Program Rites and Rituals

Program Rites and Rituals

By the End of This Tutorial, You’ll Be Able To:
 Save what you’ve been typing
 Give your creations legal names
 Name five reasons why your computer might refuse to save a file >• Set up your printer in Windows or DOS

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to
GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183
Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.  

Whether you use a word processor to write love letters to your new beau or use a spread¬sheet to analyze your mutual fund portfolio, you need to know a few basic tasks, such as how to save and print the files you create. Although this sounds pretty easy, saving and printing files can become the biggest obstacle for new users. In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to hurdle this obstacle with ease.

Saving and Naming Your Creations
As you smugly type away, your thoughts dancing across the screen, the computer stores your priceless creations in a very tentative area—RAM. If a squirrel fries himself on your power line, or someone trips the circuit breaker by running the toaster and microwave at the same time, your data is history. Why? Because RAM stores data electronically; no
What’s a File?
A file is a collection of information stored as a single unit on a disk. Each file has a unique name that identifies it. electricity, no data. That’s why it’s important to save your work to a disk, a permanent storage area.

There’s a First Time for Everything
The first time you save a file, your application asks for two things: the name you want to give the file, and the name of the drive and directory (or folder in Windows 95) where you want the file stored. For most applications, you’ll use the standard operating procedure described here for saving files to your computer’s hard disk:
1. Open the File menu, and select the Save command. A dialog box, usually called the Save As dialog box, appears asking you to name the file.
2. Click inside the File Name text box, and type a name for the file. In Windows 95, the name can be up to 255 characters long, and you can use spaces. In Windows 3.1or DOS, the name can be only 8 characters long, no spaces. See “File Name Rules and Regulations,” later in this tutorial for details.
3. (Optional) Following the name you typed, type a period followed by a three-character file name extension. An extension indicates the file type. For example, you might type .doc (word processor DOCument file), or .xls (for an eXceL Spreadsheet).
4. If desired, select the drive and directory where you want the file saved. If you don’t specify a directory, the application picks a directory for you. To pick a drive and directory: Click the arrow to the right of the Drives list, and then click the letter of the desired drive. In the Directories list, double-click the desired directory. (To move up the directory tree, double-click the drive letter or directory name at the top of the list.)
5. Click the OK or Save button. The file is saved to the disk.
From now on, saving this file is easy; you don’t have to name it or tell the application where to store it. The application saves your changes in the file you created and named. You should save your file every five to ten minutes, to avoid losing any work. In most applications, you can quickly save a file by pressing Ctrl+S.
When you save a file, most applications create a backup file (usually using the same name but adding the .BAK extension). The new version of the file (the one with your changes) replaces the old version; the old version then becomes the .BAK file. If you really mess up a file and save it, you can open the .BAK file and use it to restore your file to its original condition (before you messed it up).


Omit the Extension
If you don’t supply an extension, most applications add a period and three letter extension to the file name automati¬cally. For example, Word adds the extension .DOC, and Excel adds the extension .XLS,
When There Is No Fancy Directory Tree
With some DOS applications, you won’t get a dialog box that lets you select a drive and directory from a list. You may simply be prompted to name the file. In such a case, if you want to save the file to a particular drive and directory, you must type a complete path. Here are some examples of how you can do this:
a:sales.rpt saves the file called SALES.RPT to the disk in drive A. (Make sure there’s a disk in drive A first.)
c:sales1996salefigs.xls saves a file called SALEFIGS.XLS to drive C in the SALES1996 subdirectory.
d:personalbookidea.doc saves a file called BOOKIDEA.DOC to drive D in the PERSONAL directory.

Directory Must Exist
You can save a file only to a directory that already exists. You can use the DOS MD (Make Directory) command or the Windows File Manager or Explorer to make a directory.

File Name Rules and Regulations
With the arrival of Windows 95, you can now give your files just about any name you can dream up: everything from LETTER.DOC to I love my job! Windows 95 file names can contain up to 255 characters, including spaces, but they cannot include /:*?”< > or |. If you’re still using DOS and Windows 3.1, the rules are much more strict:
 A file name consists of a base name (up to eight characters) and an optional extension (up to three characters)
 The base name and extension must be separated by a period.
 You cannot use any of the following characters:
“./ []:*< > | + ;,? space (You can use the period to separate the base name and extension, but nowhere else.)
 Although you cannot use spaces, you can be tricky and use the underline character _ to represent a space.

