-coperation between the home and the school for any serious and fruitful tackling of the problem of truancy.



          In a study carried out by Ogunwe (2003), he pointed out how  school factors could contribute to the problem of truancy. To him, some teachers have been found to be very hostile to the children put under their care. Some have been found not to have interest in teaching as a career, some were found not to be attending classes regularly thereby giving room for children to skip classes and develop the habit of truancy while some teachers have been found to be fond of punishing students for  all offences they commit thereby scaring some of them from attending school regularly.

In another study carried out by Ehinmolo (2006) on “perception of classroom Teachers on causes of truancy and control among secondary school children”, the following findings on school factors as the causes of truancy were made:

a)      Educational problem is a cause of truancy among secondary school children – the educational problem may range from the child  not being able to read, write and spell properly to his not being able to assimilate and understand what is read.

b)     Disinterest in certain school subjects as a cause of truancy – Students’ hatred for certain teachers can be a cause of truancy as the hatred will be brought about through the interaction of students and teachers in the classroom. Also un-stimulating or un-interesting lesson can cause truancy.

c)      Distance from school and transportation problems are also causes of truancy among school children.

Still on school circumsance as a cause of truancy, Blair, Green and Jones (1999) observed in their book “Educational psychology that:

In the face of thwarting and distressing school  situation, some pupils find that the easiest way out is to keep away from school and some of the children develop hysterical reactions, e.g. some children become ill on examination days.


In a similar manner Ezekugo (2005) points out that truancy  may be due to the type of teacher posted to a school or the attitude of the teachers towards the students, poor teaching, poor organisation, poor attendance  of teachers contribute highly to  the truancy of students. She made reference to Simpson’s idea that a truant is one who is not happy with schoolwork either because of something is wrong with the school or with pupil himself and instead plans to do something else.

Izuogu (2002) in her own contribution to the causes of truancy holds that “poor preparation of lessons by teachers, use of abusive words on pupils, frequent use of punishment and too much demand of this  or that from the pupils, can contribute to pupils staying away form school.

However, facts collected from related literature reviewed indicated that the general school condition has a hand  in the cause of truancy.



Hurlocks (2003) relates the cause of truancy to psychological factors writing about an adolescent who is making poor adjustment she writes:

The adolescent who  is  making poor adjustment at home, in school or with  his peers usually  engage in more misdemeanour than does the adolescent who is better adjusted. This is seen in the case of truancy, truants suffer from personality disorders due to poor home conditions, they gave poor work habits in the school and are retarded with the result that when  they are in  class with younger children with whom they have very little in common, they stay away from school in order to escape this frustration environment. 


Her way of relating psychological and personality traits agrees well with the direction followed by the dictionary definition of the term. Frustration and even lack of self confidence  mentioned by Hurlock could lead to truancy. Also self assertion could be related to truancy. Besides, improper and inappropriate adjustment both home and school circumstance can give rise to act of truancy.



          Mussen, Conger and Kegan (2000) stated that socio-economic problem and parent-child relationship could contribute to delinquent behaviour. Inconsistent administration of reward and punishment by parents teach their children the response values and benefits appropriate for their social class. Class training for the child ranges from the control of his manners to his educational and occupational goals.

In his list of causes of truancy, Adeyamo (1999) pointed out that lack of basic  school materials to work with, makes pupils to run  away from the school. He also writes that;

if a child has no exercise book, pen and reading books, he would not like to be punished by the teacher and as such he runs away from the school.


It may be said that the  economic status of the parents may contribute to truancy. If the parents are unable to  provide the students with the basic school needs, they may be forced to  go out of the school to look for such needs. More so, from the related literature reviewed, it was discovered that even students in possession of surplus money still play  truancy.



          The peer group and classmates have effects on the students’ truant behaviour. As the child frees himself from dependence and control of parents and other adults,  he falls back on peer group, for direction and control.

To Nigerian Teachers (2004), members of peer group do put inside their personal feeling and follow  the dictates of peer in order to remain in group. Due to this strong feelings and attachment, peer group has generally been viewed as the vehicle through  which students learn truant act.

In his speech,  Ubaezuonu (1998) said that a boy or a girl can easily mess up a dozen of others of his friends in the school. To him, when a child who is very good boy or girl enters secondary school at the formative age of between ten and fourteen years, when such  a child must have been in the school for two to three terms,  you start  wondering whether it is still your ward. This to him is because he will turn out to be a completely changed child.

