Training And Development Of Secretary- Problems In A Depressed Economy

Training And Development Of A Secretary – Problems In A Depressed Economy: A Case Study Of Institute Of Management And Technology (I.M.T.) Enugu

Training And Development Of A Secretary – Problems In A Depressed Economy: A Case Study Of Institute Of Management And Technology (I.M.T.) Enugu

A secretary is an indispensable asset to any organization or institution. No tertiary institution whether government or private can in any way thrive in isolation of secretarial duties. The duties of a secretary in any tertiary institution is an inescapable practice or function.

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They play major role in both private and government tertiary institutions. Private and government tertiary institutions are found in Enugu metropolis Enugu occupied an enviable political and economic position in the history of Nigeria. It was the seat of government of the defunct east central state, old Anambra state and presently Enugu state or Nigeria.

According to Austin (1998), a secretary is a person who has acquired the basic secretarial skill of shorthand and typewriting plus enough knowledge and practical experience in office work to be able to cope with filling simple office machine and reception duties.

Secretaries are trained in tertiary institutions especially in polytechnics. Considering the special nature of secretarial courses, peculiar instrument or equipment are normally used in secretarial training. Lack of exposure to these special equipment makes a graduate of secretarial studies uncomfortable and unprepared to face squarely the challenges of the job and office automation as a result of technological advancement.

Osuala (1999) agrees that a secretary has to grow with technology in order not to be displaced from the job. For secretaries job to be more efficiently and effectively done, government tertiary institutions should be training and developing their secretaries with the machine, like computer, word processor etc to enable their secretaries fit into the modern office. But the remains that most of the government tertiary institutions today lack some of the equipment needed in training and developing secretaries.

Adeyonye (1990) said that ‘many government institutions no doubt consider the question of insufficient fund to be the main bottle-neck in training and developing secretaries’. Finance is of course, utterly important to success in business. Some tertiary institutions find it difficult to train their secretaries due to lack of fund. Another problem inherent in training and development of a secretary is in non-promotion of the secretary after undergoing an advancement training in secretarial duties.

Osuala, (1999) agrees that the constraints to the training and development of a secretary became alarming and worrisome, with the depression in the Nigerian economy. Before the oil glut, the constraints were passable, but since then, petroleum was no longer attracting the anticipated revenue, the country’s external reserve became depleted, the local currency was devalued to an insignificant position, unemployment became pronounced with major reductions in social spending. Training and development of a secretary was not spared.

Appraisal at the adequate time also frustrated secretarial training and development. Management fail to see the job of a secretary as the center wheel that turn any organization and that is the reason, some tertiary institutions especially the institute of management and technology, Enugu, finds it difficult to sent them on training.

This research therefore is designed to set out as concisely as possible, the problems inherent in training and development of a secretary in tertiary institutions especially in the Institution of Management and Technology, Enugu, in a depressed economy.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1. What are the problems inherent in the training and development of a secretary?

2. What are the management problems inherent in the course of training and development of their secretary?

3. What are the effects of untrained secretaries in tertiary institutions?

4. What are the efforts made by management to eradicate such problems?

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

In the course of this research, the following terms are frequently used and will be defined here, so as to help the reader to better appreciate and understand the relevance of this research work.

SECRETARY: An executive assistant who possesses a mastery of skills, who demonstrates the ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision; who exercise initiative and judgement and who makes decisions within the scope of assigned authority.

TRAINING: It is the systematic process of altering the behaviour of an employee to increase organizational goals.

DEVELOPMENT: This deals with the activities undertaken to expose an employee to perform additional duties and assume position of importance in the organizational hierarchy.

DEPRESSED ECONOMY: This is when the economy is not functioning at full capacity, that is, there is absence of balance between income, savings, investment and output.

OFFICE EQUIPMENT: These equipment generally refer to all relevant and vital equipment used in business offices towards efficiency of its operation. Summarily, it includes all labour saving devices commonly used in an office, which goes by various identity, like office appliance, office machines etc.

