Sales Of Consumer Goods – Effectiveness Of Advertising

Sales Of Consumer Goods – Effectiveness Of Advertising: A Case Study Of Unilever Nigeria Plc, Lagos

Sales Of Consumer Goods – Effectiveness Of Advertising: A Case Study Of Unilever Nigeria Plc, Lagos

Advertising is a communication tool used to reach a wide and target audience with informative and persuasive message about a company, its activities and it’s product attributes.

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to

GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183

Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.  

The origin of advertising can be traced back to the days of the ancient Romans who usually pained walls to announce the arrival of warriors to battlefields. Also, during the Golden Age, the ancient Greeks had used town criers to chant the arrival of a ship to the harbour as well as in making public announcements. By the end of the industrial revolution, the introduction of printing press and radio houses had enlarged the scope of advertising beyond the expectation of this early advertising practitioners.

Today, advertising as a promo-tool is used by most organisations, be they profit making or non-profit making organs including churchs and the government. Advertising which have the objective of presenting, informing, convincing and persuading a target market through non-personal means (media) to buy a product or service is a necessary requirement for modern day marketing.

However, it is sad to recall the bad experience in product advertising in developing markets, especially as some products advertisement killed the product rather than persuading consumers to buy and living the objective unmet. The so many nick names given to marketing as a profession in Nigeria cannot be separated from this fact. No wonder people accuse advertising practitioners of exaggerating product performance while advertising.

Despite the trend so far, the reason why firms desire that their product be advertised and the road blocks hindering successful product advertisement are what this study intends to discover possible solutions for solving these problems of advertising pit falls will be recommended.

This research will concentrate only on two of the advertising media (the print and electronic media which are mostly used in present day advertising).

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In a competitive market environment the marketing managers is often faced with the problem of how to determine the nature of demand for his product in a given market segment. The problem also faced with is determining and isolating the factors responsible for the variation. In the demand pattern with reference to Unilever Nigeria Plc in particular and Nigeria in general. Various management of toilet soap, tooth-paste, detergents producing firms are faced with problem of not identifying suitable strategies for competing with competitors within the industries and that of determining the strength of various components of the promotional means for the purpose of stimulating demands of their products brands.

It has been estimated that the heaviest consumer of Unilever of Nigeria Plc product are the rural and semi-urban dwellers whose life stiles make for adequate exposure to the masses of an advertising message on various brands of Unilever Nigeria Plc product. Besides the nature and limited communication facilities available to these market segment initiate against the effectiveness of advertising as a tool to win the acceptance sustained by all of these market segments the various brand of the product. If this is so, question should be ask on the adequacy of the media of communication so far employed to reach these consumers and indeed the usefulness of millions of Naira that is sunk annually into advertising answers to this and some other related questions constitute the central task of this research study. The present state of Nigeria economy and in the face of the added problem of local sourcing of raw materials for the manufacturing of its company product, it is most desirable for firms to identify areas waste to reduce cost.

Other areas of concern are to what extent is the consumption of Unilever product or brand influencing their product advertising as opposed to other factors.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

These study have as its fundamental objective to do with the following

(i) To determine the effectiveness of advertising as a promotional tool in the marketing management process.

(ii) To define the problems usually associated with the advertising of consumer goods by the organisation under study.

(iii) To determine the strength and importance of evaluations relating to other factors that motivates consumer product choice.

(iv) To suggest ways of improving he effectiveness of advertising campaigns for Unilever Nigeria Plc’s products.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The essence of every research work is either to fund out certain things for the first time or to improve on certain assumptions put up by certain authorities. The improvement is either in form of upholding such assumptions or disproving them. This is just what this research work is aimed at achieving.

However, to be able to carry out this research work, it is imperative to enumerate hypothesis that would be used or to be tested. The null hypothesis (Ho) and the alternative hypothesis (Hi).

1. Ho: Advertising does not give a positive result compare to other wheels of promotion.

Hi: Advertising gives a positive result compare to other wheels of promotion.

2. Ho: Consumer does not seek additional information about the product advertised.

Hi: Consumer seek additional information about the product advertised.

