Economic Effect Of Unemployment In The Nigeria Economy

Economic Effect Of Unemployment In The Nigeria Economy: (A Study Of Igbo Etiti North)

Economic Effect Of Unemployment In The Nigeria Economy: (A Study Of Igbo Etiti North)
1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND OF UNEMPLOYMENT

According to the advanced learner dictionary, Unemployment is defined as the amount of Labour unused. When a factor of production is not doing any job we say it is unemployed. In this project we are concentrating mainly on the Economic effect of unemployment in Nigeria Economy. [Read more…]

Impact Of Effective Management Of Resources In Solving Unemployment Problems In Nigeria

Impact Of Effective Management Of Resources In Solving Unemployment Problems In Nigeria: (A Case Study Of Oji River L.G.A. Enugu)

Impact Of Effective Management Of Resources In Solving Unemployment Problems In Nigeria: (A Case Study Of Oji River L.G.A. Enugu)

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

Much have been said and written about effective management of resources in solving unemployment problem in Nigeria unemployment is a state of workless experienced by persons who as members of the labour forces perceive them selves and are perceived by other capable of work. Then that is why researcher looks for paid employment without success under the prevailing economic circumstance and describes the concepts of management concepts of unemployment problems generated by unemployment and effective management of resources in Oji- Rive Local Government Area of Enugu State Nigeria.

Willaim (1981:3-4) carried out a research he says that management has many definitions as there are managers according to their working experience while the professed of management have defined it from their own perspective. Their own definition seen to be the most matured one as they combine the working sense with the student’s sense. He also breakdown the bias concepts of management. He said that each company or similar body may be quite different from other of the same genus.

Nnenna (2000;13) et al in her own book says that though this may not be a very good area of ex-raying the concepts of management since personnel is a unit of management an attempt will be made here to sight some like.

CONCEPT ONE-MANAGEMENT IS PREVASSIVE: Management cut across organizational and life spheres it is every where and this is the reason it is held responsible for any wrong doing anytime and any where. For instance if cannot manager your home you are a bad manager. These go to confirm that management is everywhere but only remembered when things go wrong

CONCEPT TWO-MANAGEMENT IS CULTURE BOUND: yes am one of the proponents of the polytechnics of the principles of management. However to apply it regardless that culture is like a husbands wife believing that he or she can do it all. You cannot do it all alone. The sight a piggery industry in the Northern part of Nigeria when their culture is against that.

Mamah (1996.23) in this case said that management is treated as decision making tools which embraces the concepts of getting things done through people and other resources. Apart from decision making management entire planning organizing, directing, controlling, communicating, motivating and forecasting. This scientific approach which was first devised.

Taylor in 1985 as was quoted in Mamah (1996;24) the definition of management during the century emanated from the wearies by the proponent on the inefficiency of industries in Europ. The scientific definition of management resulted in industrial revolution of the 19th century with that a lot of management problems in the western work were solved.

Tadaro (1999) he says that substantial unemployment in LDC economic is probably one of the most striking symptoms of their inadequate development and he went on the say that many third world countries today are played by an historically unique combination of massive rural to urban population movements stagnating agriculture productivities and growing urban unemployment and underemployment.

In a wide spectrum of poor countries open unemployment in urban areas no affect 10 to 20 percent of their labour forces the incidence of unemployment in much higher among the young and increasingly more educated in the 15 to 24 years age bracket. The researcher also was of the opinion that even large fractions of both urban and rural labour forces are underemployed that they either have the complementary resources of they are work only part time for increasing their very low income to levels comparable with those in the modern manufacturing commerce and service sectors.

Garraty (1977;82) emphatically stated that of the “economic dangers that threaten is the persistence of unemployment” this he said increases and decrease in unemployment and is commonly throughout to be connected to changes in the level of prices unemployment has always be a complex and elusive phenomenon superficially it seems an uninitiated evil but because if its relationship to trend in the price and consumption of goods and services. Most economics and political leader are prepared deliberately to create unemployment when circumstances warrant people genuinely employed fear unemployment but for many it also has its charms.

Todaro (1977;1999) quoting Robert me Namare president of the world banks said that “ the cities are filling up and urban unemployment steadily grows—- the marginal method wretched strugglers for survival on the fringes of farm and city many already number more than half a billion. By 1980 they will surpass a billion by 1990 two billion can we imagine any human order surviving with so gross a mass of misery pilling up at its base?

