In this section, literature related to the subject matter were reviewed. For effective coverage, the literature reviewed are grouped and discussed under the following sub-headings:

– Teacher’s attitude towards the teaching of business studies.

– Students attitudes towards the teaching of business studies.

– Attitude of government towards the teaching of business studies.

– Societal attitudinal values concerning the teaching of business studies.

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A number of research have been conducted to find out other sources of job satisfaction among teaches and their attitude in teaching business studies. Such researchers in teaching business studies. Such researchers include that of Malaughin (1990). They investigated teachers’ job satisfaction among 445 secondary schools teachers in California. Teachers were asked to list all items of satisfaction which they consider that will help as aids in performing their daily taks for secondary school teachers they were as follows:

a. Regular and good salary.

b. Positive student attitude towards learning.

c. Adequate visual and teaching aids.

Ruel and Wisenian (192) also conducted a survey of 290 teachers in the United Kingdom in schools raning from infant schools to further educational establishments. They reported that the main sources of professional satisfaction were:

a. Good teachers’ salaries.

b. Good human relations among staff.

c. Adequacies of school building and equipment.

d. Teacher training.

e. Small classes.

f. Less teachers load.

g. Feeling of adequacy as a teacher.

h. Less time needed and status of the profession of society.

Fom the sources of data listed above, we see that these factors aid teachers’ attitude to work and the outcome will be the positive result.

Coppock (1997:20) also states that “individual satisfaction stems form doing a job well through the exercise of personal capability is inhibited by the present system of education which stresses the importance of analyses, criticism and acquisition of knowledge and generally neglects the formation an solution of problems, doing, making and organising; in fact, constructive and creative activity of all sorts. We consider that there exist in its own right, a culture which is concerned with doing, making and organising this culture emphasised craftsmanship and the making of useful artefacts; the design, manufacturing and marketing of goods and services; specialist occupations with an active mode of work; the creative ad day to day management affair.

The above article shows that people should be trained to be creative. In order to train people, to attain the above objectives. qualified trainees re-echoed: the teachers of business studies should be the main promoters of the business programme, for w ithout theme the programme cannot continue successfully. It is necessary at this point, therefore to draw the attention of the business products to the fact that they owe quite a lot to these teachers.

On he other hand, the writer also feels that I si the place of the business studies teacher to discard all the consciously or unconsciously learned behaviours that are not in the best interest of the programme. He also considered it meaningful to explain further, those things that business studies teacher can contribute through his efficiency towards the development and refreshment of business studies in Cross River State.

The provision made for the method of instructioj in business studies must be relevant to the respective courses being taught. And it is strictly the working o the subject teacher to use a variety of methods as this will tend to increase the interest of the students who ae often exited about new things.


A certain amount has been done on the attitudes of school children towards school subjects, and the result of such studies have revealed that there is a complex and their achievement in school.

According to O’Connely (1997:104), a teacher who encourages his class children with such remarks as “I expect better work from you, Daniel, “and “ This is what I would expect from you Susan” is unconsciously encouraging them, which indices them (the children) to develop favourable attitude towards the teacher’s subjects O’Connell further says that pupils thinking for school conditions their attitude towards certain school subjects.

Tenebaum (1998), discovered that a learner’s attitude, as expressed in the way he feels and thinks, he likes and dislikes – are a matter of concern to educators. Such learner’s attitudes are perhaps more important than the actual amount of mastery of subject matter. However, Tenebaum expresses his regret by saying that school systems have paid minor attention to the attitudes and emotions which inevitably arise as simultaneous products of the teaching process.

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According to Burnham (1999/2000), the condition which makes learning positive is largely a mental attitude of the learner. Horgan (2001: 104), accepts this view as it stresses that desirable attitude of students’ quickens learning, while undesirable ones have a reverse effect.

Bills (2002:54), asserts that pupils with negative attitude towards a subject or teacher, do not lean with the same degree as with pupils with more positive attitudes. He is of the view that the importance a pupil attaches to a subject will determine the amount of efforts he/she will put into studying the subjects.

Tobias and Hamlow (2004:405) are of the view that positive attitudes towards an instructor has the effect of giving the students opportunity to take further course with the same teacher. Conversely, the students with negative attitudes are likely to avoid studying with the teacher in the future.

Puzzled about the student’s attitude towards business studies, Terry (1996:17), wrote;

Favourable attenuating efforts are normally obtained by treating employees as human beings, encouraging their growth desire to excel, recognising work well-done and ensuring fair play.

He assumes that the teacher should show positive attitude through creation of activities of interest in the classroom, encouraging the students, varying their methods and motivating the m generally.