Dewey and  Humber (2006) state that the need for a student to conform and be like by  his peers may bring the student into conflict with his own family.  This sensitive young persons is anxious to please his beloved ones and to maintain prestige in the eyes of his own generation this often lead the students into the act of abandoning everything he is supposed to be doing like attending classes and begin to work from place to place in search of where he will get money to be like his peer groups. When this happens, the student will never understand what is going on in the class because he is always  absent from school.


          Having identified and explained some of the causes  of truancy among secondary school students, the next of focus  in this review  of related literature is the effects of truancy on students.

According to Geo-Opah (2003) in his  study on the Effects of delinquency on academic achievement. In this study, 168 secondary school students were used.  He reported in his findings that, out of  this 168 students, 50 were identified as truants and 118 as non- truants. 35 of the truants were poor in academic achievement while 15 were good academically, 32 were male truants and 18 were female, 16 of the  truants were from  low socio-economic background, 31were truants due to unfriendly environment in the school… Based on the statistical analysis of the data gathered, Geo-opah (2003) reported the following  findings:

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That truants are noted for poor academic performance. Both male and female commit acts leading to truancy nowadays, children from low-socio-economic background are more prone to truancy since they lack money and  materials for schooling, children from broken homes commit acts leading to truancy than their counterparts form stable homes.

Writing on the effect of truancy in one of the leading Nigeria Dailies, Akorede of the University of Benin observes;


They become a social menace threatening law and order and channelling the equilibrium of the state. They are the core political mal contents becoming riotous and violent in their reaction to authority and their age-mates who have made some achievements (New Nigeria, 2001).


Dittimiya (2001) in his view on the effects of truancy maintains that truancy among students have greatly affected the development of  human resources  needed for social and economic transformation of the society. To him, truancy is a destructive and undeserving elements of progress, training or mode of life. It is an impediment to national development.  Truancy allows students to pervert the whole aim of education, examination and public morality it does not encourage development rather it retards progress of the school and the entire society.

According to Durkhein (2000), Truancy is a gateway to serious violent and non-violent crime. To him, students truant act lead to stealing, fighting, drug addictions, destruction of property, sex scandal and armed robbery. Hence when a student is always absent from classes or school environment, what comes to his mind is evil.  He plans how to destroy, how to get rich quick and becomes a millionaire.

In recent times, high percentage of the crime committed are by students of secondary schools. According to the related literature reviewed by the researchers, it was discovered that most crimes are committed during school period than holidays, this is because students who engage in truant behaviour are more busy with their parents and guardians during the holidays. The researcher also discovered that truants. Due to absence from school academic usually repeat classes and even when they are repeating, they do not feel better because they feel that they are too big for such a class. Though few of them (truants) manage to struggle through school and majority of them usually drop out of school if some form of interventions are not taken.

Their level of achievement is generally poor because their emphasis is not on academics. They even see school as a form of punishment and something they are doing not for their sake  but to please their parents and guardians.

In all, the adverse effects of truancy manifest most when they drop out of school thereby constituting social nuisance as the male will take to armed robbery and the female prostitution,  this therefore becomes a problem for the society.


          Having known  what truancy means, whom truants are, causes  and effects of  truancy, the next area of interest is the  type of treatment that can be given to truants to make them change their negative attitude at school.

Research studies on ways of reducing truancy or on the treatment of truants in Nigeria school show that the most popular treatment given to truants in the school system is “Corporal Punishment”, which in most cases involves cutting of grass, scrubbing of floors, uprooting figs, sweeping of school compound, planting of flowers e.t.c. This approach however has been referred t as the traditional approach and non-functional (Obe, 1998).

For the problem of truancy to be reduced if not eliminate in our schools, all hands must be on deck and there must be total revolution in our ways of life and sense of values.

The homes, school and the society must relate closely and as well adopt a communicative approach, which should mostly involve both the parents and the truants along with their teachers.

More so, teachers should be good role models.   Some teachers have been found to be habitual latecomers and truants. Such teachers are bad models for the students kept under their care. on the other hand, adult members of the society must endeavour to lead by example. Truants in the school must be assisted in all possible ways to develop the habits of self-control based on reasons rather than on force (Ezeani 2006).

Counselling can also be used in assisting truants to give up truancy. To this effect, when truants are identified, school counsellors should ensure that they counsel the students so far identified as truants. Parents should also try to provide some of the basic requirements their children need at school within their meagre resources, (Onyejiaku, 2004).