PROBLEMS GENERATED BY UNEMPLOYMENT

In 1994 Ukpong remarked that existence of artificial barriers to geographical of labour cultural employment practices localization and truncating of potential along tribal line magnetization of the poor who are excluded from investment opportunities pressure on population and the poor state of social infrastructure.

In 1994 Anyawu went further in discussing how many people are frustrated by their inability to find jobs without jobs change rather actively a large fraction of the labour force in both urban and rural areas lack a sources of income both reliable and adequate for the basic needs of themselves and their dependent and a considerable volume of utilized and under utilized labour abounds in Nigeria which ought to be brought into the employment circle.

The problems generated by unemployment particular in Nigeria can be reduced to a large extent through conscious development of management. What is presented here is a summary of the main issues. The usually adduced factors explaining the observed — are as follows:

1. Planning for human resources use in Nigeria has on quess work (Fajuna 1985) since technology was offered the pride of place. Higher institution where merely encouraged to take some student in science and technological studies (manpower studies No16 143). Actual instrument were not determined and the monitoring was not —– pursued.

2. Even though the rate of expatriates have been slowed since 1982 (seen civil service reports 1983 84) a reasonable percentage of the labour force in Nigeria is skill dominated by foreigners

3. Rational step taken by not management to cope with the recession include bar or recruitment. The practice of natural wastage which involves the refusal to fill vacancies imply that job seekers are directly hit

4. Many private and public institutions however tend to see the NYSC as a means of securing cheap labour they utilize the service of crop member each years but tend not to absolve any substantial number at the end of the service year.

Redding W.J. defined effective management as the extent to which a manager achieves the input requirement of his achieves the input requirement of his position. The objectives of any organization be it profit making or non- profit making is to achieve its goal and growth. To achieve these man and materials must be combined effectively and as efficiently as possible to and produce and provides its product and service at affordable prices to the customers and end user. Also the product(s) and service (s) is expected to create cognitive resources.

Gibson and Vancevich ( 1987 35) in his research study human resources planning involved establishing the size and make up the future work force. This process helps the organization to acquire the right number and kind of people when they are needed. And it is a function of human resources management which “can be defined as the process of accomplishing organizational goals by acquiring retraining terminating developing and properly using the human resources in an organization

In 1987 Donely and Etals so recruitment selection placement and other employment activities of employment division stem form the human resources plans established by managers throughout the organization. This manpower planning it a broad term that includes the forecasting of human resources needs inventory and analysis and recruitment and development of talent to fill the gap.

Pigon (1968:15) gave different meaning of unemployment when he said that “ the volume employment in any occupation over any assigned period can be defined ambiguously as the number of man-hour of work performed during that period”

Moreover, he recognized that the quality of the man at work may vary from time and also the every with which they perform their work from his point of view one can conclude that the number of person unemployed at anytime is equal to the number of personnel who desire employment in the above sense. That is the number of would be wage earners mines the number of persons employed.

Donelly (1987,35) He says that this managerial talent is the worst because they are quite limited in quality so business must look for them diligently and husband and develop the talent that is discover. The importance of human resources planning cannot be over emphasized because “on personnel no organization it is personnel that man organization provision of substantial amount of money by an entrepreneur cannot make things work without engaging works. The continued existence and growth of any organization requires accurate forecasting of the manpower will be needed.

In 1987 Ukeku A.K remarked that it is necessary because charge is imminent. The change could be economic social political and technological. There many be changed in the business plan of the organization “manpower planning seeks to maintain and improve on organization ability to achieve corporate objective by developing strategies which are designed to increase the present and future contribution of manpower”

1987, Appleby R.C in his research study says it is concerned with the future planning of planned and evolutionary organization structure. Human resources planning ensure the optimum use of manpower currently employed and provide for future needs of the organization terms of skill number and gas.

This tends to ensure that at every point in time in the life of the organization the right number of employees with the right level of skill the right jobs as the right time and performing the right activities is maintained in order to fill its purpose or mission.

In 1987 Donelly and others says “unless objectives are regularly accomplish the organization cases to exist (38) so accomplishment of corporate objectives is the key to the existence and growth of any organization.

Wright P. (1931) who is also the world leading writer says that unemployment and is a set back to a nations economic development. That as for as our present knowledge of unemployment and its causes goes we cannot expect to find a single universal remedy so it a set back to a national’s economic development because it has been demonstrated that the defective approach to planning employment targets in Nigeria ‘s development plans needs to be reversed to curb the menace of excess supply of labour forces. A disaggregate rather than gross investment approach is more feasible. A reversal of the uncoordinated trend towards more labour intensive rather than capital intensive approaches might be more desirable .

