Social Services Administration – Impact On Rural Women In Nigeria

Social Services Administration – Impact On Rural Women In Nigeria

Social Services Administration – Impact On Rural Women In Nigeria

The rural women are the most deprived and degraded group of people in the country. women were deprived of their opportunities in so many ways like Educational, economic, political, social and cultural issues.

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Educational: In the olden days parents believe that training women In school is a waste of money therefore their education is usually not seen as a tool to prepare them for life rather as being temporal until marriage. That is why male children are given preference over the female counterpart and the quality of education given to women are poor. This involves Educational Imbalance places women at a disadvantage over men and it enhances high rate of illiteracy among women and also limit their employment.

Economically: Women has been suffering under harsh economic as regards to their educational background. Sometimes their educational background cannot fetch them any good job and their economic background cannot give them any good business, most times their husband are in town working in paid employment the women stay back in the village with children since life there is relatively cheaper and less hectic, they rely on their husband for provision due to the lack of access to produce resources. Society dose not enable the women to own land, so what is available to women through their husband may not be sufficient for their needs, and because they do not own land they were deprived of getting loan from the bank because bank doubt their abilities to repay loans and being that they do not own land it is difficult for them to have the document which they can use as collaterals for loans.

Politically: In terms of politics it has been noted that women are pre-empted from leading political roles, Some have also admitted that political parties are Unwilling to field women candidates because of the belief that women are additionally disadvantages by their Unwillingness as mothers within a polygamous society to commit themselves totally to the vagaries of public life with the assurance that their children will be supported.

Socially: Women are accorded less value than men, women are orientated to occupations of low status in the society, women may be secretary but not a director, a nurse but not a doctor though some women have broken this myth, yet they are few in number.

(Asogwa 1998) worse still is where women do similar jobs with men, they receive less than men in rural areas they even work longer, yet earn less, it has also been noted that women suffer double exploitation, that of poor social amenities in rural area and sex discrimination,

(Asogwa 1990) women contribution to development are usually not given adequate recognition as that of men, which are often received with joy and appreciation.

Cultural: However, tradition and culture has made women in Nigeria prone to sex discrimination. It has disallowed women to take decision without their husband consent women also were deprived of owing their husband property when their husband died, traditional beliefs cast a pitiable status on the windows if she refuses to marry her late husband’s brother, she looses everything including land her means of livelihood.

Culturally: It is believed that women ought not to engage themselves with matters of public affairs in the community. They are traditionally separated from men in relation to membership of social organisation in the community such as “Ndiche”, “Ozo” title holders which are the decision making bodies in the community (Onah 1997).

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The rural women has been suffering under harsh economic, Agricultural, legal limitation and traditional belief.

A good number of rural women are petty trader due to lack of enough capital out lay and due to their educational background which cannot fetch them any good job and their economic background which family cannot give them any good business in that process they end up eating from hand to mouth and they equally find it very difficult to feed their family.

In Agriculture for instance more women are found in agriculture in several part of Nigeria. Only few of them have any legal control over the land that they cultivate. Unfortunately too, land use decree made no mention of women in relation to right in lands. Socially contribution to development are usually not given adequate recognition as that of men and the worst of it is that in a process when women do similar job with men, women receive lees than men.

Legal limitation, women suffers when their husbandries. Their husband people well deprive them of their husband properties and their means of livelihood that was why a bill was introduced in order to protect the fundamental right of widows

Traditionally, women are disallowed to take decision without their husband consent; women opinions are regarded as nothing in the family.

The researchers question include:

i. How does women suffer under harsh economy?

ii. Does government going to support rural women petty traders.?

iii. What are the level of resources provided to take care of rural women?

iv. To what extent does emergence of gender association in the ministry affect the provision of social service for the women in Enugu State?

 

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The activities of the rural women are now being recognized and data being kept for future use. This is as a result of the activities of various organisations. The notable ones being the better life for rural women programme and the international fund for Agricultural Developments. These have brought into world glare the plight of the women and are playing supportive roles.

