Road Accidents – Statistical Analysis In Enugu State From 1993 To 2000

Road Accidents – Statistical Analysis: (A Case In Enugu State From 1993 To 2000)

Road Accidents – Statistical Analysis: (A Case In Enugu State From 1993 To 2000)


The phenomenon – Road accident is not common to Nigeria alone but it is a universal hazard. It is obviously of great social and economic concern and it has increasingly become a topic for scientific investigation.

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Nigeria has witness uncontrolled road traffic mishap causing deaths, injuries and physical impairment. Thus, the frequent occurrence of the incident (road accident) have impelled the government to necessitating a way of how to reduce it if not stop it through her agencies concerned organizing seminar, arresting offenders and conducting road check of motorist, cyclist etc.

This chapter highlights and discusses the contributions of other researchers on the matter. This will not only furnish us with better understanding of the problem but also help to define and support the direction of the research.

According to Agada A. Christian (sector head of training) Road Safety Commission in his paper presentation on causes and effects of road traffic accident (2005); Road Traffic Accident, as the name implies is a sudden incident or occurrence whose end product is always has of lives and or properties. He further explained that since road accidents are foreseen and can be avoided after carefully x-ray of some of the causes, then said that the task of preventing road traffic accidents and ensuring safety on our highways and roads is a collective task and responsibility for all drivers, others road users and traffic law enforcement agencies.

According to Lynette show and Herbert S, Sichel (1963); man in the street definitely subscribes to the idea that certain people are far more likely to have accident than others and more emphatic on subject of road accident. He will laugh at you if you suggest that accident (except perhaps his own) is a matter of chance and there is no great disparity between one drive and the next. This led to the belief that certain people are indeed more likely to have accidents than others; and that these people will be incapacitated in the process”.

Robert C. Lieb (1975) in his view to transportation negative impacts observed that the automobile, the greatest offender in United States was responsible for more than 45,000 deaths per year during the 1970-1975 period which necessitated the promotion of transportation safety by government of United State.

Mcfar Land (1962) stressed that it had not been convincingly demonstrated that an appreciable number of people tend to have more accidents than others under conditions of equal exposure.

Tom Rallis (1967) in his examination of safety on roads observed that the number of persons killed in road accident has increased very much since the second world war. This result he obtained by dividing the number in rural and urban accidents and further into car driver and passenger, pedestrians and two-wheeled. The number of persons killed in urban transport accident per 106 passenger hours is 0.02 for buses, 0.2 for automobiles and for pedestrians, but more than/for cyclists and motorcyclists. And concluded that the dangerous part of traveling by bus is when the bus passenger is a pedestrian.

Etaghere (Nigeria Tribune, March 13, 1985; page 3) revealed that Nigeria had the highest number of road accidents in the world, according to Federal Ministry of Transport sources. He said that police statistics for that year revealed that there were thirty-two thousand, one hundred and nine (32,109) road accidents in which ten thousand, four hundred and sixty two (10,462) deaths were recorded while twenty six thousand eight hundred and sixty four (26,864) people were injured include loss of property, damages, medical expenses and others unmentioned. He stressed that poor maintenance of highways and narrow roads cause accidents.

Etaghere further emphasized that our roads deserve better road signs. The fact that there are strangers on our roads are not taken cognizance of. Driving more often than not, require split second decisions and any errors of indecision could lead to fatal consequences.

J.A. Epicson (1962) asserted that the ability to make decision in traffic which is both quick and accurate is something that should be cultivated during training. A decision may be worse than useless if it unduly delayed. Fatal or severe accidents on the road are, in fact more frequent than milder accidents. The degrees of vigilance exercised by a driver on the road should be adjusted to the needs of the moment. His decisions must be mostly automatic; as the processed from a correctly programmed decision maker.

Furthermore, it is not the driving test that should be of paramount consideration but the training of the training is around, the test is a formality. On the other hand not test can compensate for inferior training.

Stephen Black (1963), suggests that although people consciously approve safety measures, they take very different attitude unconsciously and may even enjoy seeing accidents. Life for most people is boring.

Ernest Morple (1959) declared that everybody on the road should drive as if the other chaps were a complete fool. Since there is no way of knowing who is a foolish driver, the best is to act as if tax other driver belongs to the category of foolish ones. This will entail large margins of safety, clearance, wide berths and so on.

John Cohen (1971), also stressed that people that are alleged to be excessively vulnerable are people suffering from heart diseases or epilepsy who may suddenly collapse at the wheel. Accident from these cases are relatively rare, perhaps one in a thousand according to a recent investigation.

John Cohen and Barbara Preston authors of “causes and prevention of Road Accident” said that the number of people killed or injured on road in 1965 was 50 percent greater than in 1955. They maintained that except for pedestrians, the casualty refers for each class of road user has increased since 1955. in other words, for each class of road user, causalities are growing faster than the traffic.