He went on to emphasis more in saying that this suggestion is open to controversy at the compact of factor intensities on growth of employment is never as clear curt issue as discussed easier. The now moribund labour exchanges should now be resuscitated if only to yield a more reasonable estimates of unemployed person. Suitable are generally looked down upon the society must change its perception amount dirty jobs so that labour of all types could be dignities older workers must be ready to accept a reduction in the retirement age.

Harries J (1972) in his research in a situation of massive unemployment says that the role of the union is more to protect the interested of their members the layout market is segmented in the process. But unions must broaden their arms in such circumstances include social justice. Employers of labour should endeavor to seek in prospective employers a show of competence and industry by means of carefully validated selection instrument and de- emphasis reliance in the influence system. To improve the socio economic conditions of labour market participants voluntary saving and profit sharing scheme participation in manpower planning wages and pricing policies and a review of collective agreement on lay off and hiring practiced during redundancies and general loose labour market situations must be encouraged.

Mcgregor. A in has economic journal says that as at 1978 there is the probability of unemployment duration and re-employment the world. The potential small and medium scale investors lacked knowledge of investment possibilities in LDCS such should be provided. Also the employment implications of tax holidays and tariff protection should be carefully examined and effectively disseminated. Trade unions can also help in creating more jobs by insisting as for as possible on labour intensive projects and minimum mechanization but with insistence on labour efficiently trade union can assist in influencing the pattern of consumption towards more productive ends

In most cases on international trade outward looking policies realistic exchange rate tariff policies and trade restrictions could generate increase exports increase GNP and reduce the unemployment problem.

In offering of the radical to government and its agencies. This indication is because the state and the foregoing institution process must of the to the tools which can be effectively used to curb the problem. These include population control reduction. In the rate of expansion of higher education, removal of exchange rate rigidity.

A research study on the impact of effective manageemnt of resources (A case study of Oji-Rive Local Government Area Enugu) by one of the respondents of the local Government Area in 2005 found out that there are some resources which they would like the federal government to help them to rebuild in order to stop these unemployment problem in Oji River Local Government Area.

Not with standing the above mentioned address consequences of unemployment in the local government that is Oji- River local government as wall as initiatives taken by the federal government or state to ameliorate this

These resources are as follows:

1. School of health

2. Hems biscuit industry

3. Thermal power situations

4. Police collage etc.

And many others which the researcher can not mention.

An article presented by the annual report said that most of these resources which have been mentioned are been closed down because one problem or the other and some are still in existence. And most of them which they have been impactly participated in solving these unemployment problem through effective management of resources.

This establishing school of health in Oji- River is one of the basis access in the society which provides employment service as well as training people . the development of these school will help in providing the masses with skills and know how (or the effective manpower development. When this is done unemployment problem will be completely solved in the most matter of fact the developing native economists have realize the importance of paying attention to the rehabilitation of the Biscuits industry on Oji- River local government area. The target setting of this restructure or rehabilitation would invariably generate revenue to the government and provide employment opportunities to the citizenry within the area.

On the other land the product of the industry would be made affordable to the less privileges in the area. One the side of raw material. Generation some of the operator meant for production are sourced locally thereby given the people a sense of belonging in he marketing of their product .

Incidentally the market ability of local product helps in the fulfillment of the standard of living of the native of Oji- River Local Government Area sequel to these foreseen development the chairman of the Oji River Local Government Council hammered on the need for the assistance of the state government to reactivate to the owner of the HEMS BISCUIT INDUSTRY to the operation of the biscuit industry. The chairman maintained that the reactivation of the industry would yield a carriage success in that both the government and the citizens would benefit from the industry because it help to stop unemployment problem in that local government area Oji River.

Finally the respondent say that if the federal government or the state government should help them to stop these unemployment problem that is to rebuild all these industries schools etc. that it will help her to tackle the problem of unemployment through effective management resources in Oji River Local Government area.

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

In this part of the report an attempt will be made to establish some of the major problem. Area analyze and present how a prospective local government would solve the problem of unemployment with regard to so many factors using the primary and secondary data collected.