LITERATURE REVIEW

The area of the problems inherent in training and development of a secretary seems to be an intensive ground for researchers as proved by the volume of literature written on it. Based on this, this chapter, will endeavour to x-ray some of the researches that has been conduced on the subject.

For a smooth write up and clear understanding, the review had to be broken into the following headings:

2.1 The concept of training and development of a secretary.

2.2 Training and organizational objectives

2.3 Approaches to training programmes

2.4 Problem inherent in training and development of a secretary

2.5 Effects of untrained secretaries in tertiary institutions

2.6 Nigeria depressed economy

2.7 Efforts to eliminate the problems

2.8 Summary of literature review

2.1 THE CONCEPT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF A SECRETARY

The view expressed by various authors on the meaning of training and development of a secretary portrays the secretary as the life wire of any organization. Stable employment condition is good evidence of intelligent secretarial training and development. While training employees, they are also developed. In other words, there exists a subtle difference between training a secretary and developing a secretary. However, both concepts play complimentary role in enhancing secretary’s job performance and on other hand contributes to the growth of the organization.

Nwachukwu (1988) defines training a secretary as an organizational basic skills required for the effective execution of the function for which he was hired. He saw developing a secretary as, those activities, duties and assumed positions of importance in the organizational hierarchy.

Based on the above definitions, it is easy to identify the difference between training and development. While training exposes employee to skills necessary for effective job performance, development on the other hand goes further to expose an employee to move challenging tasks.

According to Kennehill (1980) training is the overall process whereby individual behaviour is modified to conform to a predefined and specific pattern. This definition implies that training is a means of providing individual with new sets of attitudes that are consistent with some stated goals. In concert with Kennehills definition. Odiorn (1985), opined that training should be charged behaviour. If it does not have the quality to understand, has a boss who conflicts with the training behaviour proposed, or has subordinates who determines that such proposed behaviour would work or be suitable in the environment.

McGhie and Thayer (1989) emphasized that training encompasses activities ranging from the development of a complex knowledge. Inculcation if elaborated administrative skills and the development of attitude towards intricate and controversial social issues.

Kellog (1990) define developing of a secretary as, change in the person (favourable change) that permits him to junction more effectively. He went further to say that the result of development is that the employee possesses new knowledge in a way, or has an increased interest in applying what he knows.

Based on the above definitions one can say that both training and development result in creating a change in an individual. There are similarities between training and development because both concepts are aimed at creating a favourable change in the life of individuals. However, the frontiers of development extend further to measure how effectively the favourable chance in behaviour has improved secretaries performance.

Kalt et al (1985), defined training of secretaries as a systematic way of altering behaviour to prepare a secretary’s performance on the present job and developing a secretary as a process of preparing a secretary for a broader role in the company. These authors perceive training as a job related experiences because it is used to develop mental or manual skill to increase knowledge and to change attitudes and development as person oriented because it focuses on improving the conceptual skills in complex instructural situations.

Following the above definitions, it is obvious that some differences exist between training and development.

Koontz and O’Donnel (1990), made this difference more discernable by saying that learning about skills take place in training situation, these in the classroom in conference or in a working experience while development takes place through actual job performance. However, secretarial training and development compliments each other in an organization question to evolve qualified secretaries.

Training and development of a secretary is aimed at bridging the gap between secretary expected and actual performance. This is because the quality / quantity of performance of a secretary determines the success of business.

According to Ezeife (1981), a million naira machine could be ruined because we have failed to spend N500.00 to train someone to handle the machine correctly.

Let us cry out and shout that whenever plans are being made to purchase machines, equipment and materials, secretarial development plans for the successful operation and maintenance of such machine and equipment must be made pari passu.

