Sales Promotion – An Effective Tool For Marketing Of Consumer Products

Sales Promotion – An Effective Tool For Marketing Of Consumer Products

Sales Promotion – An Effective Tool For Marketing Of Consumer Products

The practice of sales promotion has been in existence for a longtime by people.  Sales promotion is a compound word, and its activities make organisation to communicate directly with potential customers. The promotional element comprises of mix of tools available for the market called the promotional mix which consist of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and publicity.

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All these elements can be used to:

1. Inform prospective buyers about the benefits of the product.

2. Persuade them to try it.

3. Remind them later the benefits they enjoy by using the product.

In this topic, sales promotion directly falls on marketing promotion of marketing mix.

According to Nwaizugbo (2004) marketing mix is the term that is used to describe the combination of the four inputs that constitute the core of a company’s market system of the product, the price structure, the promotional activities and distribution system (place). This is generally referred to as the 4ps (product, price, place and promotion).

According to Olakunori (1999). Marketing mix is the term used to describe the combination of the basic controllable inputs that constitute the core of an organizations internal marketing system. This marketing mix is the tools that is been used to sell a company’s product or achieve the company selling objectives.

The relevance of marketing promotion include the following:

This marketing promotion helps to locate a consumer or product target.

 It helps to reduce the selling price of a product for it to be affordable.

 It helps to communicate to the product target on that product.

 It creates on awareness environment to the public.

 It is used to persuade or remind people or the public about an organisation on of individual goods.

In summary, promotion as we said earlier is a compound word and it comprises of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and publicity. And sales promotion is designed to supplement advertising and co-ordinate personal selling. And it stimulates consumer purchasing and deal effectiveness such as displays, shows, exposition, demonstration and various non-recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary routine.


Despite all the benefits derivable from sales promotion and the need to keep up with stiff competition in the market place, many organizations especially in developing countries still fail to accept sales promotion as a marketing tool to reckoned with.

Rather, sales promotion budgets have been regarded as a waste and a drain on their profits. Besides, critice of the marketing tool see it as on evil that has ended all rational thinking of the consumer whom sales promotion as a tool persuaded to buy what they do not really need or want.

The researcher is faced with the broad problem of what life Breweries Company Ltd. Perceive sales promotion to be, and what direction the consumer perception and reaction to life Breweries has taken.

In this regard, the following questions contribute to some specific problems of the study.

1. What is the sales promotion philosophy of life Breweries Company Ltd?

2. Does sales promotion by the firm influence the consimers positive attitude towards new product and preference for the firms product?

3. What image has sales promotion as a tool created in the consumers mind?

4. What contribution has promotion made towards sales performance of a new products that has been manufactured and marketed by life Breweries.


1. The objectives is to find out the importance of sales promotion as an effective tool in the marketing of consumer product, also to broaden the researcher’s knowledge of the practical aspect of the course of study.

2. The effect of saves promotion on the introduction of a brand of soft drink can not be effectively studied without knowing same basic problem.

Also the study will help to know the image that the company commands generally in the market, image it creates for consumers for certain product in the organisation

3. The contribution of sales promotion to sales performance of certain newly manufactured and making of these consumer product of life Breweries PLC. That is whether sales promotion is effective in terms of change in consumers reaction to purchase and increase sales


The significance of the study characterized by economic downturn in Nigeria, competition is very keen meaning that only the fittest will survive.

In this situation, for any business survival, promotional strategies especially sales promotion of different sorts usually dominate budget and expenditure has taken an upward trend in the introduction of new product in recent time in Nigeria. The result of this huge sale promotion spending in time of consumer attitude to the firms products, the image and the sales performance in the market is considered a worthy exercise. Life Breweries company ltd is one of the largest manufacturing companies in the eastern part of the country and contributes a lot revenue earning of the country. The firm has for instance, paid lot of money that is, the company has paid over four million naira as tax and exercise duty to the country in addition to the source of employment it provides for over five thousand persons in its employment. It is therefore worthwhile to indicate a study that is hoped to enhance the business performance of the economy.

The large size of the firm is market also justified the undertaking if this study and helps the company to know the image of commands generally in the market.

