Rural-urban Migration And Its Effect On Housing In Abakaliki Urban

Rural-urban Migration And Its Effect On Housing In Abakaliki Urban

Rural-urban Migration And Its Effect On Housing In Abakaliki Urban

Rural-Urban migration can be said to be a characteristics of developing nations of the world. It is no longer a phenomenon that can be seen or noticed in the industrialized or developed worlds in the sense that it is difficult to distinguish between rural and urban areas.

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What therefore exists in available rural areas to urban center is ready available in rural areas.

The case is different in developing countries. The rate of migration from the rural areas to the urban in the developing nations is so alarming because of the concentration of all the good schools, electricity, pipe-born water, health facilities and also industries in the cities. The provision of what is referred to as social amenities in the urban centers constitutes a factor that attract migration from rural to urban areas.

In addition the availability of employment opportunities and others, tend to bring rural-urban migration. Inspite of the fact that it is very necessary that we continue the development of urban centers, it is good that those infrastructural amenities which attract people to the urban area be provided in the rural areas, because this is one of the ways to check rural-urban migration.

One of the consequences of rural-urban migration is over population in which brings shortage of accommodation in the urban areas. Although Abakaliki is not yet Urbanized, still the problem of accommodation is already with the town. This forms the background from where this study arises.



Since Abakaliki became the state capital of Ebonyi state, a lot of people have migrated and still migrate from the rural areas and even from some urban areas and even from some urban areas into it. They come in search of job opportunities, apprenticeship trading, school etc. due to this migration of people from different areas into Abakaliki urban, problems of accommodation started. Over population in the area has lead to overcrowding. Many people live in crowded areas which affected the health and living standard of people.

Many house holds use a Kitchen and a bathroom in a building. Dust bins litter everywhere in the town. These lead to environment pollution in Abakaliki urban. Over crowding increases the risk of disease infection, rates of crime, social disorganization etc. This problematic situation prompted this study.



The questions to guide this study are:

1. What are the effect of rural – urban migration on housing in Abakaliki urban?

2. What are the relationships between urban migration status and quality of dwelling in Abakaliki



The general objective of this study is to investigate the issue of rural-urban migration with a view to asartaining its effect on urban housing. This research takes the following specific objectives.

i. To know the effect of rural-urban migration on housing in Abakaliki

ii. To know the effect of rural-urban migration in living standard of people on housing in Abakaliki urban

iii. To consider the factors that makes people to migrate from rural to urban areas.



This work is hope to provides good understanding for the subject matter under study, thus, they will be of immense help in tackling the problem of its practical perspective.

For long, Nigeria government have formulated policies without the support of theoretical background. This study will, therefore supply so much needed background, if only Nigerian government will value the contributions of University trained minds.

Most of the developed countries today are great because they make use and still make use of research findings, which often originate from research work findings, which often originate from research work as one being conducted currently.

Furthermore, this study will also be of great benefit to future research. This type of work or study will equally be vital to town planners and government, so as to know how to minimize the issue of rural-urban migration and its consequences, this will, in fact help to determine how best the rural-urban will equate with resources, and also equal distribution of essential commodities to rural and urban area.

This research work will also help the urban planner to plan the urban structures in the way that it will accommodate people.

Finally, this work intends to find ways of controlling rural-urban migration consequences by putting some relevant solution to that effect.




This is a society where the social structures are at primary level, that is, not complicated in this type of society. Pattern of relationship is personalized and collective homogeny is emphasized here.


According to United Nation (UN) 1969:19, specification, an urban society is that society with about 200 inhabitants. It is society characterized by complex society structure and industrialization, relationship in impersonal and culture is heterogeneous.

With all this points been mentioned, Abakaliki is still a semi urban compared to other urban areas like Lagos, Enugu, Benin, Ibadan etc. because of the structures and pattern of building in the urban area of Abakaliki.



This implies the movement of individual or groups from one place of residence to another with the intention of remaining in the new place for some substantial period of time.



For the purposes of assessing some of the variable that influence rural-urban migration in Abakaliki urban, two number of hypothesis are put forward for testing.

(1) That rural-urban migration is related to inadequate infrastructural amenities in Abakaliki urban.