The main objective of the study is:

i. To investigate the impact of the social service administration for the rural women in Nigeria.

ii. To identified the basic amenities necessary for the upliftment of rural women

iii. To suggest various measures required for social upliftment of rural women in Nigeria

iv. To access various commission and agencies that could enable women participate actively in politically, socially and economically.

 

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study would not only be of significance to rural women in Enugu state in particular but to rural women in Nigeria in general experts in public sectors management would benefit from this study as they would use it to update their knowledge on the subject.

 

RESEARCHERS:- They would benefits from the study as it would serves as first hand information to them.

WOMEN:- It will be of significance to women so as to use it to take active part in nation building and eager to learn new ways of improvement.

MINISTRY OF WOMEN AFFAIRS:- This study will also be of significance to the ministry of women affairs Enugu State, as they would use it to improve on their services to women in rural and urban areas.

Members of the public: This study would be of significance to the public to help contribute and support women’s welfare in the state.

 

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The hypothesis for this research work are formulated after thorough and careful review of work, the hypothesis of this work are as follows:

Hi Social service has helped in the enhancement of rural women in our communities.

Ho Social service does not help in the enhancement of rural women in our communities.

Hi The impact of social service administration has provided quality living standard for the women in the rural areas.

Ho The impact of social service administration does not provide quality living standard for the women in the rural areas.

Hi Women developments ministry has created awareness for rural women on matter concerning poverty alleviation.

Ho The Ministry has not created any sorts of awareness for rural women on matters that has to do with poverty alleviation.

 

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study concentrate in defective coverage of rural women and their activities in local areas particularly in Enugu State where the population is mainly rural, also where the income are either very low or difficult to conceptualize in conventional terms. For instance in Nkanu East local government of Enugu State. There is no town, which has lock up stalls as a result of that women carry their wares on daily basis to the market, in that area business is most active on only market days which is only on (Afor) Ugbawaka market these affect those people in the sense that before the next Afor comes up again their perishable goods will be wasted and this hampered their economic empowerment.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Time Constraint: It hinders the researcher from producing a much better research work for instance a research of this nature would have required more time to enable the researcher to be more detailed, the researcher was engaged attending lectures, quiz, assignment and all that, hence there was not time for the researcher to be detailed.

Fund: Fund is another limitation of this work, lack of enough fund to travel out to different places to get required material for this work and also the cost of the computer work and the cost of producing the questionnaire.

The inability of the researcher to meet government officials on seat who should have provided adequate and useful information and the uncooperative attitude of respondent from government officials.

 

1.8 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

What is theory: Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines theory as a set of properly debated ideas intended to explain facts events or a principle on which a subject of study is based, theory is much more than prescription. It seeks primarily to explain and predict the future.

Theory is also a coherent groups of assumption put forth to explain the relationship between two or more observable fact which can be used to provide a sound basis for predicting future events.

There are so many types of theories they include:

i. Political economy theory, which was propounded by karl Marx (1968) the theory refers to a historical or dialectical materialism, Marx asserts that political economy is the study of the sum total of the relations of production, the economic structure of the society.

ii. Ezeani O. E. (2004) the political economy theory emphasizes the centrality of the mode of production of the material life. According to Marx (1968) conditions of the social, political and intellectual life processes in general, the mode of production refers not merely to the state relations between men which resulted form their connections with the process of production. Ezeani quoting Aina (1986:4) opines that this approach emphasized the importance of domination, Exploitation, struggles and conflict between classes in any mode of production, but in this study it was dated to use group theory.

However, Aurthur Bentley group theory was adopted under which the framework would be analysed and based, Bentley who propounded the theory in (1908) define the group theory as a mass of activity rather than a collection of individuals which does not preclude the men who participate in it. From participating like wise in other group activities Bentley equally harped on the relationship between the social system and political behaviour. As he succinctly put it, society is nothing other than the complex of a group that composed it.

Trauman (1964), Conceive of a group as a collection of individual which on the basis of one or more share attitude, make certain claims upon other groups in the society for establishment, maintenance or enhancement of forms of behaviour that are implied the share attitude.