Furthermore, marketing has long known that buying decision depends largely on reason for an action. The buyers of product set goals and time to achieve it by making a decision in the market place.

Any marketer, who therefore want to satisfy consumers profitably, and therefore remain the consumers attitude towards the buying of their products and not just trying to force the products on the consumers.

The study is therefore based on the sense that its findings will assists in formulating effective marketing mix such as sales promotion for their products with the aim of improving sales volume and market share.

Finally, the significance of the study is based upon the need to provide marketing department to life Breweries ltd student fellow researcher in relevant field and researcher himself with an insight of effects or impacts of sales promotion as effective tool for marketing of consumer products.


Based on the above remarks and the statement of problems, the following questions were employed to aid the investigation.

a. Is free sample an effective tool to the marketing of consumer product?

b. Will sales promotion increase company’s sales volume?

c. How can sales promotion attract new customers?


The study was focused on sales promotion in the marketing of consumer goods in one particular Breweries.

 Life Breweries PLC in Onitsha because of time, and other constraints. The firm understudy is life Breweries PLC in Onitsha Anambra State producers of life bear, Savannah and pineapple drink etc.

The study is also focused on how sales promotion motivate or induce customers forward the purchase of the products of life breweries P.L.C.


To achieve this study objectives, certain problems were encountered, this is because so many literatures have not been written on sales promotion as effective tool, for marketing consumer products. The study will also be limited due to problem of information gathering, time, financial constraints and unwillingness of the company’s staff to give out classified information about the company that will be of help to the researcher.

Consequently, one has to make do with the available few.

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PROMOTION: This is the communication element of marketing which aims at telling the potential buyers that the products of the company are available and affordable to them and that they stand to benefit more in buying the company product than any others. In a nutshell, it aims at inducing trial for non-users and encouraging current users to not only remain loyal users but also to even increase their rate of usage (Nwaizugbo 2004).

SALES PROMOTION: According to Nwaizugbo (2004), it is the term that include all methods of stimulating demand not specifically identified as advertising or personal selling instead sale promotion is designed to supplement and complement these promotional tools. Also, sales promotion consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools mostly short term designed to stimulate quicker and for greater purchase of a particular product/service by consumers. Sales promotion offers incentives to buy, sales promotion includes tools for consumers promotion cash refund offer, prices patronage reward, free trials and warranties in promotion, price off premiums).

Sales promotion tools are used by most organisation including manufactures, distributors, retailers, and association and non-profit organisation such as political party.

TOOLS: In a shortword, tools is referred to as an equipment, machineries or measures that will be used to achieve an objectives or aim.

This are things that could be put in place for one or an organisation, either profit making or non profit making will use to achieve their primary aim. In sales promotion, the effective tool to achieve an organizational aim or objectives liaises on the kind of plan or strategies used by the organisation and the capital that is involve in order to achieve their primary aim.

CONSUMER PRODUCT: When companies identifies the need of it’s customer, these needs must be satisfied in an attempt to satisfy them the idea of new product comes in. therefore, every company must carryout new product development.



The purpose of this chapter is to critically examine sale promotion as an effective tool for marketing of consumer products. This task will be established by reviewing relevant books, articles, and journals that postulate in one way or the other sales promotion as effective tool for marketing of consumer products. The literature review with address:-

2.0 Introduction

2.1 The meaning of sales promotion

2.2 The nature and scope of sales promotion

2.2.1 Consumer oriented sales promotion

2.2.2 Trade oriented sales promotion

2.3 Sales promotion techniques

2.4 Functions of sales promotion

2.4.1 Importance of sale promotion

2.4.2 Advantage of sale promotion

2.4.3 Disadvantage of sale promotion

2.5 Communication and sales promotion

2.5.1 The role of promotion in marketing behaviour and communication.


Sales promotion is sale to be among the most concept has been defined by some scholars but the most important thing is that, those scholars and their terms or definition are channeling in one area of or place.

In this sub-heading, we are to look into various terms, meaning or definition that are given by some scholars on sales promotion. Sales promotion is designed to supplement advertising and coordinate personal selling. It stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness, such as displays, shows and expositions demonstrations and various non-recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary routine.