(2) That rural-urban migration generate unemployment.



According to Okereke (2004:156) Abakaliki capital territory covers 15kilimeters radius. It is the seat of Ebonyi State Government.

Before 1996 Abakaliki urban was only a local government secretariat.

In Abakaliki urban, there is many roads that leads to various streets and roads in Abakaliki urban

The government house of Ebinyi state is located along Ogoja road, along that Ogoja road there are many banks such as Union bank, first bank plc, Diamond bank and other banks along the same road. The state police headquarter is also located in the Ogoja road, now known as Sam O. Egwu way.

Abakaliki urban has some noticeable roads like Izza road, Gunning Road, Onwe road, Afikpo road, and others. Abakaliki urban has well constituted places where people lives such as kpirikpiri, Izza road,water works road, udemezua etc. in Abakaliki urban Izza road is a place where the commissioners, Doctors and other top government officers lives.

In terms of economic aspect of life Abakaliki urban have a very big market that generate a very big revenue for the state such as Abakpa main market, Rice mill Market, kpirikpiri market etc.

In population, Abakaliki urban is mostly populated by business men and women which come from different part of the world.

In terms of politics, Abakaliki is well known in politics because they have well trained politicians in Abakaliki urban ,.

In terms of schools in Abakaliki urban, there is many schools both secondary schools, primary, university and others in the urban, in Abakaliki urban there is parks and round about which links to different streets and roads in Abakaliki urban.

Religions in Abakaliki urban, there is Christians religion, Moslem religion, and also traditional religion in the town, but the most noticeable ones are the Christians religions like, Catholic Church, Anglican, Methodist, Deeper life, Grace family church and other churches in Abakaliki urban.

Finally Abakaliki urban is well plan with amenities like pipe-born water, electricity, good roads, electricities and socio amenities that give urban areas good structures.




Literatures are revived in the following key areas; namely meaning and clarification of rural-urban migration, the causes of rural to urban migration, social-economic consequence on urban migration, social-economic consequence on urban society, the theoretical view-points and the statement of hypothesis.



Several writers and commentators see rural urban migration from divergent perspective, depending on their background and assumptions. Migration as a whole has always posed a serious problem to human settlement either in the form of over population or in the form of depopulation, this problem has evoked a number of studies by prominent researches and continues to draw the attention of social scientists down the centuries. The continuous investigation into the issue of migration has led to the handling of the problem from many perspective with a variety of conclusion. In the cause of their finding these researcher viewed migration as a result of various factors in which the consequences are numerous, some see political factors as responsible, some argue in line with religious and educational needs, some see over population as a consequence of migration while some believe that the unemployment problem is its consequence, also others argue strongly that its off-shot is the inherent accommodation problem, nevertheless others see pollution and dirty environment as its consequences. In effect, all these assumption, about rural to urban migration will be now be reviewed. In the process of the review, the researchers wishes to inform his reader that the review would be organized and done in part by part, in part one we see the causes of rural urban migration while part two deal with the social economic consequences of rural-urban society.



Blair T.I(1974) argued that “migrant workers and their families” are on the move to the cities in most parts of the world as a part of a massive international trade in man-power, the working class migrants are down to the cities with the hope tomorrow, filled with renumerative employment, better housing, education and higher living standard”.

Makinwa K.P(1982) in his own view pointed out that “the overall evidence from Nigerian studies indicate economic condition as playing decisive role in rural to urban migration. Accordingly, the result of the increasing rate of rural to urban migration is too rapid population growth of the cities resulting in a plethora of urban problem.

White P. Etal (1980) maintained solidly that the normative explanation of migration is a response to economic wage rate fluctuation this, they believed that migration occurs because migrant, believed that they will be more satisfied economically and otherwise in the place that they move to than in the place from which they come”.

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Arguing strongly on the ground, BOGUE D.J. and BURGESS (1997) said that economic determinism is the major cause of migration to them employment opportunity is the most salient reason for rural to urban migration propelled by the need for survival therefore, economic motive is the major reason among the multiple causative is the major factor of migration hence the characteristics response in any part of the world to poverty, degrading environmental condition and the lack of opportunities for personal advancement in rural area is migration to town.