This bring to fruition the belief that it is only by studying the activities of a group that one can clearly have a picture of the working of the society.

It is important to note that the efficiency and effectiveness of the individual and society in participating in the running of the social activities will make them to realize their interest as a group and through this, harmony will be achieved in the society.

The theory is relevant to the study because women came together as a group for their own benefit and that of their community as a whole, they have show a remarkable preference over working as a group in regard to tackling of their economic problems, providing social service and promoting community solidarity.

1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

The following terms have been defined as they relate to the study:

i. Impact:- it is the powerful effect that something has on somebody or something.

ii. Social Service:- Social service is concerned with meeting certain social needs and alleviating certain kinds of social problem which required a general public acceptance of mutual responsibility and which depend for their solution on the organizing of social relationships.

iii. Rural:- Rural communities have small population size and a low population density in ecological terms, Rural communities have no hinter land to speak of such. They are isolated; they consist of rural communities with their peculiar characteristic which include under development and economic backwardness.

iv. Social Administration:- It is a process of bringing community welfare through social change and the implementation of social policy decision for the total welfare of the community.

 

REFERENCES

Jibero K. (1999) Empowerment of Rural Women; Paper delivered in a Workshop

Nwatu, N. (1998) Rural Women and Rural Development, Daily Star, November 20, No 1331.

Nworji O. (1999) Small Scale Enterprises and The Rural Women Paper presented a Seminar Entitled: Assisting the Rural Women Through the Cooperative Societies and Collage Industries.

Olewe B. (1996: 129), Social Welfare Administration and Management Classic Aba; Grace Venture

Slack M. K. (1986), Social Administration and Citizen Pitman Publisher. London

 

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

In this chapter, the researcher would review the related literature in social service administration. The term social is derived from Latin words socialis and socius meaning “Companion” or Associate (Olewe 1996: 93) Social is marked by mutual Intercourse, friendliness enjoyed, taken, spent etc. in company with others, it is living or disposed to live in companies or communities in order to enjoy the society or companionship of their country.

Social Service according to Richard Titmuss (1958) has been defined, as manifestation of society will to survive as an organic whole and of the expressed wish of all people to assist the survival of some people, Folder (1975) has also described the social service as based on collective action and provided for social and humanitarian rather than economic motive.

Social service also can be defined as a system that provide something that public needs, organized by the government for instance education, health service, water, hospital etc.

According to Goel op cit: 10) social administration can be seen as an instrument of bringing social action through implementation of social policy, social policy must be studied in socio economic perspective of the country which is undergoing a constant change.

Social administration in this sense is a process of bringing community welfare through social policy decision for the total welfare of the community. It encompasses every act, every techniques and every consideration in the process necessary to transforming social policy into social service.

To Dinmson (1961:152) Social administration is the study of the development structure and practice of the social services, social administration implement social regislation aims at private philanthropy and religions charities into the dynamic of service and benefit for humanity.

It is an act of implementing social policy into social action

The four major characteristics of social administration according to Donmison are:-

i) Social administration is not a distinct discipline but a multi disciplinary field of study.

ii) Social administration’s field of study is essentially statutory welfare provision

iii) Social administration is concerned with the study of welfare system and particularity the government sponsored social services.

iv) Statutory welfare provision aims at meeting individual needs.

2.1 THE ORIGIN OF SOCIAL SERVICE ADMINISTRATION ON RURAL WOMEN IN NIGERIA

There was nothing like social security system in Nigeria before, According to U. S. library Congress, less than one percent of the population older than sixty years received pensions because of the younger age of Urban migrant there were fewer older people per family Units in urban areas, official statistics were questionable, however because at least one survey indicate a number of elderly living alone in northern cities or homeless persons living on the street and begging. There were also evidence that the traditional practices of caring for parents was beginning to erode under harsh conditions of scarcity in rural and urban areas. In rural Nigeria it was still the rule that older people were cared for by their children, grand children, sponses, siblings. The ubiquity of this tradition left open, however the responsibility of real hardship for urban elderly whose families had moved away or abandoned them.