According to kotler (2003), sales promotion, a key ingredient in marketing campaigns, consists of a diverse collection of incentive tool, mostly short term, designed to particular products or service by consumer of the trade.

According to Bennelt (1995), sales promotions can be an extremely effective tool for marketing in foreign countries they can be used to stimulate impulse purchasing, encourage consumer loyalty shift show moving stock, increase the frequency of repeat buying, smooth out seasonal demand, and generally draw attention to the firm and its products.

According to jobber (1998), sales promotion are incentives to consumers or the trade that are designed to purchase examples include money off and free gifts (consumer promotions) and discounts and sales force competitions.

According to perreault etal (2000), sales promotion refers to those promotional activities that stimulate interest, trial or purchase by final customers or other in the channel by offering added value, usually on a temporary basic. It is also refers to those activities other than advertising, publicity and personal selling that stimulate interest, trial or purchase by final customers or others in the channel.

According to kotler (2004), sales promotion consists of short-term incentives to encourage purchase or sales of a product or services.

Also, it includes a wide Narriety of promotional took designed to stimulate earlier or stronger market response.

According to Ejionuene (2000), sales promotion involves the offering of short term, incentives to prospects in order to generate sales. These incentives include offering of free samples, trade stamps, holding raffle draws, and holding trade fairs.

Sales promotion are those activities, other than personal selling, advertising and publicity that stimulate consumers purchasing and dealer effectiveness, such as displays, shows and expositions demonstration and various non recurrent selling effort not in the ordinary routine by (American marketing association 1960. It has also been defined as a direct inducement, which offeres an extra valve or incentive for the product to the sales force, distributors or the ultimate consumer” (Luich J.F. 1968).

Sales promotion therefore comprises a wide variety of tactical promotion tools of a short-term incentive nature designed to stimulate earlier and a stronger target market response. Therefore, in this chapter, many literatures by eminent scholars that relate with the research topic were reviewed. While personal selling and advertising are the largest components of the promotion mix, they do not represent it totality. The promotional manager has at his or her disposal; an array of the promotional tools.


According to George extra (2001), sales promotion has been defined as a “direct inducement that offers an extra values force, distributors or the ultimate consumer with the primary objective of creating an immediate sale”

First, sales promotion involves some type of inducement that provides an extra oncentive to buy. This incentive, is usually the key element in a promotional programme, it may be a coupon or price reduction, the opportunity to enter a contest or sweep stakes, a money back refund or rebate, or an extra amount of a product.

The incentive may also be a free sample of the product, given in hopes of generating a future purchase, or a premium that serves as a reminder of the brand and reinforces it’s image, such as the miniciture race car premium offer that ties into tides NASCAR sponsorship. Most sales promotion offers attempt to add some value to the product or service. While advertising appeals to the mind and emotions to give the consumer a reason to buy, sales promotion appeals more to the pocket book and provides an incentive for purchasing a brand sales promotion, can also provide and inducement to marketing intermediaries such as wholesalers and retailers.

4 trade allowance or discount gives retailer a financial incentive to stock and promote a manufactures products, a trade contest directed toward wholesalers or retail personnel gives them extra incentive to perform certain tasks or meet sales goals.

Coupons Trade show

And extraditions Sale contest


Cash rebates Point-of purchase

Displays Sales training


Premiums (gofts) Free goals Sales meeting

Free samples advertising allowances Packet with promotional materials

Contest and sweepstakes Contest for sales people

Point of purchase display Tracing middle men’s sales forces

Product demonstration Product demonstration Demonstration made of product

Trade show and exhibitions


The second point is that sales promotion is essentially an acceleration tool, designed to speed up the selling process and maximize sales volume. By providing an extra incentive, sale promotion techniques can motivate consumers to purchase a larger quantity of a brand or shorten the purchase cycle of the trade or consumers by encouraging them to take more immediate action. Companies also use limited-time offers such as price off deals of to retailers or a coupon with an exportation date to accelerate the purchase process. Sales promotion attempts to maximize sales volume by motivating customers who have not responded to advertising the idea sales promotion programme generates sales that would not be achieved by other means. A final point regarding sales promotion activities is that, they can be targeted to different parties in the marketing channel.