3. Ho: Evaluation of advertising effectiveness does not increase the sale of consumer goods of Unilever product.

Hi: Evaluation of advertising effectiveness increasing the sales of consumer goods of Unilever product.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

It is hoped that this study will help in the proper used of advertising as a promotional tool by firms. The recommendation of this study will help the organization to position and tailor their products to meet the needs of the target market and will help them to plan their marketing activities so as to define their target market and gain knowledge of the reasons for poor performance of a product brand.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study will revolve around distributors, and retailers of Unilever Products within Lagos metropolis. Due to lack of finance and insufficient time only two of their advertising media will be studied (the print and elections media).

Indeed, I wish to place on record that some difficulties were encountered in the course of my investigation. There were some records which the organization felt should not be made known to the public because this the secret of it’s survival. It was not also easy getting the top management staff to give vital information.

The study was really demanding and challenging considering the time and money expended on the investigation.

2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Advertising is a powerful communication tool used to reach a wide target audience with informative and persuasive message about a company and its product attributes. American marketing Association defines advertising as any controlled paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor that is used to inform and persuade a selected market through the media.

The root of advertising is dated back to early history. The use of signs to announce various events and offers. Advertising as a matter of fact is not a new activity of modern industrialist but an ancient practice.

The urge to advertise seems to be a part of human nature practiced since ancient time. In doing this, the ancient Romans usually painted wall to announce the approach of warriors. Also in Greek, town criers were used during the Golden age as a form of advertising. They relied on town criers to chant the arrival of ship to the harbours as well as making public announcement.

Advertising in one way or the other has been in practice for the past 5000 years. Early excavation in Baby lonia uncovered inscriptions, which were interpreted by archaelogist as a form of advertising by an ointment dealer and a shoe maker. About 1000BC in Italy, most of these signs were in symbolic form which were interpreted as advertising for certain services. For example a carpenter would be represented by a saw and chisel.

The advertising concept took a new dimension with the advent of the printing press. The Bible was the first book to be printed in 1450 AD. The industrial revolution gave the biggest boost to advertising along with a geometrical growth in education and transportation facilities. The mechanization and automation of industries changed the entire relationship between the maker and the user of the goods standardization and specialization concept produced goods faster than they could be absorbed in the immediate region. Advertising thus provided a vehicle to promote the sales of these goods in other areas with the rapid development of the transportation system. Until the electronic media appeared in the 20th Century, newspapers, magazines and direct mail literature constituted the main channels of mass advertisement. More sophisticated printing technologies and composing processes led to the boom in newspapers and magazines in the western countries and also in the emerging nations of third world. Consequently, the support in the printed advertisement with the appearance of the electronic media especially that of television with powerful audio visual display. These media became the bulk carriers of adverts. However, as a result of the media competitiveness, new innovations in the format, designs and scripting took place and creativity developed with emphasis on measurable results.

2.2 IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING

Advertising is an important ingredients of the marketing mix and aids marketing efforts in so many ways. In creating awareness, it helps in introducing a new product into the market with the nature of marketing plans. There is no way to make the public aware of the existence of the new product without advertising as it is more helpful if new product is introduced by a company that is already known to the target market.

– Advertising informs the target market about special features of a product. The existing product may be modified for simplicity and convenience and advertising can focus on these added features.

– Advertising persuades potential consumers that a particular product is superior to the competing products. This can be achieved either by stating the superior features of the product in the advertising campaigns or asking some consumers to conduct comparison tests between the products advertised and the competitors product and then advertising the test as well as the conclusion.

– Advertising helps in sustaining the market share of the established product and by reinforcing the benefits or continued product usage increases the market share of the product.

– Advertising help to educate the market of the new product usage thereby serving as an advisory body to the users of that product.

– Advertising help to educate the market of the new product usage thereby serving as an advisory body to the users of that product.

– Advertising is useful in securing sales leads. This can occur by enclosing coupons and returnable post cards in newspapers and magazines.

– Advertising builds a positive image of the company that sells the product advertised. Most often a new product sells in the market because of the company behind it.

