Skill Acquisition In Junior Secondary School – Problems And Implications

Skill Acquisition In Junior Secondary School – Problems And Implications

Skill Acquisition In Junior Secondary School – Problems And Implications

The world is growing technological and Nigeria must not be left behind. The Nigerian child must be given that aspect of Education, which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. In this direction there arose the need to improve our educational system. (Adaralesble 2001).

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Because of the above fact, the national policy on education introduced innovations in secondary education in Nigeria. Instead of the former five years of secondary education, there is now a six years secondary school system broken into two stages: Junior and senior stages, each lasting for three years (National Policy Of Education 2004). National Policy Of Education recommends prevocational course in junior secondary school classes. The recommendations are:

1. To provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural commercial and economic development.

2. To Provide trained manpower in the applied science, technology and business particularly at craft advanced craft and technical skills.

3. To Give training and impart the necessary skills to individual who shall be self reliant economically, It is perhaps with regard to the fulfilment of the general education that the introduction of vocational courses into both junior and secondary school, as presently outlined in the national policy on education, can best be understood.

Skill simply mean the ability to do something and perfectly, when we talk of skill it means the ability for somebody to specialized in a particular job, that is somebody who is trained and have the experience about a particular job.

Acquisition could be define according to the oxford advanced learners dictionary 5th edition as thing acquire must especially something that is more meaningful, or the action or process of acquiring something that can bring or improve a system.

Skill acquisition can be said to mean systematic process of imbibing new ideas and knowledge of executing accurately professional functions.

The problem of skill acquisition are; problem of finance, unqualified teachers, insufficient industries for training. Okoro 1999 said, that it is necessary to point out that the more possession of skills will not lead to employment unless there are vacancies in industrial and commercial establishments that possess the required skills. Any plan to train skilled workers, especially in such large number, should be combined with a systematic man to expand industrial establishment so that those trained can actually obtain employment in the occupation for which they have been trained. Also, areas of training should be closely matched to the areas of need. The national policy on education (2004) stated that trade centers and similar vocational centers would be established to absorb junior secondary school leavers who could not proceed to senior secondary school.

A critical assessment of the present situation in Nigeria will reveal that there are not enough jobs to absorb the thousand of the school leaver who are yearly produced by our secondary school system irrespective of what ever skill they may poses. The present National policy on Education is rightly not implemented hence secondary school students leave school with skills perhaps inferior to these already possessed by thousand of unemployed technical colleges leavers and products of the apprentice ship system (Okoro 1999). It is against this background, that the researcher wants to find out the problem and implication of skill acquisition.

Statement of the Problem

Okafor (1988) stated that if National policy on education is not implemented, this would result in the production of unqualified students and teachers who lack skills in their areas of specialization. Adam (1982) says that among other problem facing education sector of Nigeria is finance, equipment and infrastructure; and lack of technical teachers.

Ezeala (1994) said that it is necessary to determine the factor responsible for the failure in order to improve students’ performance, knowledge and skills. He said that half-baked teacher and student is as a result of above-mentioned problem. Hence it appeal to the research to *carry, out research on the problems and implication of acquisition of skills junior secondary school in IZZI Local Government of Ebonyi state.

Purpose of the Study

1. What is the role of administrator of skill in junior secondary school classes.

2. How adequate is the provision of material, which enhances skill in junior secondary school?

3. What is the extent of the problems of skill acquisition in junior secondary school.

4. What is the implication of skills acquisition in junior secondary school and way of addressing these problems.

Signification of the study

This study will provide research information on the problems and implication of skill acquisition in junior secondary school classes. The finding of the study will help the principals, teachers, students’ curriculum planner and government.

It would be significant to general reader, as greater sight would be geared into the 6-3-3-4 of education system.

It would be significant to the students, as it will help them to know the important of their practical studies. It will also stimulate the teachers’ interest towards assessment of students’ practical work.

It will also solve the problem of drop out of some secondary school students by providing education and self-reliant that they will easily employed even when they cannot continue with their study.

It will be also be useful to parents for it give them indirect knowledge of the usefulness of acquiring skills of early stage of life.

Research Question

1. What is the role of administration of skill in junior secondary school classes?

2. How adequate is the provision of material, which enhances skill in junior secondary school classes?

3. What is the extent of the problems of skill acquisition in junior secondary school classes?

4. What is the implication of skills acquisition in junior secondary school classes and way of addressing these problems?