What D’Ya Mean, Can’t Save File?
Occasionally, your application might refuse to save a file, rarely telling you what you’re doing wrong. It could be something simple such as a mistyped file name, or maybe the disk is so full it can’t store another file. If you get a cryptic error message, use the follow¬ing list to decipher it:
Invalid file name: Retype the file name following the file name rules given earlier,
Invalid drive or directory: You probably tried to save the file to a drive or directory that does not exist. Save the file to an existing directory, or create the directory before trying to save to it. If you are trying to save the file to a floppy disk, make sure there is a formatted disk in the drive.
Disk full: The file you’re trying to save is too big for the free space that’s available on the disk. Save the file to a different disk, or delete some files off the disk you’re using.
Error writing to device: You tried to save the file to a drive that does not exist or to a floppy drive that has no disk in it. Make sure you’ve typed the correct drive letter. If saving to a floppy disk, make sure there is a formatted disk in the drive and that the disk is not write-protected.
How does a disk become write-protected? Look at the back of a 3Yz-inch disk (the side opposite the label), and hold it so that the metal cover is at the bottom. In the upper left comer of the disk is a sliding tab. If you slide the tab to the top, you uncover a hole; the disk is now write-protected. Slide the tab down to cover the hole, and the disk is no longer write-protected. SVi-inch disks have a notch on one edge of the disk. You can rate-protect the disk by placing a piece of tape or a write-protect sticker over the notch. Because you can’t write to a CD-ROM disc, there’s no need to write-protect it.

Closing Files When You’re Done
When you’re done with a file, you should close it. This takes it out of your computer’s memory (RAM), making that space available for other files and applications. Before closing a file, save it one last time; open the File menu and select Save. To close a file in most applications, you open the File menu and select Close. Here are a couple other ways to close files:
 In Windows 95 only, click the Close button (the X button) in the upper right corner of the document’s window.
 Double-click the Control-Menu box in the upper left corner of the document’s window.
Don’t confuse the document window’s Close button with the application window’s Close button. Clicking on the document window’s Close button closes the file. The application window’s Close button exits the application, and closes any document windows that might be open.
Most applications have a safety net that prevents you from losing any changes you’ve made to a file. If you’ve made changes to a file and haven’t saved your changes, and you choose to exit the application, it displays a prompt, asking if you want to save the changes before exiting. Once you’ve given your ok (or choose not to save your changes), the application closes itself down. The worst thing you can do to your data is to flip the power off before exiting your applications; doing this is a sure way to lose data.
Opening Saved Files
Saved files are essentially stapled to your disk drive. They stay there, waiting to be called into action. To open a file, you typically open the File menu, select Open, and then use the dialog box that appears to select the drive, directory, and name of the file. The specific procedure may differ depending on the application. However, the following steps provide a general guide for opening files in a Windows application:
1. Run the application you used to create the file.
2. If the file you want to open is on a floppy disk, insert the disk into the drive.
3. Open the File menu and select Open. (If you are using a DOS application, the command may be different.) A dialog box appears, asking you to specify the name and location of the file you want to open.
4. Select the letter of the drive where the file is stored. In Windows 3.1, you can select the drive from the Drives list. In Windows 95, open the Look in drop-down list, and select the drive letter.
5. In the list of directories (or folders), double-click the desired directory.
6. To view the names of only those files that end with a specific extension, click the arrow to the right of the Files of Type list, and click the desired file type. The application displays a list of files.
7. Click the desired file in the File Name list.
8. Click the Open or OK button. The application opens the file and displays its contents on¬screen.
Windows applications commonly add the names of the most recently opened files to the bottom of the File menu. To open one of these files, open the File menu and click the file’s name. Windows 95 keeps track of recently opened files, as well. Click the Start button and point to Documents to see the list.

Setting Up To Print a File
You can’t just plug your printer into the printer port on your system unit and expect it to work. No, that would be far too easy. You also need to install a printer driver—instructions that tell your applications how to use your printer.
If you have Windows, you install one printer driver that tells Windows how to communicate with the printer. All the Windows applications you use communicate with the printer through Windows. If you don’t have Windows, you have to set up a separate printer driver for each application. The following sections explain how to make sure Windows or your application is using the correct printer driver, and, if not, how you can install the correct printer driver.

Opening Files from Other Applications
Most applications allow you to open files that were created using other applications. The application can convert the foreign file into a useable format. The Files of Type drop¬down list typically displays the types of files that the current application can convert and use.