2.3 PROBLEMS OF ADVERTISING

Advertising as one of the wheels of promotion has it’s shortcomings. One of these problems is that any cost incurred before during and after a product is produce must directly or indirectly affects the final consumer of that product. In like manner advertising adds to the cost of products and services, which is then passed on to the consumer. Advertising could be misleading as it persuades people to buy products that they don’t really want. Most often people go for shopping as a result of the information heard about a particular product not undermining the important of that product to them at that point in time.

Advertising affects interpersonal relationship. This is done by perpetuating stereotyped sex roles. It is primarily on television commercial and women are mostly involve in these roles.

Advertising media like television advertising has a way of influencing the behaviours of children and this could have a negative effect on them as a result of the visual display on the screen. In view of this the purpose of the message will be defeated as the receiver turn to another channel.

2.4 MEASURING THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING

Excellent coverage of local market. Advertising can be placed and changed quickly, can be saved, consumer response, low cost (newspapers).

Reaches extremely large audience uses pictures, print, sound and motion for effects can target specific audience (television).

Low cost, local market focus high visibility, opportunity for repeat exposures (Bill Board).

Can target specific audience high –quality colours, long life of advertising, advertising can be clipped and saved, convey complex information (magazine).

Low cost, can target specific audience, can be placed quickly, can use sound, humor, intimacy effectively (radio).

Rest for targeting specific audience, very flexible and measurable (direct mail).

While reviewing the literature on the subject under study, the researcher discovered that much work has not been done by scholars. And the few literature were on text book, journals, news papers and magazines.

Nkogu (1972,p.22) noted that one major problems faced by industry today is lack of capital to run the business. According to her, effective jobs requires huge capital out lay.

Most people would have loved to set up an advertising agency but explained that the problem is compounded by the fact that the finance between most agencies and their customers is in indelible condition. If the customer fail to pay, the agency find it difficult to run production cost. Nkogu (1972) “maintained that. “Advertising as a profession requires skill man power to man the affairs of the industry. He believed that, the selection for creativity is manned by expatriates with the indigenization decree, it is very necessary to get professional into the business”.

G.N. Umesi, in support of Mr. B. Solara stated that some companies do not have qualified personnel to run the business. He further stated that some of the Nigerians who become captains of the advertising industries were ill-equiped in terms of management and leadership can make any industry not to have a good audience in the society.

Dogboje (1992, p.19) in support of Umesi noted that if government advertising were handled by professional things would be different. He suggested the use of better government radio commercials, better written press advertisement as well as better produce and consequence more stimulating government television commercials.

In the Nigeria business industry, most business tycoon as are either illiterates or semi-literate Nkogu was of the same view, when she pointed out that a good number of them were uninformed as regards the benefits of advertising. It was further emphasized that some businessman were ashamed of claiming responsibilities for their products and this occurred mainly where the product is of low quality they preferred personal selling to advertising through a media as it was believed that advertising is waste of money.

Olusola (1994, p. 9) in the same path of reasoning felt that, those people were misinformed and did not hold the same view”.

Oligbenga (1989, p.7) opined that “ some Nigeria companies do play down on advertising because of the mistake belief of seller market mentality, concion investment, he pointed out that those who did not advertise have refused to sell, that in a completive market, the likely people that will suffer are those who did not advertise their product.

Those who embark on advertising enjoy the fruit of their labour. He noted that it has been noticed that it was mainly the big marketers and producers that embark on advertisement. And those who advertise control an untapped wealth”.

Larviyan (1989,p.24) in his own view opined that, “small marketer who are not encouraging customers to buy impulse goods are missing opportunities to increase sales because many people act on the spur of the moment”.

Nkogu further noted that, “ the complexity of the Nigeria. Society in terms of customers, beliefs and traditions posses a problem in the advertising world. She stressed that the Nigeria society despite her race for civilization still have a lot of her traditional pattern in life some through illiterate, still look into Nigeria“.

Olusola (Ibid) on the fate of advertising maintained that, “most Nigerians perceived advertising as a corrosive element in our society. He further stated that the audience were of the opinion that the advertisers are exploiter, manipulate a vast, range of human fears and they try to find already boated corporate beast“.

According to him some industries think that, “the over sea gentlemen are better at the job. His question was for how long would that be done.