Scope of the study

This study is to investigate the implication and problems of skills acquisition in junior secondary school in Izzi local government area of Ebonyi. The study will cover ten schools in Izzi local government area.



This chapter will review the related literatures the review will be done under the following sub-heading:

1.What is the role of administration of skill in junior secondary school?

2. How adequate is the provision of material which enhance skill in junior secondary school?

3. What is the extent of the problems of skill acquisition in junior secondary school?

4. What is the implication of skills acquisition in junior secondary school and ways of addressing these problems.

5.What is the role of administration of skill in junior secondary school?

Brown (1997) outline the following role of administration of skill in junior secondary school:

Role Of Administration Of skill In Junior Secondary School

1. Acquisition of skills at the early stage will help to prepare the students for higher education.

2. Expose students to work methods and techniques in handling equipment and machinery.

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3. Makes the transition from secondary to university easier.

4. Enhance students’ contact for later job placement.

5. Minimize unemployment and increase job opportunity among the school leavers.

6. Give training and the necessary basic knowledge and impact skills leading to the production of craft men, technical in different field of endeavour.

Government proposed a number of measures to help achieve these roles including provision of equipment, qualified teachers, introduction of elementary technology at the early stage of the educational system and engagement of contractors to give practical experience to students.

However, another role of skill acquisition in junior secondary school are:

1. Acquisition of the necessary skill in the early stage of a student programme will help them to posses a good certificate.

2. It will play important role such as reducing the number of half backed graduate in the country.

3. It will increase the number of craft men, technicians, technologist and vocation lists.

4. The student will enjoy the profound merit of enrolling oneself into relevant science based programmes in higher educational institutions.

5. It will lower the level of unemployment among the school leavers and also minimizes the high rate of is employment among the fresh graduate in the country (Reel 1992).

However shortage of equipment and inadequate manpower have continued to constitute an obstacle to the role of teacher which administering knowledge, skill and right appititude to students (Ugwu and Ali 1999). He also pointed out that acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competences both mental and physical will train the individual to live in and to contribute to the development of his society.

Akinyemi (1995) pointed out that acquisition of skills, will equip an individual as well as making him useful to the society in which he belong. It is obvious, that good background of introductory technology, integrated science and Agricultural science, will help the student to gain admission into higher education programmes, make them successful in their academic performance as well as getting gainful employment after graduation.

Olawepo (1992) highlighted that regular practical in subject such as Agricultural science, introductory technology, integrated science, will help the students to acquire practical skills and experience, he also emphasized on cultivation of scientific attitudes and spirit of problem-solving in the life of each student, which will lay sounds foundation for technical studies in secondary and tertiary level of formal education.

On the other hand, the national policy on education (1986) state that, skills learnt by students in science and technology are to modern life, what hands are to the body, trained graduated students use natural resources, transform them to raw material which is use for production of goods for human consumption, and also better quality of life. The above facts implies that man combines his knowledge about nature, technology available to him to design and produce appropriate machinery, tool, devices, goods and services aimed at making life more comfortable. When this occurs, people will have the opportunity to afford such health, food, shelter, clothing and education, and thus, be free from primary ignorance, diseases and poverty, then the nation is said to be developed. These conditions are useful indicators of economic and nation development, which is obtainable in a relatively stable political climates, that attract liable foreign investments.

Oje (1992: 172) noted that continuity of the society can only be assured, when such a society take pains to play important role of preparing her children for a responsible and some adult hood. Aminu (1986) said that the philosophy guiding the educational policy must be targeted to achieving self-realization, better human relationship, individual and national efficiency, effective citizenship, national conselousness and national unity. The national policy on education stated that acquisition of appropriate skill would enhance the ability and competency among the students. Thompson (1998) pointed that skill acquisition will eradicate unemployment and over dependency among the school leavers and graduate.

Ozofor (2006) is telling the youth (in of his articles) in the integrator magazine that school and society want them to embrace life skills with these skills, they develop the attitude of autonomous living, that is self enacting, self-propelling, ad self facing.

Mbgodile (1986) suggest that education will became functional as many of the skills acquired in the different subjects will be put into practical. Okoro (1992) said that 6-3-3-4 system of education is broad-based in the sense that it includes core subjects in general and pre-vocational subjects that offer knowledge and skills. He also said that the purpose of these programme could be actualized through administration of test and careful grading of students.