The reason why it is necessary to train was vividly stressed by Manfield and Matthew (1985), that good administrators and not necessarily born, they may be developed through training. It transcends the need to identify specific tiers in an effort to provide a more useful way of looking at an administrative process. By helping to identify of responsibility, it may prove useful in the selection, the training and the promotion of executives.

Training a secretary is said to be the process of increasing the knowledge, skill and capacity of the secretary in a society. It can be developed on-the-job, through systematic or informal training programmes, in employing institution in adult education programme, membership in various political, social, religious and culture group etc.

From the above statement, it can be seen that people can shape their talents through training, thereby fitting into the organization.

2.2 TRAINING AND ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES

Success and failure of an organization depends of the effectiveness of its human resources or workforce in their work. Organizations objectives, skills, satisfaction and enthusiasm of the employees influences the effectiveness of manpower development especially secretaries. According to Adeniyi (1985), the main objectives of training programmes is the expose participants to the ideas and tools that would enable them attain better perception of the development problems of the organization and how to tackle the problems. In another development, Light (1981) point out that the sole objectives of all industrial training programmes is to prepare people to do efficiently in their own particular task or to do another equally well.

Based on this, it means that the objectives of training is specifically to bridge the gap between existing performance ability and desired performance. Training is a continuous process and entails much expenditure, it is equally necessary that a training programme and policy should be prepared with care.

2.3 APPROACHES TO TRAINING PROGRAMME

According to Pigors and Meyers (1981), if the secretaries haven’t learnt the instructor hasn’t taught. They stated four steps in training programme which include:-

1. Get a timetable: The time table would be determined by the amount of skill expected by the employer that employee should have. It enables the trainee and instructor on the goals to aim at.

2. Breakdown the job: Find the job description and analysis, the sequence of operations, required quality, health and safety precautions etc. All these help in motivating and increasing the employer’s performance if it is properly implemented.

3. Get everything ready: Here the employer should try and make sure that the right equipment, materials and personnel are ready so that when actual training begins, it will avoid delay.

4. Have a conclusive work place that is arranged in on-the-job training. The work place should be arranged in such a way that would enable the trainee to have a clear, view of the trainer in order to understand the job.

Also in other training arena, this would effectively improve the training standard and success of the programme. On the other hand, Mamoria (1982), identified six steps in training programme. These are

1. Discovering the training needs

2. Getting ready for the job

3. Preparation of operation and knowledge;

4. Preparation of the learner;

5. Performance tryout;

6. Follow-up and evaluation;

2.4 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF A SECRETARY

1. Lack of Equipment: In a recent research by Abanibe et al (1996) it was found out that the inability of some secretaries in some tertiary institutions to perform up to the marginal level was due to lack of equipment for their training and development. In the institutions where the research was conducted, 85% of the departments were of the opinion that secretaries would performance efficiently if provided with adequate equipment during their training. It was also discovered that secretaries desire practical training with the new equipment than basing on theoretically oriented training.

It was agreed that inadequate provisions of equipment for their training and development were responsible for the low-level performance of secretaries in the institutions.

2. Lack of funds: The organizations cannot survive or carryout their training and developing secretaries efficiently and effectively without the provision of adequate financial resources. Funds is needed to pay secretaries, maintain the organizational facilities and infrastructures, provide training and development and keep the training programmes going. This supports the general notion that training programme is an expensive venture and consequently requires sustainable inputs from all tiars of government and charitable agencies for a successful implementation of its programmes according to Nukpa (1989) has suggested

“that beings which yields economic and social benefits, or to the society as a whole. It contributes to a nation’s future wealth and development by increasing the productive and consumptive capacity of the citizens”.

Inadequate funding of the secretaries trainee has become very enormous and endemic that recent literature on organizational finance, emphasis is placed on the distribution of organizational resources in such a way as to maximize the objectives set aside for the organization. In the opinion of Oguntoyo (1988), “if organization is to maximally achieve goals and an improvement in social and political attitudes, their financing policies should be agreed towards these goals. In a related work, Geske (1983) deposes that investment policy in the organization should be based on principles of equity and efficiency at whatever level the decision on the financing is being made. Geske went further to made the distinction between, social, production and organizational efficiency.