Dwyer O.J.(1974) argue that concratration of development in the form of infrastructure amenities, industries and administrative office in the urban areas at the expense of the rural areas, give rise to migration hence, the underdeveloped nature of the rural areas, the growing number of unemployment school leave lack of social amenities in the rural and seasonal unemployment created by the subsistent nature of agriculture in the rural area and seasonal unemployment created by the subsistent nature of agriculture in the rural area, push the ruralities to the centers in search of better paid jobs, improved educational facilities and a host of other good things of life stressing more solidly on this premise, he said that, condition in the cities, poor thought may at times be nevertheless seem to becoming increasingly preferred by the rural too and it can only be concluded that this longly reflect the lack of development in the rural countryside.

Blair T.L(1974) in his own conception posited that the rural people are attracted to the urban areas due to rapid economic development in the cities arguing that on this ground he puts forward that cities on local points of change on cities. Therefore migrants from depressed area, regional pockets of poverty and forget rural areas backland, move to thriving urban areas.

Markinwa K.P(1982) states that migration from rural to urban area is fostered by the “pull and push factors” to him the factor is out of stagnant side with rigid obsolete and unproductive form of land tenure while the encompasses economic and psychological consideration such as the search for employment opportunities, the appearance of modernity, the higher way level in the city, the bright light of the city and expression of rising expectations.

Also some authours seems to argue that some people migrate against their wish in the sense that there can be forceful migration maintaining this ground, ONWUBIKO K.B.C.(1982) held that “between 10th to 17th century, west Africa lost millions of his able bodied men (the working class) to west India, America, and Europe in the name of slave trade. Thus, Africans were forced out from the hinter land to the coast where they were shipped in human by the trade merchants to their plantation.



Some of the socio-economic consequences of rural-urban migration are discussed below.



It has been observed today that over populated nature of urban area has led so inadequacy of socio physical infrastructure and other socio economic problem witnessed in the urban area also in the view Modestus Uwalaka in daily champion newspaper of Thursday July 23rd (1994) page 6 quote Alhaji Kindia yolah while addressing population policy makers that the nation would be heading for a disaster if its population grew at a rate that would make savings impossible people should be sensitized on the issue on continues basis through the media. Also Oshecure and Harrist Lawrence in guardian newspaper of Wednesday April 6th (1988) page 7 said that mankind is neckdeep in crises of over population and although the problem is more frightenly dramatized in the third world, the developed countries who have over the years fashioned out effective strategies for taming their population a precondition for qualitative development are no less concerned.

In his own contribution Abiodum O. Josephine (1985) laminated the devastitating consequences of too rapid population growth of the cities, maintaining her stand, she had this to say “too rapid expansion of urban population has brought with it many problems associated with the difficulties of providing basic infrastructure such as electricity intra-urban transportation, communication services and the problem of medical, educational and recreational facilities.



Adeyemi Ishola on weekend concord of 16th May 1992 laments the agony of people who live under the bridge in urban areas.

Addressing the problem, he says that the son smites them by the day, and the moon by night. Also, writing in August 17, 1992 edition of news watch, Uroh chris attributes accommodation problem interest, to the death of living housing

Uroh opinion that accommodation are in short supply, and rent in high, and rapid urban growth which has seriously aggravated the shortage of dwelling units in Nigeria, resulting in over-crowding, slum, and squatter sethemet.

In a news commentary of 7th September Abia Ikechukwu, he attributes accommodation problem to over-population which emanates from natural population growth, and net migration exercise.

DWYER O.J.(1974) pointed out that the spontaneous settlement in the third world countries is the greatest manifestation of housing problem hence he described the urban squatter at methane river as crammed together in a halfhazard fashion a visitor entering the city he stated is struck by the lack of social services make shirt roads, piled up garage in open areas and children playing in the dust”.

However, an editorial report in statesman newspaper of February 4th 1987 page titled national population policy” stated thus” the poor housing situation in the country can be attributed to our population. The few houses built in the urban centers are not enough for millions of people who troop into these centers in search of their livelihood our health care delivery system is right now grossly inadequate medical centers are few drugs and dressing are search, the ratio of doctors to patients is not yet encouraging and year 200 is the deadline for health for all supporting this assumption however an exact from the united nations report on world housing condition 1999 page 3 estimated that between 8 and 10 housing units population were necessary in order to meet the housing deficiency as well as their future housing needs of the urban population in the less developed countries.