John Deway (1980) on the same hand stressed that they should be inter-lacking existence between theory and practical.

Gbamarya (19991) stated that there is a continues search for new knowledge to either fortify or to maximize the existing knowledge. He goes ahead to say that the student of modern science, in this regard has acquired new roles. He is now, a discoverer, technicians, designing his own apparatus out of local resources available to him, to produce expensive materials, an experiment which arrives at his own answer. To ensure that these roles are maintained students is kept busy; observing, describing classifying inferring, measuring, communicating, interpreting data, formulating, predicting and experimenting questions.

All these mental exercise required materials. He goes ahead to note that, today’s science teachers are resourceful person, who plays important role of by organizing, evaluating moderating and administering and grading students practical and theory work. Teachers place a lot of responsibility on the teachers and, these responsibilities make it possible for him to achieve his aim and objective of each lesson. The skills acquired in the early stage of a learner life have along way to go with the future programme in the university and world of works he will eventually found himself in future time.

Okorie (2001) stated that right habits of doing and thinking are repeated to the points that these habits become fixed to the degree necessary for gainful employment he also say that skills administered to students will play important role of making them a specialize workers. Specialize workers of every kind is gained by repetition gain by repetitive students practice a high degree of skill in the performance of activities repeated so often that they become professionals.

Ndu (1997) pointed another role of administration of skills in students life, he said that administration of skills will play important role of making the students master and craft men in his field. He will have successful experience in the application of his and knowledge to operate and processes useful things.

Okoro (2001) that administration of skill will has a role to play in the employment opportunity of the students. He said that training has to be carried out to a point where he has an assert in skill and knowledge that will be sold to an employer. This is expressed in the theory, which states that for every occupation there is a minimum of productive ability, which an individual must posess in order to, secure or retain employment in that occupation. Administration of appropriate skills from the early stage of students life will play the role of making that student important person in the society and expose him to many job opportunities.

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Mkpal (1994) pointed out the best way of doing every job or work. In order that the learner may be effectively prepared, he must be trained that he acquire the habit of doing each job in the proper way. The above statement equip with words of Okorie (2001) that effective training can only be given where the training job are carried on in the same way, with same operations, the same tools and the same machine as in the occupation itself.

Okorie (2001) stated that correct thinking habit inculcated in the life of each students will play important role of in their future occupation. He said that just as the case of environment and process habit, thinking habit must be establish in the occupation itself. That the learner must be trained in habit of thoughts, which are similar to these habits possess by people who are engaged in the operation.

He also said that secondary school students have opportunities for occupation of various kind. At this level, some of the occupational opportunities available to graduates after the programme include mechanic, radio and television services, automobile body repair work, refrigeration and air conditioning repairing, plumbing, electrical installation, auto-mechanic, printing etc.

He also state that secondary school Home economics Education has played an enormous role in the lives of students and the society at large. It plays a vital role in shaping our lives general, thus, creating room for an early understanding of the basic principles and practices in home Economic which are vital to the youths. It has helped the students to make happy, successful and productive families.

Denga (1982) reported that skills help the student to develop confidences better equipped and able to handle problems peculiar to early adolescence in the junior secondary school. It will also enable them to make wise choice of furthering their education as well a making a rightful choice. Nwangwu (1989) pointed out that acquisitions skill will play important role of reducing the incidence of social evil resulting from unemployment. (Awangwu 1989) opined that practical techniques in junior secondary school will expose the students to many technical and vocational programme and encourage them to identify their areas of interest and possible occupation early life. It will also help to equip them with required training at appropriate institution of their choice. How adequate is the provision of instructional material, which enhance skill.

Mankind (1982) identified poor provision of resources and materials in secondary school as the chief course of poor performance of students. According to Ofoefuna (1999) instructional material are the oldest companies of teachers. Bomide (1995) posits that if there are shortages of laboratory facilities, effective teaching and learning cannot take place. This shortage has worsened by explosion in school enrolment, the expensive nature of the equipment, lack of adequate funding and laboratory materials. Brown (1997) agree that “Optimum learning occurs when many different types of instructional material are used each has it own value, but has necessarily unique contribution”. He also mentioned the importance of the use of instructional materials.