They went further “if we had the will, we should find ways, far we cannot assume that the problems of road safety are beyond the wit of main to solve once they are identified. We do not have the will because we are not sufficiently moved by disaster on the road”.

John Cohen maintained that to measure each driver’s skill in performance, he was required not to merely say what he thought he could do, but actually what he did. It has been taken for grated that safe driver is the conformist, the cautious person, or one mellowed by rage.

Schubert and Spoorer (1967) wrote on the subject of education of driver “A multiple offender is defined as a person receiving three or more penalties for road offences over two years, each offence being registered at central traffic office and also reported to the local traffic authority”.

The Federal Road Safety Commission has also made a contribution in discovering that there are few road signs on our roads while some of those few ones are either broken, overgrown by weeds, faded or defected. This we believe should be the case because information is essential to the task of driving traffic signs that are attractive (to attract driver’s attention) like reflective signals which are important means and devices for advising, warning, regulating, controlling and informing or instructing road users of the natures of roads or structures ahead should be adequately provided on the roads. Majority of our drivers in the country are illiterates and this has contributed a lot to road accidents. The commission believed that there should be road signs and literate vehicle drivers as also expected to be safety conscious every time.

The commission has embarked on public education programme across the nation on road safety. Also the messages of the commission are passed to the public through the mass media, seminars, conference etc or defensive driving techniques. In fact, drivers apprehended before the 28th of March 1989 were only lectured on road signs and defensive driving techniques. The command on the sensitization workshop “save Accident Victims Association of Nigeria” (SAVAN) (April 2005) said that according to WHO that the road accident vulnerability study show that motorcycle operators contribute to accident in which they are involved as much as they are vulnerable. Based on the fact that the operators are; either two young or too old to make sound judgment, victims of failed businesses and government retrenchment policies, illiterates and school drop outs or school leavers (graduates inclusive) trying to ink out a leaving or all of the above.

Many a driver, on feeling that he is above to be overtaken by a driver of a larger car, feels, irresistibly urged to engage in a life and death tussle with him. The foolish and reckless tussle is on the ground that a smaller car should keep its place. At times, a male driver may feel challenged by a female driver whom he must overtake at any price. In some cases, it is just that a car older or newer which had been in near for a time and then by some stroke of fortune, has jumped in front. In all these circumstances, the driver feels that his self-esteem is threatened.

Few mortals can accept in a spirit of magnanimity the dreadful humiliation in a status ridder society of being out witted or elbowed out on the road.

Babara Preston (1962) highlights much on the external factors that cause road accident. She maintained that if tyres or a type burst, this would normally be considered the cause. The burst may however, have been due to traveling too fast for too long, or to the driver’s false economy in using worn or remoulded tyre(s). Stark made a survey of tyre failures on the motorway and found that nearly a quarter of all cars on the road had one or more tyres in poor condition and that the risk of a burst on the motorway using remoulded tyres was about twenty times the risk of using tubeless tyres.

Isabel Manzies (1975) who studies driver’s attitudes by a group discussion method which she though facilitates access to emotional factors influencing behaviour found that many drivers consider that road improvement is the main and almost the only condition for road safety. The facts also not support this simple view, road improvement often reduce congestion and journey time but they may or may not reduce accidents.

Buchannan (1983) commented on the likely increases in cars in the next fifty years and estimated that by the year 2010 there would probably be about 40 million vehicles on the road, 30 million of them private cars. He then wondered how many more roads could be provided to cope with these increase in volume of traffic and concluded that it is impossible to provide adequate roads to contain the volume of traffic.

Communication system on road, judging from what has been said, is a veritable tower of Babel. It is as though one were living in a multi-lingual country. You say something to someone in Dutch, which he does not understand, or as the though when you utter the word “self”, it means sugar to some, pepper to others, and vinegar to a third. Several specific suggestions have been made for making more use of the driver’s ears. In some English cities, for instance, grieves have been made in the road such that a vehicle passing over them produces a sound. This is intend as a warning to any one who exceeds the speed limit. A notice “audible warning strip” alerts motorists to the fact that if they travel over the strip above a certain speed tax will be a signal.

A very important factor influencing the way a motorist drivers is whether he has recently drunk alcohol. It is known that small quantities of alcohol can impair the skill and judgment necessary for driving long before the driver appears to be in anyway drunk.

Nnadede Obioma Emmanuel (1997), recommend that the Federal and State Government should increase the number of road signs or the highways as well as the access roads. He maintained that all vehicles made or imported into the country should have a maximum speed limit of 100km/hr and device should be installed in all vehicles to help monitor the speed limits.