In support of G. N Umesi opinion is that, Nigerian advertising industry has been growing and it has grown, it is of age to take care of itself and activities“.

Okwuego (1994, p.7) stated that I strongly believe that every commercial transmits some information by transmitting visual and audio stimuli that provide meaning clues to at least some portion or the audience“.

In every advertising message, there must be an important information to gatter, marcus et al (1987) in support of Okwuego said that, advertising must significant as a means of promotion. Communication is the ability to transmit a message simultaneously to a large number of people“.

Nwachukwu (1991, p. 28) opined that “advertising as used today is primarily a form of propaganda. The essence of propaganda is that it condition people to act in a way favourable to or desired by the propagandist “13.

In business, it is used primarily by sellers to obtain a market by conditioning people in the market to accept the particular product offered. Nwachukwu said that for any meaningful result to be achieved from amounts spent on advertising, advertising media strategy has to become inevitable. He further noted that it has become necessary that every advertiser big or small should be concerned with how to reach large number of persons with profites agreeable with those of their target markets”.

Today, many companies have recognized the need to explain their activities in order to gain public favour and support and also to correct false impressions. This is done to let the public know their offer, and subsequently to change people attitude towards the company and its products.

Here advertising serves as a forum through which an organization exposes, promotes and defend or explain its policies and in a bid to obtain public goodwill. It also enhances potential buyers response to the organization and its offerings. It seek to do this by providing information by channeling desire and by supplying reasons for preferring a particular organization offer.

The basic assumption here is that for an organization to thrive, the consuming public must be aware of what the organization has to offer and bulding of goodwill so that the public will adopt a favourable attitude towards the organization.

Drill (1983, p. 15) in his research study on impact of advertising said that, “advertising influences people buying habit before they know what they are doing, that is why advertiser strive to penetrate the minds of their prospective customers by constant repetition of their message“.

Umeh and Umanta (2002, p. 110) defined advertising as a non-personal massage paid for by an identifies sponsor, about a product, aimed at mass audience with the objective of positively influencing buyers and increasing sales”.

From this we can say that advertising is non personal form of communication that is to say that there is no face to face communication. It is conducted through a medium which conveys the message to the target market. The message has to be designed to suit the particular target market so that they can comprehend retain and retrieve the information when the need arises.

For any advertisement to be useful, it’s copy has to incorporate the AIDA formular which has an appealing way of attracting attention of the reader so that the advert will be read to arouse the interest of the reader to create desire for the product to establish an ultimate public patronage of the product.

Gues in his book “marketing said that advertising is a impersonal form of communication aim essentially at persuading customers and potential customers to adopt a favourable attitude to an identified organization product or services“.

It is also worthy to note that the sale representatives, middlemen and advertising agencies form an integrated communication network for sending message about a product to prospective consumers.

Vance Richard in “Hidden persuaders”, believes that, advertising make large scale efforts to channel our thinking habit, our purchasing decision and our thought process by the use of insight cleared from psychiatry, usually take place beneath our level of consciousness“.

Other critics still contend that advertising superiority enable large existing producer, to block new competition from entering the market and results in the establishment of monopolies with high prices and profits.

J.C facheson, a renowed economist made basic assumption on why he believe that advertising reduce competition.

i. That advertising by established firms changes consumers taste and creates durable brands loyalties.

ii. That there are increasing returns of advertising, but advertising is not without merits weathering all these criticisms. Advertising has recently found an astonishing new role in society assisted by many important development of our time such as the communication technology, the growth and entrainment, high productivity and popular influence specialization and professionalism and large scale commercial organization in furthering this development.

The important of advertising to man is this system of economic efficiency as a consumer is made possible by bringing varied product at varied prices in a convenient shop. This awareness is created by advertising, which come to him through various media. Television programmes are shown free of charge to consumers. This is made possible through advertising.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 SOURCES OF DATA

Both primary and secondary data was employed by the researchers in carrying out this research so as to gather valid and reliable information that satisfies the research question in the drafted questionnaire and the study in general.

Primary data was generated from the field with the use of questionnaire and oral interview, while the secondary data’s for the study was collected from company periodicals of Unilever Nigeria Plc, Lagos, text books, journals, magazines and news papers.