“Teaching the learner, is an enterprise of a great venture and a way of earning a living, it can be done under condition which may leave one at comfortable or irritated situation” conditions of services for teachers include: better salary, allowances, promotion, welfare of teachers another fringe benefits. Nigerian teachers should take teaching as a continuous process from childhood to death.

All teachers will agree that teaching profession is one of the most arduous profession, demanding both intellectual as well as physical stamina. A philosopher once wrote, “there are tow human intentions which may be considered more difficult then any other viz: the art of government an the art of teaching.

Teaching is much than importing information or instruction, interest and ability in a particular subject are not enough, but here is need to match a lively desire to help the students in growing up. In recent times, teaching has fallen short of such qualities, Bah (1999:3), argued that;

Many embraced teaching not for high commerce or love of knowledge but because if more attention is the easiest employment, they can find they shrink, the labour business life.


To put it mildly, Bah, believes that some people get into teaching profession with the hope that teaching is an easy affairs. Although this might sound true, the researcher believes tat such people who still harbour motion are handling professional teaching. There are probably those who just jump into teaching so as to keep the body an soul together for the mean time, such people are ignorant of psychology of a learner and hence should be excused for thinking this. Teaching has been described as one of the human endeavours which requires more wisdoms, more humility, more labour and more dedication.

In a more practical veig, Bah Lee informed that, the proper way of educating the pupils on the true preparation viz, sound judgement, have from the inception been poorly treated as regards to the conditions mentioned above. This poor condition of service tended to abuse the novelty of teaching profession, which is evidenced in that fact that most people who took up teaching appointment have done so because they wanted to make the profession a mere stepping stone to more attractive jobs some who could not have their way out of the profession started to agitate for better conditions of service, this pressure b the teachers of Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT) gave rise for the setting up of Boards of inquiry to look into the issue. Such Boards include: Morgan salary and wages commission in 1993, the Asabia Reported on the Grading of Duty post in voluntary Agency Educational Agency Educational institutions in 1995, Udoji Public Service Review Commission Report of 1998 among the rs. Government did not implement the recommendations fro mall the commissions, however, it implemented that of Udoji Commission and Williams Panel Reports which emphasised on teacher’s salaries and other conditions of service to be improved.

Like members another profession, teachers have never shirked their responsibility to the nation and the public. Teachers have always made their service available in time of crisis ad need and mostly in the education of the youth. But sadly and remarkably, their condition of service has been a matter of controversy.

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According to Fafunwa (2000), Teachers’ salaries had in several cases been reduced, in most cases increment were withheld, and some missionaries imposed levies on their salaries. He further argued that it was indeed levy of this kind which led church of Scotland Mission on Calabar and Greek Town. This which he further confirmed led to teacher’s drifting away from teaching profesion.

In a more practical vein, the Nigerian Chronicle, 11, 12 and 17 November, 2001 reported that teacher’s in Cross River State went on strike because they were not paid their salaries. Udie (2002:5) was in no doubt about this, for as he succinctly puts it that teachers embarked industrial action from 3rd to 26th November to backup their demand payment of their promotion and payment of 2001 leave. The same problem occurred to teachers in Anambra State in 2001.

In view of the various treatment that teachers suffer and in fairness to them.

Ogwe (2002:7) asked the following questions;

What reasons do you have in urging the teachers to put in their best when you bluntly refuse to promote them, pay their salaries and their allowances as at and when due?


Every year, public servants in Rivers stat and in all the other states of the federation go on leave, this issue is made a case in an explosive contest. Their colleagues in other fields got their promotions as at when due, but tachers are fed upt with insincere talks of harmonisation.


The teaching profession has been described as the oldest profession and it ahs the largest number of workers in the world over. It was one of the noblest and highly respected professions. No matter how tiny teachers main grievances affecting their moral were salary, conditions of service, inspectoral system, inhibiting effect of promotion system, or arbitrary system of transfer, lack of prestige and professional recognition.

According to Cogan (2002:208), “Teachers might be poorly educated and incompetent, as charged, but the consequences of these deficiencies are modified by pervasive effects of the esteem in which the teachers had. He further stated that the low esteem reduces teaches motivation, moral and subsequently their effectiveness”. This low esteem accorded to teachers may probably contribute to high rate of drop-out from teaching. Richard (2003) commenting o some poig which suggest that the low prestige which the teaching profession has received arise as a compensation for the sense of inferiority complex, when most of the teachers were adult.

In this research, Foster (1995:276) noted that, “in Ghana over 75% of the teacher Training Colleges, students would rather be doing some wotk other than teaching”. Furthermore, over five hundred and four seconday school students, only 1.1% would like to become secodnay school teaches and 0.4% primary school teachers.