Arguing strongly, the (1971) united nations report on social programming of housing in urban areas page 1 contained thus “these has been a parallel poor record in the construction and provision of physical facilities and community services for the residential environment.

All the same, the combined and material multiplication is self defending. The effort to escape mounting accommodation simply creates more space.


It has been observed today that unemployment is a global problem and it has also been suggested that the exponential growth of Abakaliki urban in this present day has brought in its wake, untold hardship of this phenomenon paradoxically, these unemployed persons from a major percentage of the population.

Otite etal (1994) observe that population problem are manifest in many ways under employment, disguised unemployment, and even mass unemployment, and consequent exploitation of labour. To them, they blame the capitalist for wanting more than enough people, and by implication, an overpopulation mass of people to allernate, subjugate, and oppress in the relations of production. In line with this view, Hauser (1979), states that when the population is too much, that is over populated, problem of unemployment is then not expected. This is today witnessed in Abakaliki urban where there are thousands of able bodied youths, roaming the streets jobless and helpless.

In a nut-shell, unemployment opportunities are unevenly distributed in the country (Ominide &Ejiogu, 1972): they maintain that most obvious implication of rapid population growth is a growth in the number entering the labour force with time, the number out strips available jobs and a situation desirable as unemployment underemployment is rite in the area as is today with Abakaliki urban, Caldwell (1975), also admits that there is a great deal of unemployment is over population city.

One of the implications of unemployment! Underemployment is that it reflects government inability to eaters for welfare of its citizen. This is because, they usually resort to violent crimes, such as armed-robbery, vandalisation, and so on in Abakaliki urban, armed-robbery is rampant due to the fact that many people are unemployed/unemployed Ighedo (1984) captures the scenerio vividly when he alarms.

It is bad enough that an unemployed person lives like parasite, feeding on the sweet of others without making and contributing of compound the situation, by expecting the unemployed to get money from his benefactor is asking for too much.



Abakaliki urban has infrastructures such as pipe-born water, and other things, but due to rapid growth of the population, these infrastructures become inadequate in the sense that they could not go round for this reason, people struggle for the available ones Sada etal(1994:130) write that the major problem arising from urban explosion is the difficult of providing adequate services for the urban explosion is the difficult of providing adequate services for the urban residents.

Indeed, in the supply of electricity, for example the problem of providing services under condition of rapid growth, and its consequent of rural-urban migration is manifesting. The rate of request of addition supply, both for domestic consumption and industrial use in Abakaliki urban is so high, that the power holding authority (P.H.A.) has been unable to cope with the applications even then, the existing connections have resulted in over-loading, and P.H.A’s response to make an arrangement whereby supply is withheld for some fixed time from some parts ultimately, this is to make it possible to extend electric services to other parts which is today euphemistically referred to as load-shedding. This is a result of rural urban migration.

Agreeing with Sada etal, Hanser, maintained that urban public services are reflected in the shortages of pipe-borne water drainage, controlled sewage, electricity, the transportation, that constitute some of the over-welming problems of most third world cities. He adds that heavy pressure on educational, and health services are also parts of a landscape that implied poverty for the masses, and headaches for the planners.



Observers and social thinker argued that migration to the urban areas creates the emergence of city or urban beggars. To this end, chris Agulefa in weekly star newspaper of Sunday 24th February 1991 said that “destitution or poverty appears to be giving rise to the large army beggars who daily assemble on our streets to beg for arms. Expects say destitution is a social problem which has many causative factors namely the moneys economy that is bringing fluctuating fortunes, the extended family system, sickness and such like factors are salient features or by products of materialization some of these factors have frigered off a situation whereby the very poor among us are allowed to drift to the street to beg for arms in total disregard for the value we hither to cherished. Some of the beggars are professional beggars, that is to say those who beg as a last resort, either because they have been sick and become poor as a result, others are accident victims incapacitated as a result of the constant carriage on our roads and could find no other means of sustenance.