According to this view,

Social efficiency relates to economic returns to organizations. This greater social efficiency can be realized by encouraging additional investment in an organizations so long as the return have are greater than what could be obtained from this is applied to allocation of resources within organizations, priority should be given to that level of training secretaries with the highest returns. (Geske 1983).

Fishlow (1983) writing on organizational financing has observed that lack of adequate financial resources for the training and development of a secretary means that functional and lasting organization cannot be provided resulting in half-backed semi-literate secretaries who are neither useful to themselves nor to the organization economically.

In some of the institutions today, there has been an ever increasing problems of where to find the financial resources to take care of the training and development of secretaries.

Some tertiary institutions especially Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu have it clear that they cannot exclusively fund employees training and development. They have therefore solicited inputs from other tiers of government, charitable bodies and philanthropic individuals. As a way of addressing the perennial problem of insufficient funding of training and development of secretaries. The personnel management have had to raise funds from the following sources:

a. Subvention from the government

b. Fees

c. Internally generated revenue

d. Workers taxes should be another source of funding training and development of secretaries

3. Political instability: Today many writers agreed that political instability is one of the greatest problems which secretaries are encountering.

The frequent change of government affects the training and developing of secretaries, in that a secretary may behind to a different party from his / her employer’s party. From this fact, there is a clear indication that misunderstanding must pave way to their interpersonal relationship.

The boss may decide to mal-treat the secretary because of his / her disagreement with the boss’s policy, and may a times cause barrier to the secretarial training and development. If it happen that the boss’s party wins, this may result to total withdrawal of the secretary by the boss or sudden transfer to another state or office as punishment.

It may also likewise, be difficult for an employed secretary to gain employment simple because he / she belongs to a particular political party which opposes the party in power, in which the boss or the employer belongs to.

This however, might create loose of confidence in the secretary and regret for choosing to be a secretary.

4. Professional inequality: There is lack of sense of dignity for human labour as regards conception, assumption and disposition (Nwachukwu 1988). He went further to say that there is lack of care for some tertiary institutions secretaries through abuse of labour in the institutions.

Some working benefits, offer to people in other profession are defined the secretaries such like sending secretaries to training, improving their working conditions, investment on modern machines to free them from using manual typewriters. However, their affects the professional ability of secretaries in performance of their duties.

A secretaries is seen erroneously through as nothing more than a helper of his / her boss. Moreover, a secretary does not attend meetings just to partake in decision making and policy execution rather she attends as a recorder of deliberations, this infact suggests that secretaries are poorly regarded in their profession and this affects their morals in presence of other co-professional bodies in the course of training and development.

5. Inadequate Reward: Inadequate reward to trained secretaries is an economic problem which secretaries have been battling with over the years (Okeke 1999).

This goes to stress the view that the salary paid to trained secretaries is reasonably low and have resulted to poor standard of living which the secretaries are facing.

In conclusion, many authors have elaborated more on these problems of secretaries in some tertiary institutions especially the institute of Management and Technology, Enugu. They have suggested several ways to eradicate these problems yet the problems remained.

With these problem facing secretaries in some tertiary institutions it is very re-assuring that, these problems will not induce interest into the field as many people are looking up for higher earnings to sustain their lives and meet their economic and social demands in other to live to expectation.

These problems will be higher reduced, if the problems are looked into and given a favourable treatment by the government.

2.5 EFFECTS OF UNTRAINED SECRETARIES IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

Onah (1999), sees computer illiteracy as inability to understand the workings of a computer machine. It involves its manipulation by the novice secretary coming across the computer for the first time.

Onuorah (2000), agreed that computer illiteracy has to do with the inability of the modern secretary to make use of a computer machine as an innovation in secretarial administration.