3.2 POPULATION OF STUDY

The study population comprised of the management and staff of Unilever Nigeria Plc, Lagos, and the distributors of Unilever products in Lagos metropolis.

3.3 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE

[A] Sample size of distributors: To determine the sample size, since the total population of the distributors is not known Topman’s formular will be applied.

The formula is given as:

n = Z2 pq

e2

Where:

n = Required sample size

Z = The value of Z- score associated with the degree of confidence selected

p = probability of positive response

q = Probability of negative response

e = the tolerable error or error margin.

In doing this, a pilot survey was first carried out in which a random sample of 40 distributors were interviewed. 25 distributors agreed that they distribute Unilever products while 15 distributors said they do not.

Therefore, the proportion of those who distribute Unilever product is 25/40 [i.e. P = [25/40] while the proportion of distributors who do not distribute Unilever product is 15/40 [ i.e. q = 15/40].

By applying this proportion and using Topman’s formular we can calculate the sample size as shown below.

n = Z2pq

e2

Where:

Z = -90% or 1.96 [this value can be gotten using the z-score table].

p = 25/40 or 0.6

q = 15/40 or 0.3

e = 5% or 0.05

n = [1.96]2 X 06 X 0.3

[0.05]2

n = 3.84 X 0.6 X 0.3

0.0025

n =276.48

n = 276

[B] Sample size determination for management and staff of Unilever Nigeria Plc, Lagos. Information gotten from the personnel office reveals that they have sixty-five [65] staff. Therefore, since they are not many, 65 questionnaires were distributed to them and fifty [50] was returned.

3.4 SAMPLING PROCEDURE

In order to give an unbiased result, the researcher used probability sampling method which states that every member of the relevant population has an equal chance of being selected with the probability of this selection known. The simple random sampling technique was used in picking individual respondents.

3.5 SELECTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

The research instrument used in this study was questionnaire. Questionnaire is the most widely used instrument for data collection in educational research. The type of the questionnaire used is of multiple choice questions. This is so for the respondent to have alternative answer and make it easier for them to answer the questions.

3.6 ADMINISTRATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

The questionnaires were administered in the manner to cross check responses by the staff and management. The method used in distributing questionnaires was a direct method which the researcher gave out the questionnaire and collected it by herself. In order to obtain the response of the respondent.

3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

The researcher extracting useful information from collected data, employed some analytical statistical tools such as; simple percentage tables and frequencies, in the presentation of data collected for the research work, to test likely variation in answers supplied by respondents to the various questions.

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0 INTRODUCTION

This chapter is all about the presentation and analysis of the data.

From this chapter, the data collected in the course of this research work as well as the analysis of the data on which the findings and conclusion is based on will be treated. Test of hypothesis and data presentation will be treated using simple percentage and chi-square [X2].

4.1 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR MANAGEMENT AND STAFF

QUESTION EIGHT

Is advertising system more beneficial to Unilever Nigeria Plc Products?

Table 4.1

Option Management and staff Responses Percentage (%)

Yes 40 80

No 10 20

Total 50 100

Source: Survey Research, 2006.

From the above table, 80% of the respondent agreed that advertising system is more beneficial to Unilever Nigeria Plc while 20% of the respondents disagreed.

QUESTION ELEVEN

Do advertising lead to higher sales volume of your company product?

Table 4.2

Option Management and staff Responses Percentage (%)

Yes 41 82

No 9 18

Total 50 100

Source: Survey Research, 2006.

From the above table 82% of the respondents agreed that advertising leads to higher sales volume of the company’s products.

QUESTION TWELVE

How often do you advertise your product?

Table 4.3

Option Management and staff Responses Percentage (%)

Yes 30 60

No 20 40

Total 50 100

Source: Survey Research, 2006.

From the above table 60% of the respondents said that the product is advertised often, while 40% gave a contrary view.

QUESTION THIRTEEN

Among the wheels of promotion, does advertising give a positive result compared to others?

Table 4.4

Option Management and staff Responses Percentage (%)

Yes 42 84

No 8 16

Total 50 100

Source: Survey Research, 2006.

From the above table, 84% of the respondent agreed that advertising gives a positive result compare to others, while 16% of the respondents disagreed?