Olaniyan (1990) observes that “when schools lack educational facilities, they provides any types of education without Quality” when quality is lacking in the schools, it is likely that the academic performance of students will also be poor. Again Oluwole (1987) sees the lack of instructional facilities and inadequate teachers in our schools as main problems facing the implementation of the national policy on education. Ofoefuna (1999) observed that instructional media help the students in understanding the subject matter. It is believed that once the subject mater is understood by students, it will be retained for a longer time. Therefore, with out the availability of instructional material in schools, students will perform poorly.

It is necessary to note that instructional materials and equipment have great effect on the student performance in practical studies. However, According to Ani (1987) students’ ineffective performance in practical science subject is because they do not participate in practical world and practical widens the students’ knowledge on science equipment and its uses. From the above discussion it is now clear that provisional of instructional materials is adequate in both junior and senior secondary school which lead to student lack of interest in practical.

Balagun (1977) stated that equipments are very important in science teaching, without which there cannot be effective science education programme. In most cases, students internalize what they saw and touched more than what they heard.

Okorie (1993) pointed that the use of sensory in teaching is very important in our secondary schools. All teaching should involve the communication of idea through the sense either orally, through medium of speech, or visually involving. The use of written or pointed material such as text-books, writing materials etc. instructional material, tools, machines and block board have been regarded as indispensable teaching aids to stimulate students interest and facilitate learning.

Abdullahi (1992) observed that laboratory work and class room work complement each other. Onwuka (1991) on his own pointed out that scientific taught can only solve the immediate problems in the environment when things in the students surrounding and also thing they are familiar with are used to teach them experiment in the laboratory. Ezewu (1990) stressed that science Education is a medium through which a child might develop his natural curiosity, his power of observation enquiry and constructive abilities to problem solving and decision-making. These are fundamental equalities of education which has particular relevance to the child understanding of his world and his potentialities.

Oleese (2003) indicated that lack of modern facilities and technology is one of the reasons why most student graduates from secondary school without enquiring any skill. There is need to provides modern facilities in schools which is capable of improving, developing and sustaining the student interest in any of science subject. Instructional media help the students in understanding the subject matter. It is believed that once students understand the subject matter, it will be retained for a longer time. Therefore without the availability of instructional material, school students will perform poorly.

The Extent of the Problems of Skill acquisition in Junior Secondary School

1. Problem of finance

2. Unqualified teachers

3. Inadequate facilities

Problem of Finance: Olawepo (1992) pointed out that inadequate provision or lack of finance lenders any programme implementation wholly impotent and ineffective. Presently, Nigeria is experiencing economic enrichment. Poor funding is one of the major handicaps in the effective implementation of nation’s 6-3-3-4 system of Education. This, therefore explain the reason for the inadequate funding of the nation’s education sector which has apparently resulted to inadequate provision or lack of modern laboratory equipment and material in our school. Because of this clear fact students cannot acquire the practical skill needed for them to progress in their studies.

Obinna (1982) emphasized that the success in the execution of national policy of education on 6-3-3-4 system of education depends very much on accurate continuous assessment of each student.

Onyeachoram (1982) says that were the problem lies is that the national policy on education is not implemented and this, count to acute shortage of skillful student and quality teachers.

Adam (1982) had to add, that among other problems, facing educational sector of Nigeria economy is fund, equipment and infrastructure. He emphasized that fund would be needed for equipment and infrastructure Nwokenna (1987), in her end of the course reported identified the following as difficult problems in the implementation of the national policy on education. Lack of cohesion, non execution of new innovation to enhance study, unsatisfactory implementation characterized by lack of communication.

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Denga (1982) said that Educational provision and equal federal allocation should be made by government. This equality of educational provision will make administration of skill more effective.

Okorie (2001) numerated a lot of factors that contribute decrease in the rate of skill acquisition. These factors:

Factors That Contribute Decrease In The Rate Of Skill Acquisition

1. Teaching and training facilities

2. Traditionalism

3. Insufficient finances

4. Laziness

5. Inadequate knowledge

6. Inadequate facility for educational programme,

Teaching and training facilities:

The effort of the government to equip the secondary schools with the resources for teaching introductory technology, integrated science etc is commendable. But it is observed that in some schools, laboratory equipment and appliance are needed to implement the practical subjects. For the purpose of increasing the rate of skill development, the tools for instruction must be made available to the teaching/training environment.