Welfare concerns in Nigeria were primarily related to its general lack of development and the effect of the society of the economic stringency of the 1980’s given the steady population growth and decline in urban service and income since 1980.

Nigeria had many social welfare problems that needed attention. The existence of a relatively free press combined with a history of self-criticism in Journalism, the arts, and the social science and by religions and political leaders were promising indications of the awareness and public debate required for change and adaptive response to its social problems.

2.2 THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

According to Nnadi (1997: 120) the role of women in economic development can not be over emphasized, women are found to contribute significantly to economic production in almost all societies.

In most parts of Africa, Labour for this economic Unit consisted of all able-bodied males, females and children of two or more generation deep. These supported all the non-producing members of the family such as those too young, too old or too sick to produce. Almost everywhere able-bodies female young, adult and old constituted over half the total population in any given society. All available historical and anthropological evidence agree that the use made of this category of the population varied regionally according to labour demands of the economy. These sources also agree that women have been principal actors in pre and post harvest food processes as producers, processors, preservers, conservers, prepares and traders of food crops. Even among a single cultural group like the Igbo the Nature of the role that was central and complementary to those of men. Hence while men did the more adurous but seasonally restricted task of clearing, constructing mounds, planting and staking yams, women did the less physically but time demanding rather monotonous and all season task of planting and harvesting “female crops” such as vegetable legumes, Cassava, Weeding, Harvesting, preserving preparing and serving the food, women as home makers own the responsibility of managing house hold consumption especially their primary needs (Azikiwe 1990)

According to Osubodu 1980, Okorie 1981) wives are only given a stipulated house-keeping allowance by their husbands who feel reluctant over revealing how much they earn. It has also been identified that women now work to supplement family income and to be part of the national force.

On the other hand, women who have resources power tend to have greater decision making power within the household (Bennet 1982).

As a mothers, they are responsible for the welfare of the children and elderly relations it has been noted that Nigerian Women bear and rear children, do farm work, take care of their husband and members of their extended family women are eager to work if allowed (Azikiwe 1990)

Azikiwe (1990) said that if women are given the opportunity, they will contribute immensely to the growth of the economy and society.

Different reasons have been given for this negligible visibility and leadership opportunities of women in politics, it has been noted that women are pre-empted for leading political role by the attitude of men who can not see women in leadership role over them, some women have also admitted that political parties are unwilling to field women candidates because of the belief that women are additionally disadvantaged by their unwillingness as mother within a polygamous society to commit themselves totally to the vagaries of public life without the assurance that their children, will be supported others argue that women withdraw from politics because they are shy of public criticism and would wish to avoid the rough and tumble of politics (Nnadi 1997).

The creation of various commissions for women has no doubt increased the participation of women in politics. As at time the two political parties were dissolved in 1993. Nigeria had about 14 seats for women in two houses of parliament. Although this number represent only two present of the total number of seats, it shows as improvement over the past compositions of the houses. At the ministerial level, a success of 3% was recorded in May 1994, moreover. Each state in Nigeria has ensured the appointment of at least one woman as a commissioner and there has also been an increase in number of female director-General and directors in the past few years. (Owube 1995: 25)

According to Owube op cit: 8) examination of the political development in Nigeria suggest that the role of women in politics has been very minimal. There was no single representation of women in the forty mine “wise men” that drafted nations 1979 constitution despite the large number of professional women in the country.

Another indicator of the status of women is their access to productive resources, especially land and credit. In greater access to land in agrarian economy implies greater access to resources even in the modern sector, men have greater access to credit facilities. One of the reasons usually given for this situation is the men’s greater ability to produce Collaterial securities it is worth nothing. However that differences in access to credit has contributed to the disparity between male and female contribution to the economy. In addition the unequal access to economic resources has also helped to sustain the low status accorded women in several societies (Marah 1997: 210)

(Owube op cit: 17) Access to credit is a key element not only in empowering people but also in helping them to participate fully in market activities because women generally do not own land, which they can use as collaterals security.