QUESTION FOURTEEN

Do consumers seek additional information about the products advertised?

Table 4.5

Option Management and staff Responses Percentage (%)

Yes 49 98

No 1 2

Total 50 100

Source: Survey Research, 2006.

From the above table 98% of the respondents agreed that consumers seek additional information about the product advertised while 2% of the respondents gave contrary views.

QUESTION FIFTEEN

Does advertising of your product educate potential buyers on the product usage?

Table 4.6

Option Management and staff Responses Percentage (%)

Yes 39 78

No 11 22

Total 50 100

Source: Survey Research, 2006.

From the above table, 78% of the respondents agreed that product advertising educate the potential buyers, while 22% of the respondents disagreed.

QUESTION SIXTEEN

Does evaluation of advertising effectiveness increase the sales of consumer goods of Unilever’s product?

Table 4.7

Option Management and staff Responses Percentage (%)

Yes 45 90

No 5 10

Total 50 100

Source: Survey Research, 2006.

From the above table, 90% of the respondents agreed that evaluation of advertising effectiveness increases the sales of consumer goods of Unilever’s product.

ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR DISTRIBUTORS

Question 1: Do you ever feel the impact of the advertising activities of Unilever in your areas?

Table 4.8

Option Management and staff Responses Percentage (%)

Yes 200 74.63

No 68 25.37

Total 268 100

Source: Survey Research, 2006.

From the table above 74.63% of the respondents agreed that they feel the impact of the advertising activities of Unilever in their area. While 25.37% says they do not.

Question 2: How do you assess the effects of advertising on Unilevers product?

Table 4.9

Option Frequency Percentage (%)

Effective 238 88.81

Not effective 30 11.19

Total 268 100

Source: Survey Research, 2006.

From the above table, it is indicated that 88.81% of the respondents assessed the effects of advertising on Unilevers product as effective while 11.19% says it is not.

Question 3: Are the advertised products of Unilever Nigeria Plc of reliable quality?

Table 4.10

Option Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 268 100

No — —

Total 268 100

Source: Survey Research, 2006.

The above table shows that 100% of the respondents agreed that advertising Unilever products are reliable quality.

Question 5: Does the advertising message of Unilever Nigeria Plc make people buy more of their products?

Table 4.11

Option Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 140 52.24

No 128 47.76

Total 268 100

Source: Survey Research, 2006.

From the above table, it is indicated that 52.24% of respondents says that advertised message increases sales while 47.76% disagreed that it does not.

This means every advert done about a product should be able to pass a good message about the product to the audience.

4.2 HYPOTHESIS TESTING

The hypothesis will be tested by using the appropriate statistical method, that is chi-square [X2]

The formular for the chi-square is:

X2 =  [O – E]2

E

Where:

O = Observed frequency

E = Expected frequency

X2 = Chi-square

 = Summation

Step 1 Ho: Consumers do not seek additional information about the product advertised.

Hi: Consumers seek additional information about the product advertised.

Step 2: The statistical text is X2 = [oi – Ej]2

Ej

Step 3: The level of significance is 5% i.e. = 0.05

Step 4: The degree of freedom is given by [K – 1] [c -1] i.e.

d.f = [K -1] [C -1]

Where K = Number of rows and C = Number of

column.

d.f [2 – 1] [2-1]

[1] X [1] = 1

Step 5: The critical value is given as X2 = 3.841

Step 6: Computation of test statistic using table 2. Response

of management and staff to whether advertising

lead to higher sales volume of Unilever product.

Option O E

Yes 41 25

No 9 25

Total 50 50

Where: O = Observed frequency

E = Expected frequency

Expected frequency = Total frequency

Number of options/Alternative responses

E = 50/2 = 25

X2 = [O –E]2

E

[41 – 25]2 + [9 – 25]2

25 25

= [16]2 + [-16]2

25 25

= 256 + 256

25 25

= 10.24 + 10.24

= 20.48

Step 7: Comparing the test statistic with the critical value

20.48 > 3.841

Step 8: Decision rule: Since the calculated value of X2 is greater than the critical or table value, we reject the null hypothesis. We therefore conclude that advertising leads to higher sale volume of Unilever product.