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The following writings tend to believe that lunatic pregnancy and single ladies in the urban areas is a consequences of rural to urban migration. In point of fact, Ikechukwu Egbuna in daily star Saturday 5th January, 1991 page 5 observed strongly that in urban areas, the incidents have become so rampant that only device knows whose there cruel mothers are heading to, for instance, these was a cases of young mother who threw her day old baby inside a toilet at Abakpa -Nike near Enugu and before rescue would come, the child had died and maggot has filled every part of the baby’s body.

Stressing on the hard condition of lunatics pregnant beggars on our cities and the helpless conditions of the children, Amaka Agbu in Sunday weekly star of march 11th 1990 page2 had this to say, take a good and a practical look around any town of your choice in Nigeria, you cannot miss the sarvy of at least one female lunate holding a baby or heavy with children. These mad women do not become pregnant by the powers of any spirit nor by simple breathing. It is crystal clear that these pregnancies result from the sexual union of men yet no man is the proud father of their babies.



Other scholars tends to argue that rural urban migration causes the availability of greater percentages of mad people in the urban areas. In favour of this fact, Umeugo Chidoziem in weekly star newspaper of Sunday January 20, 1991 page 3, lamented thus there is no overstatement in it. Just board a bus at Nkalagu and down to Ishieke, Abakaliki express way as you travel along, take pains to count the number of mad men and women you see on the way by the time you arrive at the Eke market, if you have not counted a score and half of mad people then I am a liar. Come to Abakaliki, capital city of Ebonyi State start from pressco junction end in government house and also end again in Abakaliki town, the number of mad people you can see on the way be fest enough to count many of them that moves on a single file with gungs and empty cans begging. By the time you will arrive at the Afikpo road, if you have not counted at least a dozen, then write me down as a liar.

The above is just the beginning. Take a trip to Onitsha or Lagos you will notice that the number of the mad men and women on the streets is more than the number of people in a rural primary school. In this urban area mad people have converted the refuse disposal centers and now forcing the people to dump refuse on the ground close to the centers making the urban centers untidy.




A lot of demographic theoretical view-point are employed to better understand rural-urban migration. In this very thesis, I relate to theories propounded by sociologist that will aid one to understanding and explaining the reasons why people migrate. This following view points are



The chief exponent of this theory is Karl Marx. He said that it is only when the proleterant are alienated and marginalized in the society that they start to think of anything better their lives. He sees alignation as signifying loss of being or estragement. This is talking about alienation in all facts of life, be it political economic social, religious etc. pt different people migrate out of the pressure that they are alienated in the society, put the other way round, people migrate from the rural areas to the urban areas out of the fact that their well being is being threatened or that the avenue for one to reach self in the original society has been block. So in this case, they now alienated and thereby migrating to a place where there is opportunity for tem to reach self actualization an example of this was the movement of the serhellan people as a result of the drought of 1990, which they have no hope of going back home to their original place and thereby forcing themselves on the whole society.



This theory was propounded by lee S.C. (1966-1995). It came as a modification on the reveste in law of migration in (1955). The central premise of this theory is that human being tends to remain whose they are untill in theses is an urge or a threat to their lives and property. It sees migration of people from their original place of residence as a result of certain forces or fascinating amenities not enjoy his/her original place of residence

Push-push theory postulates that in every migration these are some positive negative element are involved . the positive element those thing that attracted the migrants to the new residence such as employment opportunities, greats personal freedom, favourable climatic conditions and the presence of social amenities etc. These are collectively known as the pull factors. The negative element on the other hand are those forces that push the migrant out of his original place. They are decline in natural resources as land for farming, decrease in income level loss of employment, drought, oppressive measures which may stem from a personals affiliation with any political religious and ethnic group .

In my area of study, Abakaliki which by implication is the receiving society, it is believed that people migrated and are still migrating to Abakaliki due to better opportunities these migrate believed abound there in another words, they migrated and still migrate to Abakaliki from all surrounding rural areas because they believed these are some “goodies” to be fetched there. These goodies can be in the gurse of employment opportunities, greater individual freedom, exposure and the presence of social amenities such as good water supply, educational institutions etc. which are clearly denied to the rural areas.