They receive a disproportionately small share of credit from bank institutions. Those of them in agriculture therefore, do not have adequate fund to buy improved seeds and to improve the land, which they farm. Credit is only given to land owners. Lack of equal access to credit facilities also explain why in spite of their numerical superiority in retail trading in Nigeria, women actually improve the lives of their family and relatives through greater access to credit facilities.

The role of women cannot be under-estimated in economic or overall development of the nations it is realization of this fact that the united nation declared 1975 as the international women year and thereafter, set aside 1975-1984 as a decade to appraise and review the situation of women. Consequently the federal government decided to formulate a concerted policy for the participation of women in national development.

The main objectives for this policy are:

i. To promote the organisation of women for effective participation in economic. Political and social life of the nation.

ii. To eliminate those aspects of cultural belief and practice which due to ignorance or misconception tend to dehumanize women and militate against their full development.

iii. To discourage those types of trade that debase womanhood.

iv. To improve farming techniques, credit and training.

Nnadi (1996) women contributed a lot to the development of the country; they take active part in nation building and are eager to learn new ways of improving their work. They are resourceful and have great insight into the operation of the economics including the production of food the fact still remain that women are always working in the home and the outside the home with little time to rest. This in the long run effect their health attention to their children, their output and also their personal development. This is why it is not an over statement that modern means of carrying out their work, mechanized methods of farming and means of these equipment should be put at their service. They are important and useful members of the society so they must be protected, preserved and pampered.

 

2.3 GOVERNMENT POLICY FOR RURAL WOMEN

Okechukwu (1997) it is now widely accepted that over all national development in Nigeria is largely on improving the productivity and efficiency on rural sector. In a country like Nigeria where 83.5 million out of the estimated population of one hundred and twelve million live and work in the rural area there is no gain saying the fact that rapid rural development is not only the most effective way of improving the living standard of the majority of the population. It is also a basic precondition for meaningful industrialization. The government in predominantly agrarian economic such as Nigeria has a vital role to play in stimulating rural development through the formulation and implementation of appropriate policy measure designed to enhance the full mobilization of both human and natural resources for development but most times development packages meant for the women do not get to them. These are part of the reasons why the BLP has come in handy as it focuses on providing succour in various forms to the rural women through government.

Government has provided farm input and make funds accessible to the women through local government this has yielded a good result and encouraged women to invest in food processing too. The formation of co-operative societies has enabled the women to begin to have access to technical and professional assistance from government and its agencies too.

Okechukwu (1997) with the help of the government policy the women have now started using improved machines and equipment for mass production of food. The burden is gradually being lifted off the women. Unto machines and they have started earning some good income from the cottage industries. The farms and garden are being supported by regular high yielding seedlings and visits by agricultural extension officials to ensure good harvest, which means increased income.

The fish and live stock farms are receiving high equality fingerlings and improved breeds of livestocks as well as visit from experts to supervise their growth in good health. The multi purpose centres are being used for adult literacy and vocational education programmes as well s for political enlightment and health care delivery programme. This have made the rural women to smile and continue to work hard, this in turn must encourage the society to give more attention to the improvement for the lives of the rural women.

The fundamental objective of government policy for rural women according to Okechukwu 1997 are:-

i. Government, national institutions, non-governmental organisation, private sector agencies and other donor agencies should allocate greater resources to promote the socio-economic advancement of rural women.

ii. To establish mechanisms duly supported with adequate resources for providing gender analysis training to policy makers development practitioners and field workers for the collection and analysis of local national and regional data all in a bid to assist policy-makers and project designers in formulating accurate policies.

iii. The review of existing land legislation to put an end to discrimination against rural women in gaining access to land and setting up of institution to promote a more equitable distribution of land.

iv. The improvement of rural women’s access and financial services on the basic of gender equality by encouraging financial institution to create new means for reaching rural beneficiaries and promoting community groups that will provide a local structure for improving rural women’s access to information training and guarantees so that credit can be readily made available to them.

v. Others include the needs for facilities for women’s education and functional literacy to be strengthened and access to these easier for the rural women along with the sensitization of parents and community leaders to the discouragement of child marriages for female so that boys and girls are given equal opportunity in education training.