In England, Pierson (1998:172) observed that the low regard in which the teaches were held in fthe first decades of the 19th century is made clear in the following questions from the report of Lord Macaulay’s description of teachers as the refuse of all other callings, discarded Foolun, ruined pedlermen, wo cannot work a sum in the rule.

Pierson (1998:171) reported that teaching will not attract peole of the quality needed unless its prestige is high and individual teachers respected and honounedas important members of the society they belong. He furher concluded that “ in the society they belong, the future of a nation is linked with the status it gives to its teaches, the villages will lso regard them as a small god. The reports of teaches were so great that parents would always want their children to become housemaids to a teacher. In the same quarters, any teache who reurned fro mthe college or university was believed to hae come back from the white man’s country. Some believed that teaches did not visit toilets. This in summary was the conscensus of the public about a teache. But now, the reverse is the case.

Thomas (1999), stated in his survey of Africa, Asia, North and South America that there as a time when the village school master was held in high esteem because he was the best educated, and laos recognised as having superior knowledge. In this vein, people were asked to come to himfor advice. He further remarked that the time seems to have gone, that other professions have taken the lead over teaching in the public regard.

Stanley (1999) nevertheless stressed that teaching has traditionally been an underpaid occupation. He further stressed that, comparatively, the situation is even more true today ahn it was in the recent past. In a recent report, Bah (1999:25) noted that:

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Centuries in the United Kingdom, United States and elsewhere, that teaching position has not received the recognition it to. He also stated that teaching is so standard and deserves. Graduates from Law, Medicine, Engineering, Architecture and sciences to make this profession a honourable one anywhere in the world. A teacher is a teacher whether he had master degree or Ph.D he is still a “mere’ teacher. That in brief is the conclusive opinion of the public about the teachers particularly the businessmen. Seldom (2000:31) commented on the similar point that after the Second World War, American education was confronted with new challenges, that teachers found themselves teaching more and more and enjoying less.

He went on by stating that “there was a big increase in class sizes but salaries did not keep pace with the inflation of the time.

During the study of pilot in New South Wales on teacher’s morals coverage pilot (2001:33,34) observed that, the researcher believes that no matter the public notion or views of the teaching profession on thing is clear and that is, the teaching profession is t oa nation what a pot is to the quality of water it holds, for when the pot is broken, the quantity of water is spilled on the floor. So it is to the nation which cannot hold and sustain the teaching profession.


several studies have relationship with current ones. Sunday (2001) undertook study on the attitudinal and material problems of teaching business studies in secondary schools in Ogoja Local Government Area in Cross River State.

The major instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The population of the study comprises five secondary schools of which 30 students are sampled from each school to sum up to 150

The findings of the research revealed that:

1. Teaches in Ogoja Local Government have negative attitude towards the teaching of business studies.

2. Students in Ogoja Local Government have a negative attitude towards the teaching of business studies.

3. Inadequate resources such as equipments, space, books, library and laboratory militate against the teaching of business studies.

4. Students’ performance is generally poor in business Education in Ogoja Local Government Area.

From what has been reviewed on student’s attitudes, according to Business Education Journal II (1) 14 – 20, has discovered that students attitudes determine the success or failure in a school situation while National Commission for Colleges of Education (1990), noted that in order to achieve efficiency and high academic attainment, the researcher is of the opinion that teachers should imbibe positive attitudes in students through creation of activities of interest in the classroom, encouraging the students varying their methods and motivation of students.

According to Ndinechi (2001), Business Education Journal II (1), 21 – 24, Business Studies teaches were also reviewed that since business studies teachers have great teak to maintain this recognition. For the problem of industrialisation to be silvered, business studies teaches must really work hard in preparing the students for different manipulative skills.


This chapter reviewed the teaching profession as having the largest group of professional workers. Teaching, like any other profession takes time, money patience and perseverance, hardworking, organised planning and above all motivation to bear fruit. The achievement of any nation in terms of manpower depends on a large extent the teaches which are the architects to every nation in education building. From what has been reviewed on students attitudes, the researcher has discovered that students attitudes determine the success or failure in a school situation. These attitudes may be influenced by home conditions, teachers’ attitudes or teachers’ relationship with the students in any particular learning activity. Thus, in order to achieve efficiency and high academic attainment, the researcher is of the opinion that teaches should imbibe positive attitudes in students through creation of activities of interest in the classroom, encouraging the students varying methods and motivating of students.

The various reports on societal views about teaching profession in Calabar municipality has indicated that teaching was one of the noblest and highly respected profession but the reverse is now the case. These negative views about the teaching profession is seen as many teachers leave teaching to other profession as soon as they have the slightest chance of doing so.


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