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Sales promotion can be broken into two major categories, consumer-oriented and trade- oriented promotions.


This includes sampling, composing, premiums, contests and sweeps takes, refund rebates, bonus packs, price offs, and reveal marketing.

These promotions are directed at consumers the end purchase or goods and services, and are designed to include them to purchase the marketing brand.

Consumer promotion are also used by retailer, to encourage consumer to shop in their particular stores, many grocery stores use their own coupons or sponsor contests and other promotions to increase store patronage.


This include dealer contests and incentives, trade allowances, point of purchase displays sales tracing programmes, trade shows, cooperatives advertising, and retailers to carry a product and make an extra effort to push it to their customers everlly two thirds of all sales promotion dollars are spent on trade promotions.

Many marketing programmes include both trade and consumer oriented promotions, since motivating both group maximize the effectiveness of the promotional program.


A deeper understanding of sales promotion calls for thorough examination of several sales promotion techniques our analysis, and the major sales promotion method into categories:-

a- sales promotion method used by retailers.

b- New product sales promotion techniques.

c- Sales promotion method aimed at reseller.

D- Sales promotion method for established product.

A – Sales promotion method used by retailer:- The variety of sales promotion method that retailers use falls into four broad categories they are-1- retailers coupon, -2- demonstration, -3- trading stamp and finally -4- point of purchase display.

-B- New product sales promotion techniques:- Several sales promotion method can be used to promotion new product. The common three are free sample, coupon and money transfer.

-C- Sale promotion method aimed at reseller: Producers user sales promotion method to encourage retailers to carry their products that is to buy their product. Several sales promotion methods that are appropriate for this purpose are: buying allowances, (count and recount, free merchandize allowance, dealers listing, and premium or push money sales context and dealers loader.

D- Sales promotion method for established products:- Sales promotion advice for established products are usually aimed at providing additional items for consumers who purchase the items.

Three major commodity used to promote established products are premium consumers contest and consumer sweep taker.

According to etzel etal (1997), a key sleep in sales promotion management is deciding which devices will help the organisation reach it’s promotional goals. Factors that influence the choice of the promotional devices include:- -1- nature of the target audience:- is the target group loyal to a competing brand if so, a high value coupon may be necessary to disrupt customers purchase patterns. Is the product bought on imputer? If so, an eye- catering point- of sale display may be enough to generate sales.

B- Nature of the product:- Does the product lend at’ self to samplings demonstration, or multiple item purchase?

C- Coast of the devices, sampling to a large market may be prohibitively.

D- Current economic condition: Coupons, premium and rebates are good options during period of particular by price conscious.

Common sales promotion techniques are show below.

Major sales promotion devices, grouped by target audience, Business users or house holds


According to Stanton (1983) the main function of sales promotion is to co-ordinate the activities in personal selling and advertising Stanton further explained sales promotion requires or needs imagination and creativity couples with a second foundation in marketing foundation mental, one group of sales promotion activities playing designing and creating them. Another sales promotion jobs involves direct mail advertising programmed.

According Beenelt (1995), the function of sales promotion, is to stimulates impulse purchase encourage consumer loyalty, slaft show- moving stock, increase the frequency of repeat buying, smooth out seasonal demand, and generally draw attention to the firm and its products.

Also according to perrecult etal (2000) the Basic marketing European. The function of sales promotion refers to those promotional activities that stimulate interest, trial or purchase by final customer or others in the channel by offering added value usually on a temporary basic. Still another area deals with trade shows and other company exhibits. In deletion also include the development of premium, giving always, contest sales meeting, product samplising and other type of promotions.


Stanton also explained that advertising has been the “glamour” promotional tools that attract much managerial attention in firms. But I another statement that contradicts the above statement, the sales promotion is seen as “middle, misused and misunderstood” form recent development in promoting of goods and services the situation seems to be changing. This is because of expenditure for advertising. He also went further to state that sales promotion while growing in it’s importance is also being integrated into marketing stately in many firms. Sales promotion is introduced at the inception of a campaign.