 

2.4 THE IMPACT OF THE MINISTRY ON RURAL WOMEN (MINISTRY OF WOMEN AFFAIRS ENUGU)

The ministry of women affairs Enugu State has created awareness on various issues concerning rural women in so many areas like.

I. In the area of disability:- many disabled persons have been trained by the ministry at Emene vocational centres in various traits which includes.

Shoe Making/ Leather Works

Dress Making/ Tailoring

Fashion and designing as well as cathederial studies, many of them have been helped to establish their own workshops. Making themselves reliant while others were employed in the ministry as clerk and typist.

a) Another area in Emene welfare centres, there is vegrance and the paupers they are quartered there and feed there and even taught different trait that led to their self-reliant.

The ministry has also made impact in the area of child trafficking a lot of awareness been created in the area of child trafficking to avoid trading on children and using children for rituals and slaves

b) Child abuse and trafficking has generated much debate and approaches to its solution. It is curious that the treatment modalities for the manifested incident of child abuse and trafficking initially did not solve the problem because the cause of child abuse and trafficking was wrongly diagnosed due to the wrong diagnosed of child trafficking and child abuse as mainly physiological and psycho-dynamic oriented in the context of the medical model of disease treatment and “cure”.

The problem continued to increase and defied the applied solutions.

Intensive and extensive researchers over the years have identified poverty as the cause of child abuse and child trafficking the poor family environmental condition of abused children are positively related to hunger, disease, illiteracy, delinquency crime degraded environment prostitution etc.

According to research findings as such the policy and programmes to combat child abuse will mainly focus on support for identified poor families to remedy and prevent the incidents of social problems created by poverty.

Also the ministry made some impact on child trafficking and child abuse to ensure that this problem has come to an end.

i) In the area of widowhood practices:- There is a BILL sponsored by the Den Commissioner of the women affairs and social development, it has been passed to law by the state government and this law is meant to put an end to all source of bad treatment to widows. This BILL seek to protect the fundamental right of widow guaranteed under the constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 by making unlawful all the dehumanizing and obnoxious cultural widowhood practices in the stats and prescribing a punishment for the offence created by this law.

The issue of the BILL is that no persons or whatever purpose or reason shall compel a widow:-

 To permit the hair on her head or any other part of her body to be shared.

 To sleep either alone or on the same bed or be locked in a room with the corpse of her husband.

 To remain in mourning or to wear clothes of any prescribed colour or bear any mark or otherwise adopt any lifestyle indicative of being in mourning for any given period from the date of the death of her husband.

 To drink the water used in washing the corpse of her husband.

 To vacate her matrimonial home on the ground tat she has no male child or no child at all.

 To do any other thing which contravenes the fundamental rights entrenched in the constitution or is degrading her person for example putting ashes on her head. This law make it unlawful to infringe the fundamental right of the widows and other related matters through the ministry.

The ministry also created awareness for the women in the area of politics and co-operative society.

 

2.5 STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE WOMEN’S COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

The major strategies for effective women lies on the people’s background, our background should be re-addressed, people should be re-educated and re-oriented both males and females to over come their negative notions about women.

Riegelman (1975) advocated for change of mind towards women. She said that irrespective of women’s active participation in development, the external project designed to transfer technology to rural people rarely incorporate women.

Azikiwe (1990) also advocated that women should be given equal access to training facilities and education. This she said will enhance their participation in the economic development.

On the other hand, women should not always accept defeat in life, as the studies carried out by Azikiwe showed girls early in life believe that they have less intellectual ability than boys thereby having less confidence in themselves and low self-esteem.

2.6 FACTORS AFFECTING WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

Various factors have been inhibiting women’s participation in community development especially in developing countries like Nigeria. These factors are grouped under Economic, Religious, Educational, Social and Cultural factors.

Economically, Women have less access to productive resources such as land, credit technical facilities and services. In patriarchal societies, Land ownership and inheritance do not go to women, making women to rely on their husband provision of land for agricultural production. Most times the men are in town working in paid employment the women stay back in the village with the children since life there is relatively cheaper and less hectic, incidentally, their educational background cannot fetch them good jobs and their economic background cannot give them any good business. They also opt to remain in the village to ensure that their husband’s right to land are not infringed as they will be farming on them.