Also, some other people migrate to Abakaliki out of the fear of threat to their lives and property in their former communities many migrated due to social austraticim imposed on them, so to have a sigh of relieve, they migrated to Abakaliki where is relatively no discrimination of people, but however, only a feeling of impersonality thrives what I am saying in essence is that some people migrated to Abakaliki out of the fear or feeling as a result of certain cultural, social and political threat of some sort. This, no doubt pushed majority into migrating to Abakaliki.





This study is essentially an explorative survey type. It tries to find out and cover vital background of rural-urban migration and its effects on housing in Abakaliki urban


The scope of the study is limited to the effect of rural-urban migration on housing in Abakaliki urban of Ebonyi state.



Abakaliki which is the headquarter of Eonyi State government, and also the capital of Ebonyi state, has according to the 1991 census, the population of about 58,225 inhabitants bringing this figure to a represent both sexes, it is said that the male population is 28,335, while that of female is 29,890, but as of now abakaliki urban population is about 89,549.



The sample size cover a total number of 120 for the research work. The simple random sampling techniques will be used in carrying out the study. This will enable everyone in the thirty (30) streets selected among the street that constitute Abakaliki urban an equal chance or opportunity to take part in the study.

Thirty (30) streets selected among the street that constitute Abakaliki urban are as follows.

1. Lagos Street

2. Awka Street

3. Okposi street

4. Udensi street

5.Ibiamm street

6.Nsugbe street

7.Obodo-ukwu street

8. afikpo street

9. ani –Okwona street

10. Nne-obi street

11.Oji-owere street

12. Owere Street

13.Nna street

14. Nwike street

15. calabar street

16 .Jemeni street

17. Obi street

18. Uke street

19. Aro-chukwu street

20. Umuoji street

21. Brikembri street

22. Umuiyia street

23.Asaba street

24. Liberty street

25. Ikenga street

26. Nwodo street

27. Awolowo street

28.Ejiofor street

29. Okpara street

30. Orifite street





This chapter is prepared for presentation and analysis of data collected during the course of the research work.


No of question distributed is 120 Percentage

No of question returned is 105 87.5

No of question lost is 15 12.5

Total 100(%)


The total number of questionnaires distributed was 120 while 105 out of 120 questionnaires was returned with 87.5 percent.

Therefore, because of circumstance and wrong filling, bad attitude of the respondents and time factor, only 105 was returned and 15 of the questionnaires was lost. In-fact, for this analysis of the data, only 105 of the returned questionnaires was used






Sex Frequency Percentage(%)

Male 55 52.4

Female 50 47.6

Total 105 100


The table above shows that the percentage of male sampled are 52.4% while those of female are 47.6%, this stands to reason that, males are sampled more than females.



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Age group Frequency Percentage(%)

Below 24 5 4.7

25-34 50 47.7

35-44 40 38.1

45 and above 10 1.5

Total 105 100


This table shows that those respondents below 24 years or 4.7% are five(5) in number, those between 25-44 or 34 or 47.7% are so in numbers, those between 45 and above or 45 are 10, this shows that, those who respond high are not old and not too young.



Marital status Frequency Percentage(%)

Single 70 66.8

Married 15 14.2

Divorced 07 6.7

Separated 03 2.8

Widowed 10 9.5

Total 105 100


The table shows that 66.8% of the respondents are not married, 14.2% are married, 6.7% are divorced, 2.85 are separated, while 9.5 are widowed. This implies that majority of the respondents are single.



Educational level Frequency Percentage(%)

Primary & below 9 8.1

Post primary 20 19.6

Tertiary 76 72.3

Total 105 100


Table 4.5 above indicates that those who attended primary school level and below are 8.1%, those who attended post primary school level are 19.6% while 72.3% are those that reached up to tertiary institution. This means that those attended tertiary institutions are many in number.