From the foregoing, it does not mean that the modern secretary has no education. The education the modern secretary has, does not include computer education.

Alifo (1995) opined that the absence of computer education on the part of a modern secretary constitutes illiteracy and a handicap to his / her secretarial duties in modern times. For a modern secretary to function effectively in secretarial administration there must be computer literacy.

Chippinger (1987) said that without question, computer has changed our lives, especially the way we do office work. The arrival of the electronic age is permanently changing many office jobs. The implications of Chippinger statement are that office work in modern times requires the absence of computer illiteracy on the modern secretaries.

The implication is that any secretary, who is computer illiterate, may have difficulty in coping with his office work and as such a liability to the office.

Mandell (1985), postulated that using computers, speeds operation reduces mistakes in circulations and give companies efficient cost-effective analysis, that would be nearly impossible with manual operations. Computer illiteracy on the part of any modern secretary becomes a problem to achieving cost-effectiveness and efficiency in company operations.

Manual operations no long fit into any modern office work, resulting in frustration, stagnation on the part of the secretary lacking computer education.

Frienlink (2000), pointed out that the use of computer for decision is increasing. According to him, managers and executives now make use of the computer for budget schedule and general planning. The secretary, who is computer illiterate, will find it difficult to analyze and interpret data, and will be a liability to the manager or executive who uses the sophisticated process available for making projections and decision.

Buffington (1993), in his own view emphasized that lack of computer knowledge in a modern secretary will delay the processing of documents that need to be revised and no improvement in documents and an increase in the time needed to produce the finished documents.

Harper (1980), stated that with the lack of computer literacy secretary cannot input and store the variables to be merged and the computer equipment cannot produce hundreds of letters, while the secretary is doing something else. The implications is that the secretary who has computer literacy will achieve this fact without much difficulty.

Foster (1990), in his own opinion, stated that the compute equipment has automatic features which enables the secretary to set up statistical data in formal reports with ease. A secretary who lacks computer education may not find it easy with manual operations. Manual operation in modern office work is no longer acceptable to modern managers and executive of business.

Thus, secretaries have become more of an information source in the office due to the computer literacy. For example, instead of just taking minutes of meeting, secretaries use information aid inputs. As a result, they can be involved in everything from purchasing decisions, to company task forces and committees.

So, the implication is that secretary who is computer illiterate may have difficulty in coping with his / her office work and as such, a liability to the office.

2.6 NIGERIA’S DEPRESSED ECONOMY

The fact that our economy is depressed is no longer a news. It has all the trappings of the world’s depressed economy 1929 / 30 which forced many governments to take step to control and regulate economic activities so as to prevent, or at least critically reduce gyrations in economic booms and slumps.

John Maynard Keynes book – the general theory of employment, interest and money, provided an impetus in the pursuit of the solutions to the depressed economy (Udenta, 1991).

In Nigeria’s own case, the signal was first indicated by the late elder statesman – Chief Obafemi Awolowo when he alerted the nation in early 1981 that the nation’s economic ship was heading towards the rock. As at then per capital income was 2,500 U. S. dollars. It came down to $800 in 1993 and today it is estimated at less than $300. Estimates also have it that over 80 million Nigerians live below the poverty time. The exchange rate of our naira to one dollar is above N80 today while it was above N2 before the termination of Alhaji Shehu Shagari’s regime. (The leader Newspaper August 3, 1988). Commenting on the relationship between training and development and our depressed economy, the director of investigation of Public complaints commission Mrs. M. N. Durojaiyi stated that even tough lack of adequate fund for training adversely affects training programmes it does not mean that such programmes have to be completely scrapped, rather, efforts are made towards making the programmes to reflect the state of the economy as way to effectively meeting the challenges of the hard time. Necessity, she is the mother of invent.

2.7 EFFORTS TO ELIMINATE THE PROBLEMS

Many tertiary institutions and organization in Nigeria today are making genuine efforts to eliminate the problem inherent in the training of a modern secretary today.