According to Kolter (2004), the importance of sales promotion is too numerous i.e. a key ingredient in marketing campaigns, consist of a divorce collection of incentive tools, short-term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers or the trade.

Some of the change in the marketing environment have pressurized for space in retail stone by manufactures.

According to Stanton, these force increase retailers demand for more sales promotional effort from their suppliers.

These days, most of consumer dis-satisfaction with respect to retail selling, could be reduced a good sales promotional, the trend away from the use of retail sales people toward self-service point up to the need for sales promotion. Sales promotion devices are of the only promotional materials available at the point of purchase.

Advertising media reach potential customers at their homes, at their places of business or in their travels when the time for buying arrives the impact of advertising may have worn off (or the prospect may not even have the advertisement). However, sales promotion device at the point of purchase inform remind or otherwise stimulate the buyer.

People, who see the promotion devices are excellent prospects.


Sales promotion stimulates sales. Sales promotion increased sales by attracting more customer to buy the products or service. It helps in keeping old customers, gaining new ones especially from competitors.

It encourages consumer to buy more of a product than activity can keep the product and company’ name in mind of the public for a long period of time.

It encourages dealers to stock more of a product than usual.

Udell stated that, the specific advantages of sales promotion includes:-

A, INVOLVEMENT:- Many sales promotions demand consumer participation, one of the best illustrations is sampling. The rational is that is a consumer actually use the products, a purchase is more likely than if the product has to compel in the market place supported solely by advertisement.

b- TANGIBLE VALUE:- Many sales promotion help cry talize the advantages the consumer can obtain.

c- MEASURABILITY- Many sales promotion provide the marketing team with measurable feed back for example, coupons, direct mail solicitation and trading stamps can be coded to provide information regarding how fast a particular offering is being accepted.

d- SEMENTION- Sales promotion can provide a specialized and memorable appeal to a desired segment of the market.

e- FLEXIBILITY- Various sales promotions can be used in combination over life cycle of the product.


Sales promotion has a short time effect, so it is not a good substitute for advertising.

Sales promotion if not well- planned and executed can stain the image of the product and the company for example, constant price- cutting can be regarded means that the quality of the product is not good or being termed as an inferior product, constant price. To price war, (Ndumele 1991).

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According to Belch etal (2001), communication is defined as the passing of information, the exchange of ideas, or the process of establishing a commonness or oneness of thought between a sender and a receiver. Theses definitions suggest that for communication to occur, these must be some common thinking between two parties and information must be passed from one person to another (or from one group to another). The communication process is often very complex. Success depends on such factors as the nature of the message, the audience’s interpretation of it and environment in which it is received. The receivers perception of the source and the medium used to transmit the message may also affect the ability to communicate, as do many other factors. Words, pictures, sound and colour may have different meaning to different audience, and people’s perceptions and interpretations of them vary.

Also according to Baker (2001), like advertising, promotion seeks to connect with the customer to generate awareness, inform, entertain, and generally persuade the customer to change their attitude and behaviour in the brands favour. Communication effectively requires the market to develop the right message, select an appropriate medium, and accurately target the campaign. When it comes to targeting, promotions are more flexible than advertising, which essentially presents are message at a timed to the entire audience (a shut gun’ approach).

Promotion can communicate different message to different customer groups.

Effective promotion requires effective communication with middlemen, dealers of information about the product & the company actions is a tool of sales promotion which promotion does not really communicate.

The more effective communication, the more purposeful the sales promotion will become. The communication may be casual on formative and persuasive, it is the persuasive communication that will effect and change the attitude and behaviour of target group.


Promotion strategy closely related to the process of communications.

A standard definition of communication is the transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver. Marketing communication then are those messages that deal with buyer-seller relationship, marketing communication is a broader term than promotional strategy since it includes word of mouth and other forms of unsystematic communication, a planned promotional strategy however is certainly the most important part of marketing.


To develop a prayer promotion mix and interacts effectively with consumer, the channel of communication must be understood.



In this chapter, the researcher stated his findings which was based on the data collected from the consumers and analyzed in chapter four above. Conclusion and recommendations were also made.