Occupation Frequency Percentage(%)

Civil servant 56 53.3

Technician 07 6.7

Student 31 29.5

Trader 11 10.5

Farmer – –

Total 105 100


Tale 4.6, the vast majority of the respondents are civil servants, making 53.3%, Technicians 6.7%, while those in trading activities have 10% and farmers are not represented



Religion Frequency Percentage(%)

Christian 90 85.8

Moslem 05 4.7

Traditional 10 9.5

Total 105 100


The table shows that 85.8% of the respondents are Christian, 4.7% are Moslems, while 9.5% are traditional religionist, this means that, majority of the respondents are Christians.





Table 5: Respondents opinion on whether rural-urban migration relate to inadequate infrastructural amenities in Abakaliki urban.

Respondent No of respondent Percentage(%)

Agree 60 57.1%

Disagree 30 28.6%

Undecided 15 14.3

Total 105 100


This table shows that 57.15 of the respondent agree that rural urban-migration relate to inadequate infrastructural amenities in Abakaliki urban.

Table 6: Respondents opinion on wether rural-urban migration will not generate unemployment in Abakaliki urban.

Respondent No of respondent Percentage(%)

Agree 15 14.3

Disagree 85 80.9

Undecided 5 4.7

Total 105 100


This table shows that 14.3% of the respondents said that rural-urban migration will not generate unemployment in Abakaliki urban.

Table 7: Respondent opinion on whether infrastructural amenities like, housing, electricity, pipe-borne water, health center, road etc. in Abakaliki urban is enough to serve its population.

Respondent No of respondent Percentage(%)

Agree 10 9.5

Disagree 90 85.7

Undecided 5 4.9

Total 105 100


This table shows that 9.5% of the respondent said that infrastructural amenities like housing like housing, electricity, pipe-borne water, health centers, road etc in Abakaliki urban is enough to serve its population

Table 8: Respondent opinion on whether lack of Job opportunity, cause crime in Abakaliki urban.

Respondent No of respondent Percentage(%)

Agree 70 66.6

Disagree 30 28.6

Undecided 5 4.8

Total 105 100


This table shows that 66.6% of the respondent respondent said that lack of job opportunity, cause crime in Abakaliki urban.



Table 9: Respondent opinion on whether people in Abakaliki experience irregular supply of electricity and pipe-borne water.

Respondent No of respondent Percentage(%)

Agree 45 42.8%

Disagree 55 52.4

Undecided 5 4.8

Total 105 100


This table shows that 52.4% said that people in Abakaliki urban did not experience irregular supply of electricity and pipe-borne water.


Table 10: Respondent opinion on whether over population in Abakaliki urban is caused by poor housing planning.

Respondent No of respondent Percentage(%)

Agree 90 85.7

Disagree 10 9.52

Undecided 5 4.8

Total 105 100


This table shows that 85.7% agree that over population in Abakaliki urban is caused by poor housing planning.




Ho rural-urban migration did not relate to inadequate infrastructural amenities in Abakaliki urban

Hi Rural-urban migration relate to inadequate infrastructural amenities in Abakaliki urban.

This hypothesis one was tested using questions like, whether the rural-urban migration relate or did not relate to inadequate infrastructural amenities in Abakaliki urban; like housing, electricity, pipe-borne water health center,

road are enough to serve its population, how often do

people in Abakaliki urban experience irregular supply of

electricity and the pipe-borne water, all this were tested in this question 9, 10, 12 714)

Distribution Frequency Percentage(%)

Agree 65 61.9

Disagree 27 25.7

Undecided 13 12.4

Total 105 100


From the above table the researcher noticed that the

Respondent of those who disagree, which shows that rural-urban migration relate to inadequate infrastructural amenities in Abakaliki urban.



Ho Rural-urban migration will not generate unemployment in Abakaliki urban.

Hi Rural-urban migration will generate unemployment in Abakaliki urban.

This table tend to determine whether the rural-urban migration will or will not generate unemployment in Abakaliki urban.

This was tested using questions like, whether the rural-urban migration generate unemployment in Abakaliki urban or not, whether there is lack of job opportunity, industrial pollution, environmental population and housing problem in Abakaliki urban due to over population in the urban and also what motivated people to migrate into abakaliki urban were tested in this questions 13, 15 and 16.

Distribution of respondent on rural-urban migration and its effect on hovering in Abakaliki urban.