2. Traditionalism: Despite our status as an independent country, many of the citizens still cling to the old habit of Raying lip-service to the training of skilled workers. Unfortunately, these individuals are found in policy making area with the result that they feel reluctant to take a fresh look at an educational innovation and it implementation.

3. Insufficient finance: This is a realistic and practical inabilities factor in implementing secondary school programmes in Ebonyi state. It is evident that some educational programmes can be done without extra cost, but a programme like integrated science introductory technology, Agricultural science and Home Economic cannot. The present commitment by the government to secondary school education in terms of budgetary allocation is not encouraging. This has hampered the development of the various programme that is obtainable in secondary school especially in the institution of higher learning.

4. Laziness: Most of the students of today are such that would not want to energy their in the development of manipulative skills demanded in secondary school education. In the same vein, some educators are just collecting their salary, and working with little or no professional zeal or dedication. On the other hand, there are many in high and low places who view secondary school education with indifference. It should be realized that indifference is closely related to laziness.

5. Inadequate knowledge: The lack of knowledge about the role of skill acquisition has to play in students life after graduation is a major obstacle to the development of 6-3-3-4 system of education. Ignorance of the role it has to play does not ginger students and those who are suppose to support the programme. Lack of poor growth of exploratory education especially in secondary and institution of high learning, is greatly, and attributed to lack of the knowledge by the authorities. In this technological age, it is ironical that some parents, school proprietors and government seems to be ignorance of introduction of programmes that help students to acquire skill. Even if they know about it, it is now assume that they are ignorant of the value of acquiring such skill from the early stage of students life.

6. Inadequate Teachers Programme: There are requirement for teachers that must handle most of these technological and science course.

Performance of students especially in the areas of practical. Bomide (1995) opined that if there are shortage of laboratory facilities, effective teaching and learning cannot take place. Brown (1997) agrees that “Optimum learning occurs when many different types of teaching facilities are used, each has it own value, but necessary unique contribution”. Again Oluwole (1987) sees the lack of teaching facilities and inadequate teachers in our schools as one of problems that decreases the rate of skill acquisition.


The Implication Of Skill Acquisition

The result of the problem of skill acquisition in junior secondary school according to Okorie (2001) are:

1. Drastic decrease in practical knowledge and performance of students; if the necessary basic knowledge needed for acquisition of appropriate skill is not given to a child, in the early stage of his life, it will result decrease of the child practical knowledge.

2. High Rate of Unemployment: Another implication among others is high rate of unemployment. A students who cannot further or continue with her study can be easily establish something for himself if he was given a serious practical training in the practical subject that will make him excel in life. But if he did not acquire any skill it will make him to be job less if he cannot continue with high education. For these student it will effect them in their area of specialization. Because the basic knowledge need for them to excel in their chosen of profession is not up stairs. There by making the student to be unemployed because of the incomplete knowledge they have about the occupation.

3. Increase in the Rate of Societal-ill: Acquisition of skill from junior secondary school classes will help the student to have many job opportunity such as furniture, electricity, Home-economic specialist, Agriculturist. But if these student did not achieve anything in that level of education and at the same time could not continue with his education, such students might end up joining arm-rubbers, prostitution etc, because “an ideal mind is devils work shop”.

4. Decrease in the Economic Development of the Country: The implication among other is decline in the development of our country. Use of all the necessary facilities and good method of teaching stimulate the interest of the student. If the student interest are geared toward practical studies by providing equipment, material that will motivate them. Science and technology will improve, but if they are not motivated or provide with equipment and good method of teaching it will result decrease in the economic development of the country.

Ways Of Addressing The Problems Of Skill Acquisition

1. Teachers should endeavour to dispose the students to both practical and theoretical studies.

2. Students in there own part should try to help themselves by doing daily practices of the practical in their programme.

3. Government should try as much as possible to provide adequate fund to buy the necessary equipment and materials needed for practical studies.

4. Parents in other should give their children good moral up-bring and stop encouraging them to involve themselves in examination malpractice.

5. Well- equipped workshop and laboratory for practical studies should be built in secondary schools that does not have it, especially in rural areas. These will help the children in practical.

 Skill Acquisition In Junior Secondary School – Problems And Implications

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