Top And Subsoil Productivity Of Forestland Municipal Waste Dumpsite Of Abakaliki, Nigeria

Top And Subsoil Productivity Of Forestland Municipal Waste Dumpsite Of Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria

Top And Subsoil Productivity Of Forestland Municipal Waste Dumpsite Of Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria

A major reason for the high rate of soil degradation on most tropical soil is the reduction in their organic matter content following intensive mechanized agriculture, thus resulting to low soil productivity.

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The reduction may manifest as soil constraints like loss of plant nutrients and storage capability for plant available water (Williams et al, 1990).

In the tropics, erosion is pervasive and constitutes one of the major means of soil degradation. The loss of plants nutrients has resulted to decline in crop yield.

Lal (1981) and Mbagwu et al. (1992) observed the removal of surface soil resulted to both decreased moisture retention and available water capacity. Lal (1976c) reported that yield decreased as depth of soil eroded increased. Mbagwu et al, (1984a) also noted corresponding yield reduction of maize associated with nutrient decreased on acrisol and luvisol.

Replacing topsoil in an effective technique to restore productivity in degraded soil (Heilman 1983, 1990; Halvason et al, 1986). The benefit of topsoil conservation and replacement are related mostly to the higher soil organic matter level present in topsoil relative to subsoil’s and the beneficial effect of the soil organic matter on physical, chemical and biological conditions.

Compared to subsoil materials, topsoil’s usually have high aggregate stability (Itami and Kyuma 1995).

The objective of this study was to compared the top and subsoil productivity of forested and municipal waste dumpsite in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria.

The specific Objectives include to:

1. Determine the effect of forest municipal waste dumpsite on topsoil and subsoil on chemical properties.

2. Determine the effect of top and subsoil forested and municipal waste dumpsite on maize growth, shoot and root dry matter yield.

Literature Review

Top soil and subsoil and its effect on soil productivity

In forest soil top soil is operationally defined as the upper layer of the soil where most of the roots are located, with or without the forest floor. This definition recognized the forest floor layer has distinct characteristics and function compared to mineral soils, but that separating forest floors from mineral soil horizon is not usually practical using heaving equipment (Ballard et al, 1980).

Plant production depends on topsoil. Organic materials enhance the retention and storage of water and improves the texture of the topsoil. A soft friable soil allows penetration of air and water into the zones and supports large population of beneficial soil organism. In-organic mineral nutrients are also utilized by plant.

Mineralization or organic matter occurs through combustion, the basis of “Slash and burn agriculture” or through microbial transformation (NAS, 1981).

The loose, open structure of productive forest soil often depends on the presence of soil organic matter (Hudson 1994), but soil texture of soil organic matter (Hudson 1994), but soil texture also plays a role in top soil derived form medium-and fine textured parent material. In many parts of British Columbia, Soil development has resulted in natural topsoil and contain less clay than subsurface layer (Lavkulich and Valentine, 1978), and thus have inherently more stable macrospores.

Nutrient pool and recycling are also enhanced by the presence of topsoil. For coal spoil in Washington, nutrient content of replaced topsoil was more than twice as high as for subsoil, even though the level of topsoil were still well bellow those in undisturbed forest (Heilman 1990). Topsoil also act as a Seedbank, which is often an important resources for revegatation with native species (Young, 1990),but which also affect, the need for subsequent treatments to control weeds and vegetation competing with crop tree (Heilman 1990).

According to Young (1990), seeds are concentrated in the thin, organic-rich surface layer of soil. Ferish (1990) showed that seedling emergence of Loblolly Pine grown in topsoil and subsoil, was similar but that subsequent survival and early growth of roots and shoot was significantly higher for trees growing in the top soil.

Soil organic matter and nutrient level were substantially lower for the subsoil. The growth responses was attributed to soil and plant nutrient status in this case, but the effort of low organic matter levels on soil physical properties affecting aeration and root penetration were not evaluated, and may have been significant.

Le Van Lanh (1990), identified ecological imbalance due to lack of soil penetration, and he suggested that added organic matter can help in amending such land. He noted that ecological imbalance occurs due to squandering forest resources through deforestation, by clearing forest for land reclamation and over exploiting them for timber, fire wood, industrial raw materials, practicing shifting cultivation with insufficient fallow period; mono cultivation of annual crops on slopping land, farming extensively, and over grazing. These imbalances can be amended by adding organic matter into the soil. He maintained that organic matter should be added to soil to increase water-holding capacity of the soil.

Using nutrient-rich byproducts, such as sewage sludge, urban refuse, paper mill biological waste, and manure nutrient status is well documented. For many of these materials, composting before applying helped to control detrimental side effects, such as the introduction of plant pathogens, weeds, phytotoxic substances, or odor (MC Nab and Berry, 1985; Simpson 1985).