The Institute of Management of Technology, Enugu, for instance most of the secretaries in their employment have been given the opportunity by management to be trained by the institute. Much of the financial burden involved in the training, have been taken over by the institute. This is commendable efforts in eliminating the problem of training modern secretaries.

Polytechnics in Nigeria through the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) have been emphasizing technological education in the training of manpower for the country. In this direction, most polytechnics including the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu have various programme for the training of modern secretaries. Such programme include, secretarial administration, computer science programme.

Also, the federal and various state governments have been emphasizing the need for computer education in every sector of the economy. Thus no doubt is an effort towards encouraging the secretary to see the need for updating knowledge in secretarial administration. Secretaries cannot function effectively without exposure to these training.

Computer houses are available in most urban towns where secretaries can register and altered lectures for upgrading their knowledge. Some of the house charge fees that could be affordable to any person interested. This is an effort in eliminating such problem inherent in the training and development of a modern secretary in Nigeria today.

2.8 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

Organizations in human societies are established with a view to achieving specific and set goals which ultimately lead to the growth, development and general well-being of members of the organization on one hand and the society at large. Organizations consequently evolve either as private or public organizations depending on the thrust of their board objectives. Many factors are considered critical in the realization of organizational goals and objectives. These factors are categorized broadly as ‘human and material components’ of an organization. Under human component is fund the manpower resources, which includes the secretary.

Information which is also cardinal to the effectiveness of an organization rivets around the secretary whose duty includes in the opinion of Austin (1988) the acquisition of the basic secretarial skills of typing and shorthand plus enough knowledge and practical experience in office work to be able to cope with filing, simple office machine and reception duties. For the achievement of the above requisites, he needs to undergo training and development not just before assuming office but also intermittently to keep pace with ever changing science and technology.

Kennchil (1970:161) observes that training is the overall process where individual behaviours is modified to conform to a predefined and specific pattern which implies that training provides individuals with new sets of attitude that are consistent with some stated goals. Training therefore bridges the gap between existing performance ability and desired performance.

Prior to the advent of depression in most world economics, training and development especially that of secretarial staff was regularly organized to the benefit of recipients but since the period of depression, the picture has changed drastically with noticeable ants in social spindling which has adversely affected the availability of funds for training and development programmes. Besides the death of funds there is also the problem of lack of equipment; political instability coupled with professional inequality. The myriad’s of problems is epitomized in the inability of employers to adequately reward the secretaries through enviable and attractive remunerations, prompt promotions and other forms of enhancement.

The formular here under will be used X x 100

N 1

Where X = frequency of outcomes

n = total number of respondents

100 = percentage figure

1 = constant figure

4.0 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

This chapter deals with analysis of data collected. Several items in the questionnaire were gathered together to show a clear indication of the data analysis.

The table below show how they responded in the questionnaire.

Question one: What are the problems secretaries, encountered in their training and development?

Show how frequently secretaries are sent on in-service training.

A great number of people 150 respondents that filled the questionnaire supported that adequate training programmes can correct the imbalance between secretaries as professionals and other professionals as against none for negative.

SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS/ RESULT

From the analysis of the data collected, it reveals the followings:

1. The problems inherent in the training and development of secretaries are as follows;-

a. The Institute of Management and Technology do not sent many of their secretaries on training.

b. The institute training programmes atimes are not reflective to the job of the secretaries.

c. Training programmes of the institutions do not equip the secretaries with enough skills to do their job.

d. The institutions do not offer adequate training materials and financial resources to enable their secretaries to undertake their training and development.

e. The training instructors are not adequate in number for meaningful training programmes.

f. The training instruction rate are uninteresting.

g. The cost of training materials of the secretaries are too high.

h. The institute does not attach importance to the training and development of secretaries.

i. Although, the institution do consider secretaries as critical in the realization of their objective.