In most countries and more especially in Nigeria people are beginning to see the importance of developing the country and the economy form the grass roots that is from local government area. Therefore the effective management resources have been assuming a very importance in most developing nations

SUMMARY OF FINDING

The research topic portrays out belief in the prospects and major role which effective management of resources had played in solving unemployment in Oji River local government area. In fact the topic sis elastic in the sense that it cover so many facts of individual and self employed include both unemployed and self employed people. The finding of what constitute barriers of solving unemployment through effective management of resources in Oji River local government area are:

a. ILLITERACY: Due to the illiteracy level in the local government area people find it very difficult to seek for employment in government owned industries except for mental jobs

b. LACK OF FUND: Fund is another factor that militates against effective management of resources Oji River local government area are associated with this particular problem. They lack financial assistance either from the local state or the federal government to put their establishment on a sound footing

c. LACK OF TRAINED MANPOWER/ PERSONNEL: Manpower has been defined as the capacity of human being. It recites to human being. It relates to the labour forces and incorporates the skill aspect as well.

d. INFRASTRUCTURE DEFICIENCY: Low infrastructure development in the local government area is another factor that has rendered the effective management of resources unworkable many parts of the local government area are yet to have electricity and good access roads to boost effective management of resources in the area.

e. PROBLEM IN MANAGEMENT : This is the major problem faced by resources management and organization where decision making is done by few incapable hands which morally result in the untimely death of these establishment.

CONCLUSION

The center of rural development lives with in the local government level which is geared at freeing the oral man from poverty and the creating of employment to case off economic hardship.

The research is of he opinion that the impact of effective management of resources has not taken its worthy place in solving unemployment problem in Oji River local government area due to the fact that the necessary machinery has not been put in place to achieve this objective

Effective management of resources always face both financial and material problems when involved in unemployment situation. This is as a result of their low capital base getting financial assistance from banks and other financial institution as a proprietor is not always easy because.

1. They do not know the process and procedure involved in securing loans. Due to this fact get frustrated because they cannot meet up with requirements. All these have made unemployment to persist even with all the effort made to bring an end to it

2. Many of them are unaware of the existence of such financial facilities due to the low literacy level of most proprietor and unemployed people they fail to understand the need to seek for financial from banks.

RECOMMENDATION

The objective of every research work or finding is for recommendation to be made. As a result of this the following recommendations are therefore made having stated the finding

1. ENLIGHTENMENT PROGRAMME: This will create awareness among the people in knowing the importance of establishing resources. Government should embark on massive enlightenment programme and advantages associated with the effective management of their scare resources. Since most operation of resources are state illiterates they should be equipped through heavy enlightenment programme with the language they will understand.

2. INFRASTRUCTURE : infrastructure are the basis for rural development and invariably draw the attention of investors to the local areas. Unemployment has persisted due to inadequate infrastructure like water electricity accessible road and other means of communications will encourage people to discourage unemployment in the rural areas. Oji River local government area.

3. TECHNOLOGY: This is another factor that should be looked into since we depend solely on imported technology to develop our already existing a priority to see that the best technology is in place. The government should on the other said promote the development of our indigenous technology to reduce drastically our dependence on foreign ones. If this can be achieved it will invariably sustain the already existing resources.

Finally the researcher believers that this study is not conclusive. The researcher may therefore suggest that further study can be conducted on this topic more especially on the areas involving problem associated with effective management of resources in abide to bringing out further problems area and proffer solutions to them.

QUESTIONNAIRE

INSTRUCTION: You are expected to tick good against the alternative of your choice.

1. To what extent can employment be created.

a. Great extent [√ ]

b. Moderate [ ]

c. Good [ ]

d. Poor [ ]

2. In what way (s) can effective resources be used

a. Yes [ ]

b. No [ ]

3. Effective resources management creates enough employment

a Yes [ √ ]

b. No [ ]

4. Can it create employment opportunities

a Yes [ √ ]

b. No [ ]

5. Any way (s) to improve the mode of operations

a Yes [ √ ]

b. No [ ]

6. Problem faced by the local government

a. Great extent [√ ]

b. Moderate [ ]

c. Good [ ]

d. Poor [ ]

7. Frequency of employment in resources within the Local Government Ares

a Yes [ √ ]

b. No [ ]

8. Present mode of operation

a Yes [ √ ]

b. No [ ]

Impact Of Effective Management Of Resources In Solving Unemployment Problems In Nigeria: (A Case Study Of Oji River L.G.A. Enugu)

Causes And Effects Of Unemployment On Society

Causes And Effects Of Unemployment On Society

Causes And Effects Of Unemployment On Society

The problem of unemployment has remained intractable even in the developed economies of the world namely, U.S.A, Germany, France to mention but these few. Being employed makes one happy. [Read more…]