According to FRCN public discussion form (Enugu State) “Ka Cha Mara” (27th August, 2005), most of the contributors on the topic – Okoda business blamed the motorcycle ridders for most of the road accident cases been experienced in Enugu State, say that; they ride not to remember that life have no duplicate, hopelessly and on a lot of reasons. And they suggested that there should be age limit for motorcyclist operators, licenced by the VIO authority before operating and be proper trained.

From the foregoing, the meaning of road accident very not only in the definitions, nature of the causative agent, (humane and non- humane) and state or status but also the extent of damage and the degree of responds needed inputs to reducing it. In substance they all convey that never ending process of sudden or imprompt incident of collusion which calls for careful and mindful road users, dedicated law enforcement agencies, and the like as to reduce loss of life and property. Furthermore, what is needed to be done and at the right time by all and Sunday as to ensure safety on our roads should be done immediately.

In this project work, secondary data were used as earlier mentioned in chapter one. The data were collected from the National Secretariat, Federal Office of Statistics (FOS). Enugu and the Federal Road Safety Commission Enugu Sector Command.

Considering the nature of the research work and its aims borne in minds, the analytical tools used include; chi-square test of independence, analysis of variance (ANOVA) (Two-way analysis of variance) and the method of least squares or (regression method) of trend measurement.

The study focuses interest on buses, cars, lorries, motorcycles, pediatrics etc involved in road accidents in Enugu roads (rural urban roads) between January 1993 and December 2000.


From the test conducted or based on the deduction made in chapter 4 using chi-square in analyzing table 4. Generally in Enugu State, most road accidents are caused by excessive speed, reckless driving, improper overtaking, bad roads, inadequate maintenance of vehicle by the owners including motorcycle operators and other behavioural attitude of the person(s) concerned (drivers and/or riders), other road users (pedestrians) attitude or fault inclusive.

Table 4 in chapter 4 showing the number of road accident by cause and type of vehicle involved have most of the road accidents caused by bus drivers followed by motorcyclists with private cars the least or indicates that most of the road accidents are caused by bus drivers followed by the motorcycle operators with private car the least based on the analysis which chi-square was used (in the cause of road accident and type of vehicle involved have some bearing).

Analysis of variance carried out or performed using table 5 and 6 indicate that occurrence of road accident and its attendant death/fatal ileitis depends on the season of the year. While on the other hand, the year of occurrence have little or no contribution on the cause and occurrence of any accident. Also the seasonal pattern and trend suggests that some months or season like March, September, November, June, December, April, February experienced higher accident levels and death occurrence than the other month or season of the year over the years.

Table 7 give the total number of road accidents that occurred in Enugu state from 1993 to 2000 with 1993 having the height frequency as can be seen from the histogram diagram. The analysis using the least square method of the estimation of the trend may be used to predict the future occurrence.

The Federal government establishing the Federal Road Safety Commision by Decree 45 of 1988 is Laudable step in the right direction towards checking road accidents in the state and the federation as a whole. The commission has introduce a new speed limit on the highway. This is 75km/hr. offenders will be liable to a fine of N300.00 or 6 months imprisonment as the command order on behalf of the government.

Nevertheless, unless road traffic regulation and or laws are obeyed and offenders punished accordingly without my-man or VIP treatment, the number of road accidents will ever be on the increase.


Based on the aforementioned findings and suggestion; I therefore, make the following recommendations to individuals (pedestrians), government of all levels, Federal Road Safety Commission and the like authorities or agencies or forces concerned, and finally to other road users (drivers and/or ridders).

1. The government whether Federal, state or local authority should always construct good and more roads that will transverse the length and breath of the country.

2. The Federal Government through the newly established FERMA should rehabilitate and maintain our major roads which are almost at worse state and having high traffic intensity.

3. The state and local government should strive to always maintain the truck B and truck C roads as well.

4. The federal government should where the state or local government cannot procure on-the-spot treatment Ambulance vans and well equipped them with necessary facilities and qualified personnel to treat accident victims as to reduce loss of life particularly in Enugu State.

5. The legislative arm of the government whether federal or state should not only strive to enact laws but also set aside a committee that would see to the checks of the implementation of such laws or policies made in regard to road traffic offenders.

6. The federal road safety commission should properly look into the nature of the vehicles that ply on our roads this days, as some of them are very old or have wear off tyres.

7. The Federal road safety commission should intensify its activities during the periods of March, September, November, June, December, April, February as these are festive months, wettest and hottest months or seasons of the year based on the ANOVA and seasonal pattern findings.

8. The road users – drivers, riders and pedestrians should be attitude consciouorise while on the road.

Road Accidents – Statistical Analysis: (A Case In Enugu State From 1993 To 2000)

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to

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