2. The management problems in training and development of secretaries are;

a. The management are not providing the necessary working equipment for secretaries to ensure their efficiency.

b. The management lacks the manpower and expertise to offer in-house and on-the-job training programmes for secretaries.

c. Lack of funds make it difficult for management to adequately provide training programmes for secretaries.

d. Obsolete equipment and instructional materials found in the institutions makes it difficult for management to undertake meaningful training programmes for secretaries.

e. The management has a low perception of secretarial training and development.

f. Unsteady policy environment / political instability militates against the efforts of management.

3. The effects of untrained secretaries in tertiary institutions are:-

a. Some secretaries are untrained because of their low educational qualifications.

b. Again, the untrained secretaries are inefficient and ineffective because of lack of necessary skill to do their job.

c. Some secretaries have low public esteem and personal pride because of lack of adequate training.

d. The institution do not have good information storage, dissemination and communication because of the untrained secretaries.

e. The problems of professional inequality is as a result of untrained secretaries.

4. The efforts the management have made to eliminate these problems are:-

a. Provision of modern equipment for secretaries.

b. Adequate training programmes can correct the imbalance between secretaries and others.

c. Adequate remuneration and rewards can boost the morale of the secretaries.

5.0 DISCUSSIONS OF FINDINGS / RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

5.1 Discussion of Findings

From the presentation and analysis of data in the previous chapter, the followings were observed

1. That secretaries of the tertiary institu5tions are not performing well is as a result of non-training programme. A reasonable percentage of the respondents agreed that their job performance could be improved beyond its present level and that could be achieved through training.

2. That secretaries even when they are sent on training, the training programmes are hardly effective of their job need. And the cause problems to secretaries after training. Training secretaries in their line of profession will do more good than harm.

3. About 100% of the respondents in table V confirmed that financial resources and training materials are also the problems secretaries encounter. Secretaries are not adequately equip with modern technological equipment during their training and development. Provision of finance and materials will improve secretarial training programmes.

4. Secretaries also complained of insufficient number of instructors during training and development majority of the secretaries said that the trainees are not enough and therefore hinders them from knowing all that they supposed to know in their profession.

5. it was observed that management in table IX and X does not attach importance to training and development of their secretaries. Again, the management have low regard on their secretaries and this therefore, makes them not to attach importance in sending secretaries on training.

6. That the management does not provide necessary working equipment for secretaries to achieve efficiency majority of the respondents agreed that some of the problems secretaries encounter are caused by the management because without sufficient working equipment, secretaries cannot undertake their training programmes very well.

7. Also identified as some of the factors hindering management from providing training and development programmes for secretaries are policy instability and unsteady policy environment. These problems affect secretaries in their training programmes in the institutions.

8. The effect of the untrained secretaries in the institutions are as a result of low educational qualifications. Some secretaries in tertiary institutions are not trained because they are not qualified.

9. Majority of the respondents in table XIX, about 87% confirmed that due to lack of training and development, some secretaries have low public esteem and this handicap blocks information flow. Also secretaries do encounter professional inequality problems due to lack of educational advancement.

10. The poor condition of secretaries can however be ameliorated by the management of the institutions by the provision of modern working equipment, regulate and adequate training and development programmes, and adequate reward remunerations.

5.2 CONCLUSION

It can be concluded from the findings that secretaries have a lot of problems facing them, thus ranges from, lack of adequate training programmes, lack of modern working equipment, poor reward, poor working condition.

It can also be seen that low social status of secretaries make them leave their profession, for other recognized progressions.

The secretaries are found not to be working with the best equipment.

From the findings, however, it can be detect that policy instability and professional inequality impose a heavy threat on secretaries. The management of this institution must look into these problems and improve the conditions.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

1. All tertiary institutions involved in the training of secretaries should develop an effective method of identifying secretaries training needs. Secretaries should be encouraged to suggest their training needs to the authorities or their immediate superiors.