Due to the fact that truancy is a problem that not only affects the students, but also the students’ family, school and the entire society, Michael (2005) in his article titled “Manual to Combat Truancy”, suggested five primary elements of educational strategy to combat truancy, they include:


  1. 1.     Involve Parents in all Truancy Prevention Activities: According to this element, parents play the fundamental role in the education of their children. No body else commands greater influence in getting young persons to go to school every day and recognising how a good education can define his future than the parents. For families and school to work together to solve problems like truancy there must be mutual trust and communication. Schools can also help by being “family-friendly” and encouraging teachers and parents to make regular contact before problems arise. Schools should help in training of teachers to work with parents, hiring or appointing a parent liaison and to arrange for parent meetings through which parents will have a voice in school decisions, by so doing the problem of school truancy will be reduced.


  1. 2.     Establish on-going Truancy Prevention Programmes in School: 

Research findings has reviewed that truancy is a symptom of a much larger problem. In order to curb this ugly  incidence, schools should address underlying needs of each child to ensure that truancy is not a re-occurring behaviour. Also students’ basic  educational needs such as conducive teaching and learning  environment, adequate instructional materials and other  academic facilities like library, laboratory and technical workshops e.t.c – should be provided for students so as to help attract their regular school attendance (Michael, 2005).


3. Ensure that Students Face Firm Sanctions for Truancy: 

For effective reduction of truancy, schools must communicate to students and families that truancy will not be tolerated from any student and that any student found in this act must face severe and  firm punishment from related school authorities.

4. Create Meaningful Incentives for Parental Responsibility:

This is also another suggested element on how truancy can be curtailed among students. Following this  principle, the school should create incentive programme both for the parents and children. Positive incentives such as participation in publicly funded activities and cash awards to be given to any parent who plays positive role in truancy reduction among students. On the other hand negative sanctions like fines and imprisonment should be administered to parents who are naïve about their wards irregular attendance to schools, all this will help to promote parental responsibility towards the reduction of truancy (Michael, 2005).


5. Involvement of Law Enforcement Agency in Truancy Reduction>

In order to enforce regular school attendance policies, school officials should establish close linkage with law enforcement agents like police, probation officer, Juvenile and family court officials e.t.c to help prosecute any student caught playing truancy (Michael, 2005).

To crown it all, government should help the police department and court system to establish and run temporary detention centres where they can drop-off school truants. Also  the government should as well embark on some other anti- truancy initiatives like Operation Sweep Students Truants in neighbourhoods. With these suggestions, truancy among secondary school students and even those in primary and tertiary institution will be reduced if not eradicated.


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  1. nwobi onyinye says:

    please kindly release the references of the above will pay for the complete project please.

  2. Adolf Luhanga says:

    It is a very educative piece of work. Can be useful to graduate students dealing with educational studies. Thank you Chudi for this piece of brilliant work.

  3. mr mwangi peter says:

    am very much grateful of that information, it was of good help to me as a teacher.

  4. so grateful ,educating research.keep it up.But if you could publish books so as to incorporate in Tanzania Education syllabi ,it could be a help because truancy is very rampant in our schools .Thank you

    • please will you mind if you allow your article to be used by other researcher? allow us to download it and printing. Also send your references you used. Thank you

  5. Elendu chinonso I. says:

    Am greatful for the write up pls i need the reference.

  6. obijuru Daniels C says:

    this is awesome , keep it up and if you can give me the reference and also treat negative effect on indecent dressing among students in tertiary institution. Thanks

  7. F. M. Willz says:

    Tanx 4 dis msg, its explicit n comprehensive

  8. peter ekuri says:

    am happy 4 what i hv see here p
    ls can u help me wit d REFERECNCE pls tank u

  9. willz danda says:

    Am so grateful

  10. Adekunle Niyi says:

    Wow! Insightive, educative, informative, even entertaining. I love the write-up. Pls, I would love to have the complete material. Trauancy is one major problem afecting our educational sector. Its unfortunate our legislators do not see this rather they see under-aged marriages, they set bad examples, using mase to hit theirselves on the head in the house etc. Ssh!

  11. adeyanju emmanuel says:

    I like this write up thank you and God bless you sir I realy like the topice and the way out to truancy

  12. mgonja ri says:

    truancy is a cronic problem in most of countries .especially secondary students.

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