Distribution Frequency Percentage(%)

Agree 55 52.4

Disagree 30 28.6

Undecided 20 19.0

Total 105 100


From this table the researcher discovered that the respondent of those who are agree that rural-urban migration will generate unemployment in Abakaliki urban constitute 52.4% while those who are disagree that rural-urban migration will not generate unemployment in Abakaliki urban constitute 28.6% and those that said I don’t know or undecided constitute 19.0, which means that the number of people who are agree that rural-urban migration in Abakaliki urban is greater than those who are disagree and undecided.






In summary from the hypothesis I, it was observed statistically that, the rural-urban migration is related to inadequate infrastructural amenities in Abakaliki urban. Although, most respondents respond that rural-urban migration is not related to inadequate infrastructural amenities in Abakaliki but the number who said so were very small, which means the general observation explained that, the rural-urban migration related to inadequate infrastructural amenities in Abakaliki urban.

It was noticed also from hypothesis II that rural-urban migration generate unemployment, this was observed through the data collected where the researcher found out that the numbers who ae strongly agree and agree are more that those who disagree, which means unemployment become a disease in Abakaliki urban as soon as people continue to migrate into Abakaliki urban.

In general, there is significance relationship between the two hypothesis tested. This is because the interpretation of the two hypotheses were positive throughout meaning that, all these tested hypotheses will be put in practice so that Abakaliki urban will be progressing and reduce the stresses on them and reduce the effect on rural-urban migration on housing in Abakaliki urban.



The researcher has examined the rural-urban migration and its effects on housing in Abakaliki urban. The work also indicated the purpose of the study and the benefits, it is likely to offer the general public and the government in particular.

Several works in rural-urban migration were equally examined and it was noticed that rural-urban migration is essential phenomenon that exists in the developing nation. Indeed, it engenders a catalogue of social and economic problems varying form inherent over population nature, accommodation problems, unemployment, inadequate infrastructural amenities.

For inherent over-populated nature, it has led to inadequacy of socio-physical infrastructure an other socio-economic problems witnessed in the urban area.

Accommodation problems has caused and still causing the skyrocketing of rental rate on monthly basis and the poor present workers are worse hit. If there will be enough accommodation, there will be competition, and this ultimately lead to modernisation in rental rates in Abakaliki urban.

Unemployment and under-employment, it’s ripple effects can be better understood using maximum, an idle man is the devil’s work tools. The unemployed, underemployed persons in Abakaliki urban ae more often lead to commit deliquent, acts that they would not otherwise commit, if gainfully employed.

Inadequate infrastructural amenities have created a situation whereby the masses struggle for the available ones, hence making the society to full of stresses and strains, with its attendant psychological problems.


It is important therefore to advance some suggestions and recommendations that may help guide policy makers in their effort to check rural-urban migration.

It is important that government should pursue a policy of decentralised urbanisation. Government should therefore stop concentrating its development on the urban areas. For instance, there should be hospitals located in rural areas to take adequate care of the rural dwellers. Experience has shown that lack of hospitals in the rural areas have led many rural dwellers to migrate to the urban centres with a view to obtain medical services. Furthermore, infrastructural amenities like electricity, pip-borne water, good road, e.t.c need to be provided for the rural areas.

Government should as well adopt the policy of increased rural wages in order to discourage rural-urban migration. There is need for both government and individuals to establish farm settlement with basic amenities in the rural areas, workers in these farms should be paid attractive salaries to induce their stay and even attracting those in the urban areas to join them.

In order to check rural-urban migration, government should consider the imposition of high taxation on industrial establishment in the urban areas.

Finally, if all these measures are being taken by the government and individuals to reduce rural-urban migration, crime in the urban areas will reduce, because most of the unemployed migrants will go back to the rural areas to get employment.

Rural-urban Migration And Its Effect On Housing In Abakaliki Urban

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  1. pls my dear, how can i get the complete material if i pay in the money into your account and i will need a complete material on the topic that says “The urbanization effects on the surrounding communities of onitsha,nsugbe and obosi

  2. Nice one man.. But how do we get th full project haven paid u d money pls?..

  3. I want project material on ” the impact of managing rural development through industrialization(a case study of ideato north )

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