Religiously, women are not given too positions this has enhanced the subordination of women and super ordination of men.

Educationally, male children are given preference over the female counterpart and the quality of education given to girls are poor, women’s education is usually not seen as a tool to prepare them for life rather being temporal until marriage. This brings educational imbalance, places women at a disadvantage over men. It enhance high rate of illiteracy among women an also limits their employment opportunities which inversely effect their participation in community development process.

Socially, women are accorded less value than men; they are orientated to occupation of low states in the society. They may be secretary but not directors and airhostess but not a plot a nurse but not a doctor. Worse still is where women do similar jobs with men. They receive lees than men. In rural areas they even work longer, yet earn less. It has also been noted that women suffer double exploitation that of poor social amenities in rural area and sex discrimination. Women contributions to development are usually not given adequate recognition as that of men, which are often received with joy and appreciation. All these societal expectation o women affect their aspiration motivations and value judgment in relation to their effective participation in community development. However, culture is the root factor impending on women’s effective participation in community development especially in a patriarchal society tradition and culture has made women in Nigeria prone to sex discrimination. It has disallowed women to take decision without their husband’s consent. All these culture is able to do through socialization by which it imbibed into women to see themselves as sub-human men’s property, Weaker sex and born to please men culturally, it is believed that women, ought not to engage themselves with matter of public affairs in the community.

 

REFERENCES

Adesanya T. (1997) Involving women in National Planning Programme in Nigeria: Warri Leck way press.

Asogwa C. U. (1990) Group training and working with women group in African

Azikiwe C. (19900 A Review of Research Studies on Women and Development in Nigeria

Dike J. (1990) The family support Programme and Nigeria Women; the British Journal of Sociology

Goel S. (1981) Health Care Administration A text book, New Delhi Sterling Publisher PVT Limited

Marah A. (1997) Salute to African Women, Benin City; High Point Publication.

Nnadi N. (1996) Women of our age Lagos Venus Brother Press

Nwachukwu C. (2000) Rural Development and the role of women in Nigeria Asaba; delta line Publishing Company

Oduma G. (1999) Better life programme in Retrospect News watch

Okechukwu G. (1997) the Rural factor in National Development of Nigeria Onitsha Jackson Publisher

 

5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

In an effort in doing summary of the topic under study, it will equally show how to prefer solution or suggestion as well as recommendations on the impact of social service administration on rural women can showcase an effective and efficient role in the society.

 

5.1 SUMMARY

The topic of this research in recent time has generated a lot of comment, argument and view in political socio-cultural and economic discussions, in this country and other capitalist oriented societies.

(i) The researcher has discovered that out of numerous social service being required by the rural women, what they want most is the provision of health facilities, the health facilities include cottage hospitals, health centres, dispensaries etc.

(ii) It was found that social service provided for rural women are not very accessible for them for instance, the women cover a lot of distance to get to most of the places where the service are allocated.

(iii) The researcher also discovered a BILL which was sponsored by the Den Commissioner of the women affairs and social development. The Bill seek to protect the fundamental right of windows; child trafficking etc.

(iv) The researcher finally discovered that with help of the government policy the women have now started using improved machine and equipment for mass production of food, the burden is gradually being lifted off the women unto machines and they have started earning some good income from the cottage industries.

 

5.2 CONCLUSION

Provision of social service and ministration for the rural women in Nigeria has been unavoidable given a lot of other services provided for in both rural and Urban centers appear to be male dominated from the study, it has been provided that the rural women equally can be taken care of by both government and non government agencies it has been a good step in the right direction that government has been able to establish ministry of women affairs. It is not, however, enough given the bureaucratic knots that often tie round the necks of such other ministries, which impede the achievement of set objective of them, the government of Enugu state should look into the findings of this study as well as its recommendations so as to ensure that provision of social service to the rural women are not treated with levity.