The analysis of data presented in chapter four above, the researcher came up with these following findings:

i. That most consumers purchase products of Life Breweries Plc during and after Sales promotion. The percentage of consumers who buys products of Life Breweries PLc is significantly high during Sales promotion activities.

ii. The researcher discovered that Sales promotion of products of Life Breweries Plc expose customers faster to the products.

iii. That there is a relationships between Sales promotion and the marketing of consumer product, so there is this strong believe that Sales promotion is an effective tool for marketing of consumer products.

iv. In this study, the researchers and observed that Sales promotion of Savanna and pineapple drinks which are products of Life Breweries Plc increase the company’s market share.


The recent rate of growth in Sales promotion activities appears to reflect the effectiveness of those marketing tools in influencing demand. In these study, Sales promotion is a very important promotional tool used for effective and efficient marketing of Savanna and pineapple drinks which are product of Life Breweries P.L.C Sales promotion provide a sound basis for improved activities in soft drink business. So in a competitive environment where other soft drink industries exist, heavy Sales promotion is required to attract higher patronage to product of Life Breweries plc and also assist them to better their Sales and improve the company’s image. It should be clear that the size of the company sales is determined by the level of the company sales promotion. Therefore sales promotion is a very crucial and control device that has to be updated from time to time to take cognizance of the present day market situation.


In view of the above findings, the following recommendations were made by the researcher.

i. The researcher observed that it is not only sales promotion that contributes to the sales of Savanna and pineapple drink which are products of Life Breweries PLC. Therefore, the researcher recommends that other promotional tools like Advertising, personal selling and publicity should be used effectively by the company to stimulate consumers patronage of it’s products.

ii. The major reason why consumers purchase more of a product during sales promotion campaign is to win more of the promised prices as such management should always be ready and willing to give out the prices to whoever wins. As this will alleviate the fear of wasting their money and time.

iii. Sales promotion duration is very crucial, for if the duration is too short the consumer may not have the time to participate in the promotion and if it is too long, view-out sets in and impact decreases, marketers should therefore device a means of setting of a reasonable time between promotion campaigns. Sales promotion can not be used in isolation therefore, companies should not rely on it too often. Consumers are rational in their decision they always want justification for the money paid for their purchases as a result of Life Breweries Company limited should always endeavour to measure the success or failure of sales promotion.

iv. The sales force of Life Breweries Plc should be properly trained in the art of salesmanship in other to help sales promotion do it’s job effectively.



Please kindly answer the questions below and tick where applicable



1. Gender: Male Female

2. Age bracket: 11-20 21-30

31-40 41-50

51-60 61and above

3. Employment: Civil servant student

Business tycoon Others

4. Education qualification: NCE and OND






1. Where is the product target of Life Breweries company Ltd located?

Onitsha Awka Nnewi

2. Do you buy any of the products of Life Breweries Company Ltd?

Yes No

3. Which of the under listed brand of Life Breweries do you frequently buy/consume?

Savanna drink pineapple drink

4. Do you prefer products of Life Breweries Ltd to other competiting brands of products?

Yes No

5. Why do you prefer Life Breweries products?

Quality Taste

Satisfaction All of the above

6. Do sales promotion activities of Life Breweries have any impact on your buying decision?

Yes No

7. How do you compare the sales promotion activities of Life Breweries to that of competiting companies?

More rewarding Less rewarding

More consumer oriented Less consumer oriented

8. How often do you purchase Life Breweries product during and after sales promotion exercise

Very frequently Less frequently

Daily Occasionally

9. How often do you purchase Life Breweries product before promotional exercise?

Very frequently Less frequently

Daily Occasionally

10. Do you accept Life Breweries Company Ltd as the market leader among the newly introduced soft drink industries?

Yes No

Sales Promotion – An Effective Tool For Marketing Of Consumer Products

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to

GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183

Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.  

Enter your email address:

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  1. Abel prince says:

    I dentify and discuss veriouse trade oriented sale promotion tool used by marketer to woo consumer to buy their product

  2. baba gana alhaji bukar says:

    marketing is an social by which a individuals organization group of obtained what they are need.

  3. arshadamin says:

    great info, it really gave me some new insights into the whole promotion thing, thanks 🙂

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