Kranabetter and Bulmer (1995), showed that nutrient-rich residues improve soil conditions and tree growth.

Organic Matter and Its Effect on Soil Productivity

Organic mater consists of a whole series of products which ranges from undecayed plant and animal tissue through ephemeral products of decomposition to fairly stable brown to black material bearing no trace of the anatomical structure from which it was derived. It is the litter material that is normally defined as humus (Alan, 1988).

The beneficial effect of soil organic matter on soil productivity was generally recognized. This relationship was ascribed to the role of soil organic matter in supplying plant nutrients, enhancing cation exchange capacity, improving soil aggregation and hence water retention, and supporting soil biological activity. Although the favourable influence of soil organic matter was widely proclaimed it effects (Dudal et al, 1991).

Processes of decomposition and the effect of organic matter on productivity vary in these two soils (Dual and Deckers, 1991).

Many workers have reported the importance of organic manure in sustainable crop production. Agboola (1982) reported that organic matter is the key to soil fertility and productivity. Addition of organic mulch to soil surface encourages earthworm activity, which leads to production of burrows and other biopores which in turn increased infiltration of water and decreased runoff. Granulation an aggregate stability were encouraged especially by the non-humic substances produced during decomposition.

The humic fraction helps reduced plasticity, cohesion and stickiness of clayed soil making it easier to manipulate, (Brady, 1996). It has been reported that because humus has a cation exchange capacity greater than various types of clay minerals, it generally accounts for 50-90% percent of cation adsorbing power of mineral surface soils, and that humus colloid holds nutrient cation. Potassium, calcium and magnesium are easily in exchangeable form wherein they can be used by plant. The though its cation exchange capacity acid and base functional group, organic matter provides much of pH buffering capacity in soil (Brady, 19960.

Allison (1973) indicated that organic matter stabilizes soil aggregation formed by other physical forces in which case any decrease in organic matter results in the degradation of soil structure. Decrease in organic matter content of soil leads to low infiltration rate, accelerated run off and erosion leading to loss of the natural resources base, reduced soil water retention capacity, increased soil compaction, impeded root development and decline in soil productivity. Paquengent (1975), noted that agricultural waste recycling is of great importance in the world today and maintained that recycled agricultural waste represent valuable resources. He confirmed that adding crop residue along with animal manure increased soil aggregation dramatically. By increasing aggregation the soil would be tilled easily, nutrient and water movement would increase, root penetrates deeper and general soil productivity would increase substantially and the need for tillage would decrease.

Abraham (1984), in his work entitled “understanding soil properties and soil preparation “found that soil amended with organic matter and other crop waste, had the ability to retain water for the use of crops during drought. Such oil would have improved tilth and the ability to hold nutrients in the soil instead of being leached out by rain.

Flang, (1975) pointed out that addition or organic matter to soil increase the biological activity of the soil, improves water holding capacity and crumb formation, protects against erosion and facilitates the spread and penetration of plant root. It has been observed that crop fertilized with organic manure are more resistant to pest than those which have either been given minerals or no organic fertilizer at all.

Scharade (1967) demonstrated that high dose of organic mater applied to the soil increase total pore volume.

Similarly, the incorporation of organic matter plays an important role in the formation and stabilization of soil aggregates (Allison, 1968). The application of organic matter improves physical properties of the soil, especially in the case of heavy soil, as it appears to promote a better soil structure, and reduced the process of erosion (Bause, 1961). Organic wastes must be well mixed with the surface soil to accomplish erosion control

The agronomical potentials of organic waste could also be assessed through the physical observation of crop response and performance on soil due to the amendment material (Parr et al 1986). Crop yield response to additions or organic material is highly variable and is dependent upon soil types, the crop, climatic condition, management system, and type of organic material used. Therefore, yield response is a determining factor in knowing whether a particular waste material is suitable as a soil amendment relative to another waste material (Parr et al 1986). Positive results have been obtained by various authors using organic wastes as soil amendments. Hortenstine and Rothwell (1973) observed an increased yield response of maize with application of waste.

Obi and Ebo (1995) pointed out the effect of organic and inorganic amendment on soil physical properties and maize production in severely degraded sandy soil in South Eastern Nigeria.

Agbim (1981) reported that increasing rates of cassava peel as an organic matter in the soil, increases maize yield for 29% to 24% of the control. Recycling of organic residue, to the poorly buffered and depleted soil, continuously can be good alternative to the use of organic fertilizer maintaining the productivity of the soil particularly if organic residues rich in nutrients are recycled. Tanka (1978) observed that recycling waste helps to maintain soil nitrogen at very high level.

Top And Subsoil Productivity Of Forestland Municipal Waste Dumpsite Of Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to

GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183

Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.  

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