 

5.3 RECOMMENDATION

As a result of ideas obtained and discoveries made during this work in Enugu State the following recommendation are given by the researcher.

(i) The provision o health facilities should be made without any delay.

(ii) Government should provide adequate financial and material resources for the women to engage in various project.

(iii) As the case may be government should make sure that highly qualified staff should be employed by the ministry.

(iv) Government agencies and mass media should help to sensitize the general public on the need for social welfare administration for rural women

(v) The societies should be encourage to give more attention to the improvement of lives of the rural women.

(vi) Social services provided for the rural women should be made accessible always without hitches.

(vii) Lastly the women must be encouraged to get at the service without travel a long distance before they get those social service and no fees should be charged form them for instance fees for immunization of children etc.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

TEXT BOOK

Adesanya T. (1997) Involving women in National Planning Programme in Nigeria: Warri Leck way press.

Eze B. (1998) Matters Arising from Better life programme Onitsha Rainbow Press Limited.

Fedeye S. (1996) Land use and National development, Ibadan Joy gate press

Goel S. (1981) Health care Administration A text book New Delhi Startling Publisher Pvt Limited

Marah A. (1997) Salute to African Women Benin city; High point Publication.

Nnadi N. (1996) Women of our age Lagos Venus Brother Press

Nwachukwu C. (2000) Rural Development and the role of women in Nigeria Asaba; delta line Publishing Company

Obasi J. C. (1999) Research Methodology in Political Science Enugu Academic publishing Company

Okechukwu G. (1997) The rural factor in National Development of Nigeria Onitsha Jackson Publisher

Slack M. K. (1986) Social Administration and Citizen pitman Publisher London

 

JOURNAL

Dike J. (1990) The family support Programme and Nigeria Women; the British Journal of Sociology

 

SERIAL

Enugu State of Nigeria Official Gazetter (2001) A bill for Law to make it Unlawful to infringe the fundamental right of widows.

 

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS

Asogwa U. (1990) Group training and working with women group in African

Azikiwe C. (19900 A review of research studies on women and development in Nigeria

Jibero K. (1999) Empowerment of Rural Women; paper delivered in a workshop

Nwatu N. (1998) Rural Women And Rural development Daily star, November 20, No 1331

Nworji Q. (1999) Smaller scale Enterprises and The Rural Women Paper Presented a seminar entitled: Assisting the Rural and Cottage Industries.

Oduma G. (1999) Better life programme in Retrospect New Swatch

Okpata F. O. lecture Note on Research methodology; Political Science and Public Administration Department.

Olewe B. (1996: 126) Social Welfare Administration and management classic.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX

INSTRUCTION

Please you are required to tick [] in the appropriate box provided.

Age bracket

a) 19-25 (c) 36-45

b) 26-35 (d) 45-65

2. Sex

a) Male (b) Female

3. Religion

a) Islam (c) African Traditional Religion

b) Christianity

4. Do you work in nay ministry or parastatals?

a) Yes (b) No

5. Do you know what is social service administration?

a) Yes (b) No

6. Do you support the policy of social service administration?

(a) Yes (b) No

7. Do you think that by providing social service administration there would be quality living standard for the women in the rural area?

a) Yes (b) No

8. Would you say that the ministry will create awareness for the rural women on matters concerning poverty alleviation?

(a) Yes (b) No

9. Do you think that government would assist the ministry by planning its programmes for improve efficiency?

a) Yes (c) No idea

b) No

10. In social service, do you think that it is the ministry that benefits

a) Yes (b) No

11. Do you support the government to provide adequate funds for rural women in Enugu State?

(a) Yes (b) No

12. The government has generated enough fund for the ministry, Do you agree?

(a) Yes (c) No idea

(b) No

13. Do you feel that the service of this firm would be improves as soon as government help in the enhancement of rural women in the communities?

(a) Yes (b) No

14. How would you access the reaction of people towards social service administration

(a) Positive (c) Indifferent

(b) Negative

15. Would you say that the impacts of social service administration will bring rural women into the business of government?

(a) Yes (c) No idea

(b) No

 Social Services Administration – Impact On Rural Women In Nigeria

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