2. The funds allocated to secretarial training should be reviewed upwards. The training funds should be properly managed.

3. The management should adopt a defined training policy that should state the objectives of the training programme.

4. The management should show interest in secretaries and provide adequate modern equipment for their training and development.

5. Finally, the management should give their secretaries regard as other professions for they have the same advanced education and training.

5.4 AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

Since the study examined only one tertiary institution in Enugu, i.e. Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu. It is suggested that similar institutions establishments should be studied in order to know the extent they have embraced secretarial training and development in a Depressed Economy.

5.5 LIMITATIONS

This research work being limited to Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, owing to some militating factors encountered by the research such as:

1. Time Constraint: The time under which this work is short and as such, time for submission is quite short therefore, time is not in the favour of the researcher.

2. Respondents Attitude: The un-cooperative attitude of respondents was another problem encountered by the researcher, some of them showed initial resistance before accepting and completing the questionnaire.

3. Finance: Due to the prevailing economic situation of Nigeria, the researcher faces some financial problem in carrying out the research work.

QUESTIONNAIRE

Please tick good sign in brackets provided for answers.

Sex: Male [ ] Female [ ]

Marital status: Single [ ]

Married [ ]

Age: 20 – 30 years [ ]

31 – 40 years [ ]

41 – 50 years [ ]

51 – 60 years [ ]

i. What is your Highest Educational Qualification?

Bsc/HND [ ]

OND [ ]

WASC/GCE/RSA/PITMANS CERTIFICATE [ ]

FSLC [ ]

OTHERS [ ]

ii. What is your cadre?

Junior staff cadre [ ]

Senior staff cadre [ ]

iii. How frequently are secretaries sent on in – service training?

Regularly [ ]

Once in a while [ ]

Never [ ]

iv. Are the training programme reflective of your job needs?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

v. Did the Training programmes equip you with enough skills to do your job?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

vi. Were you offered adequate training materials and financial resources to enable you undertake the training?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

vii. Do you consider the training instructors adequate in number for meaningful training programme?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

viii. How do you rate the instructor in the training programme?

Resourceful [ ]

Dry [ ]

Uninteresting [ ]

ix. Course / Training materials are cheap and affordable

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

x. Do you think that the management of your organization attaches importance to the training and development of secretaries?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xi. Does the management of your organization consider secretaries as critical in the realization of the objectives of the organization?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xii. Does the management provide the necessary equipment for secretaries in order that they may be efficient in their jobs?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xiii. Does lack of funds make it difficult for management to adequately provide training programmes for secretaries?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xiv. Does management lack the manpower and expertise to offer in-house and on-the-job training programmes for secretaries?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xv. Obsolete equipment and instructional materials found in many job organizations make it difficult for management to undertake meaningful training programmes for secretaries?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xvi. Management has a low perception of secretaries.

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xvii. Unsteady policy environment / political instability militates against the effort of management to grant training programmes for secretaries.

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xviii. Many secretaries in the institutions have low educational qualification.

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xix. Many secretaries have been found inefficient and ineffective because of lack of necessary skills to % their jobs?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xx. Many secretaries have low pubic esteem and personal pride because of lack of adequate training?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xxi. The institutions do not have good information storage, dissemination and communication because of the low training and development of secretaries?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xxii. There is professional inequality between secretaries in the tertiary institutions and other professionals as a result of inadequacy of training?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xxiii. Provision of modern equipment for the use of secretaries can enhance their training and professionalism/

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xxiv. Adequate training programme can correct the imbalance between secretaries as professionals and other professional?

Yes [ ]

No [ ]

xxv. Adequate remunerations and rewards can go a long to boost the morale of secretaries and make them optimum contributions?

Training And Development Of A Secretary Problems In A Depressed Economy: A Case Study Of Institute Of Management And Technology (I.M.T.) Enugu

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Comments

  1. Good project

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