Hypothesis 2

Step 1. Ho: Among the wheels promotion advertising does not give a positive result compared to others.

Hi: Among the wheels of promotion advertising give a positive result compare to others.

Step 2: The statistical test is X2 = [Oi – Ej]

Ei

Step 3: The level of significance is 5% i.e = 0. 05

Step 4: The degree of freedom is given by

[K – 1] [C -1] i.e. d.f = [K -1] [c -1]

Where K = number of rows

C = Number of column

d.f = [2 -1] [2 -1]

[1] X [1]

= 1

Step 5: The critical value is given as X2 = 3.841

Step 6: Computation of test statistic using table 4. Response Management and staff to whether among the

wheels of promotion advertising gives a positive

result compared to other.

Option O E

Yes 42 25

No 8 25

Total 50 50

Where O = observed frequency

E = Expected frequency

Expected frequency = Total frequency

Number of option/Alternative response

E = 50/25 = 25

X2 = [O – E]2

E

= [42 -25]2 + [8 – 25]2

25 25

 

= (17)2 + (-17)2

25 25

= 289 + 289

25 25

= 11.56 + 11.56

= 23.12

Step 7: Comparing the test statistic with the critical value

23.12 > 3.841

Step 8: Decision rule: Since the calculated value of X2 is greater than the critical or table value, we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative Hypothesis that among the wheels of promotion advertising gives a positive result compared to others.

Hypothesis [3]

Step 1 Ho: The advertised products of Unilever Nigeria Plc are of reliable quality.

Hi: The advertised products of Unilever Nigeria Plc are not of reliable quality.

Step 2: The statistical text is X2 = [Oi – Ej]2

Ej

Step 3: The level of significance is 5% i.e. = 0.05

Step 4: The degree of freedom is given by

[K -1] [C- 1] i.e. d.f = [k -1] [C.1]

Where: K = Number of column

d.f [2.1] [2.1]

[1] X [1] = 1

Step 5: The critical value is given as X2 = 3.841

Step 6: Computation of test statistics using table 10. Responses of distributors to whether the advertised products of Unilever Nigeria Plc are of reliable quality.

Option O E

Yes 268 134

No 0 134

Total 268 268

Expected frequency = Total frequency

Number of option/Alternative responses

E = 268

2 = 134

 

X2 = [O –E]2

E

= [268 – 134]2 + [O – 134]2

134 134

= [134]2 + [- 134]2

134 134

= 17956 + 17956

136 136

= 134 + 134

= 268

Step 7: Comparing the test statistic with the critical value

268 > 3.841

Step 8: Decision rule: Since the calculated value of X2 is greater than the critical or table value, we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis that that the advertised products of Unilever Plc are of reliable quality.

5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

Evaluation of advertising effectiveness in sales of consumer goods is without doubt major ways in determining the effectiveness of a particular operation in an organization. Advertising is an important tool of promotion, a powerful communication tool used to reach a wide target audience with informative and persuasive message about a company product and its attributes. It helps to reinforce our existing patterns of behaviour to a great benefit. Based on this facts, evaluation of advertising effectiveness has achieved its purpose positively on the sales of consumers goods of Unilever Nigeria Plc. This process has enable the organization to improve for future endeavours.

However, this has help to improve the quality of message by the media house and therefore increase sales with a particular reference to the production of Unilever Nigeria PLC.

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the shortcomings attributed to this research work, the following recommendations are therefore made.

1. Evaluation and appraisal should be carried out yearly to boost media house efficiency and effectiveness.

2. the organization should as well use sales promotion in giving bonanza to potential customer as an additional value to advertising messages.

3. The use of visual display should be encourage as this brings more understanding to audience especially for those that cannot read non-hear.

4. The company (in this case) Unilever Nigeria PLc should have a cordial relationship with their advertising agency or agencies so as to promote healthy advertisement messages for their products.

5.3 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, advertising effectiveness are major ways to avallening the survival of an organization. To this end, there is the need for Unilever Nigeria PLC to recognize the importance of advertising evaluation as it helps in improving advertising effectiveness, strengthen advertising agency, increasing the sales volume of Unilever Nigeria PLC, increase performance and productivity and all what not.

Finally it has been observed that the success and failure of any organization lies on the competitive strength of its product in the market. Therefore, the management must adhere to all the stated shortcomings in there recommendation if the organization must survive.

REFERENCES

Anayo Anake Boniface (1993), Achieving advertising effectiveness through programme sponsorship in Broadcast media May advertising bulletin.

Bervourtz N. Epio & Co (1989): Marketing today advertising second edition Illinoos Irwin Homwood.

Daodu Olugbenga (1989), Promotion and Marketing business Time, 21st March 1989.

Dogboje C.A (1992). Improving Government Image through advertising. Business time 30th June. Page 19.

Dogbole C.A (1990) Improving Government Image through advertising. Business Time February 1990.

Kotler P., (2000): Marketing Management, 10th Edition, India, Prentice-Hall.

Larviyan J.S (1989): Impulse purchasing Business Times: 12th December. Page 24.

McCarthy E. J., Williams D. P., Richard D. I., (1990): Basic Marketing, 10th Edition New York, McGraw-Hill Inc.

Nkwogu S.E (1972). Assessment of Advertising Industry in Nigeria. December, page 22.

Nwachukwu E.G. (1991). Promotional activities of carpet manufacturing companies in Nigeria Business Times June edition, page 28.

Okugo C.C (1994) Advertising, the Audience in Nigeria context. Business Time May 16th. Page 7.

Olusala S. (1994) Advertising, the audience in Nigeria Context Business Time page 9.

Ozo, et al (1999), Introduction to project writing for Business and Financial Studies. Enugu, Sunny Enterprises, Nigeria

Umeh George, I. and Ude Umanta E. (2002) Principles of Modern Marketing Enugu, Jones Communication publishers

QUESTIONNAIRE

Please tick in the space box provided to indicate your appropriate response.

Subject: EVALUATION OF ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS ON THE SALES OF CONSUMER GOODS. A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC, LAGOS

SECTION A

1. What is your name (optional)

2. Marital status

(a) Single (b) Married (c) Divorce

3. Age range

(a) 16 – 25 (b) 26 –35 (c) 36 –45

(d) 46- 55 (e) 56 and above

4. Sex

(a) Male (b) Female

5. Educational Qualification

(a) O’level (b) OND/NCE (c) HND/ B.Sc

(d) Master (e) PHD

6. What position do you occupy in the company?

(a) Cleaner (b) Operator (c) Supervisor

(d) Manager (e) Director

7. Are the distributors better motivated to carry the product now than in the past?

(a) Yes (b) No

8. Is your advertising system beneficial to the Unilever Nigeria PLC Product?

(a) Yes (b) No

9. Are the retailers getting the quality products?

(a) Yes (b) No

10. Does advertising lead to higher sales volume of your company products

(a) Yes (b) No

11. How often do you advertising your products?

(a) Monthly (b) quarterly

(c) When the need arise

12. Among other promotion tools, does advertising give a positive result compared to other?

(a) Yes (b) No

13. Do consumers seek additional information about the product advertised?

(a) Yes (b) No

14. Does advertising of your product educate potential buyer of your products the usage?

(a) Yes (b) No

15. Does company on product quality or advertising for profits?

(a) Product quality (b) Advertising

16. Does evaluation of advertising effectiveness increase the sales of consumer goods of Unilever’s product?

(a) Yes (b) No

SECTION B

DISTRIBUTOR

1. Do you ever feel the presence of advertising activities of Unilever Nigeria PLC in your area?

(a) Yes (b) No

2. How do you evaluate the effects of advertising on Unilever’s product?

(a) Effective (b) Not effective

3. Are the advertised products of Unilever Nigeria PLC of reliable quality?

(a) Yes (b) No

4. How do you first know about the existence of Unilever Nigeria PLC’s product?

(a) Through Advertising (b) By knowledge

5. Does the advertising message of Unilever Nigeria PLC make people buy their product?

(a) Yes (b) No

Sales Of Consumer Goods – Effectiveness Of Advertising: A Case Study Of Unilever Nigeria Plc, Lagos

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to

GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183

Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.  

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner

Speak Your Mind

*