Installing a Printer Driver in Windows 95
When you installed Windows 95, the installation program asked you to select your printer from a list. If you did that, Windows 95 is already set up to use your printer. If you’re not sure, double-click My Computer, and then double-click the Printers icon. If there’s an icon for your printer, right-click it, and make sure there’s a check mark next to Set As Default. If there is no icon for your printer, take the following steps to install a printer driver for your printer:
1. Double-click the Add Printer icon. The Add Printer Wizard appears.
2. Click the Next button. The next dialog box asks if you want to set up a network or local (desktop) printer.
3. Make sure Local printer is selected, and click the Next button. A list of printer manufacturers and printer makes and models appears.
4. Take one of the following steps:
 If your printer came with a disk that has the printer driver for Windows 95, insert the disk, click on the Have Disk button, and follow the on-screen instructions to select the printer driver. Click on the Next button.
 If you don’t have a disk for the printer, you must use a printer driver that comes with Windows 95. Click on the manufacturer of your printer in the Manufacturers list, and then click on the specific printer model in the Printers list. Click on the Next button.
5. Select the port into which you plugged your printer. This is usually LPT1. Click the Next button. You are now asked to type a name for the printer.
6. (Optional) Type a name for the printer. If you want to use this printer as the default printer, click Yes. Then, click the Next button.
7. Windows asks if you want to print a test page. Click Yes, and then click the Finish button. If you don’t have a disk for the printer, a dialog box appears telling you to insert the Windows 95 CD or one of the Windows 95 floppy disks.
8. Insert the Windows 95 CD or the specified floppy disk into the appropriate drive, and click OK. Windows copies the specified printer driver and prints a test page to make sure it’s working properly.
If your printer did not appear on the list of printers, and the printer did not come with its >— Windows 95 driver, you have several options:
 Select a printer that is like the one you have. For example, if an older model of your printer is listed, try selecting the older model.
 Select Generic/Text Only to print plain text. You won’t be able to print fancy fonts or enhancements.
 Call the printer manufacturer or Microsoft Corporation, and ask them to send you an updated Windows 95 driver for your printer.

Installing a Printer Driver in Windows 3.1
Like Windows 95, Windows 3.1 uses a single printer driver that services all the Windows applications you use. Before printing, you should check to make sure that the correct printer driver is selected. Open the Main group window, double-click the Control Panel icon, and double-click Printers. If your printer is not selected as the default printer, click the printer’s name, and click the Set As Default Printer button. Click the Close button when you’re done.
If you get a new printer (or if none of the listed printer drivers matches your printer), you’ll need to install a new printer driver. Here’s what you do:
1. Open the Main group window, and double-click the Control Panel icon.
2. Double-click the Printers icon. A list of installed printers appears in the Printers dialog box, as shown in the previous figure.
3. Click the Add button. A list of Windows supported printers appears.
4. Take one of the following steps:
 If your printer appears in the List of Printers at the bottom of the Printers dialog box, click its name.
 If the name of your printer is not listed (and your printer came with a printer driver on a disk), double-click Install Unlisted or Updated Printer. Insert the disk, type the drive letter, and click the OK button, select the printer driver, and click OK.
5. Click the Install button. If Windows cannot find the required printer driver on your hard disk, it prompts you to insert the Windows printer disk.
6. Insert the appropriate disk, and click OK. Windows copies the printer driver to you: hard disk, and then displays the name of the printer in the Installed Printers list.
7. Click the name of the new printer driver, and then click the Set As Default Printer button. This tells Windows to use this printer for all print jobs.
8. Click the Close button.

Using a DOS Application’s Printer Driver
If you create documents or spreadsheets using a DOS application, you have to install a printer driver for that application before you can print your creations. Usually, you inst; the printer driver when you install the application. However, if you have trouble printing from the application, you may have to try a different driver.
Because the procedure varies for each DOS application, refer to the application’s documentation or Help system for instructions on how to install a printer driver. In most cases, you must run the application’s Setup utility, and then enter the following information:
 >Printer make and model This tells the application which printer driver to use.
 > Printer port This tells the application which port (on the back of the system unit you connected your printer to. If in doubt, choose the parallel printer port, also known as LPT1.
Parallel and Serial Printers
All printers are commonly categorized as either parallel or serial. Parallel printers connect to one of the system unit’s parallel printer ports: LPT1 or LPT2. A serial printer connects to the system unit’s serial port: COM1, COM2, or COM3. Most people use parallel printers, because they’re faster; a parallel cable can transfer several instructions at once, whereas a serial cable transfers them one at a time. However, serial communications are more reliable over long distances, so if you need to place the printer far from your system unit (over 20 feet), a serial printer may be a better choice.
Before You Print
You can avoid nine out of ten printing problems by making sure your printer is ready. Is it connected and turned on? Does it have enough paper to finish the job? Is the On Line light lit (not blinking)?
When the On Line light is on, the printer has paper, is turned on, and is ready to print. If the On Line light is not on, you can usually make it come on by filling the printer with paper, and then pressing the On Line button, the Reset button, or the Load button…what the heck, press all the buttons.

Printing Your Creations
Once your printer is installed and online, printing is a snap. Although the procedure for printing may vary depending on the application, the following steps work in most applications:
1. Open the document you want to print.
2. Open the File menu and select Print. The Print dialog box appears, prompting you to enter instructions. The next figure shows a typical Print dialog box. Its appear¬ance may vary.
3. In the Page range section, select one of the following options:
 All prints the entire document.
 Selection prints only the selected portion of the document; you must drag the mouse over the text you want to print before selecting the Print command.
 Pages prints only the specified pages. If you select this option, type entries in the From and To boxes to specify which pages you want to print.
4. Click the arrow to the right of the Print Quality option, and select the desired quality. (High prints sharp but slow. Low prints faint but fast.)
5. To print more than one copy of the document, type the desired number of copies in the Number of Copies text box.
6. Click OK. The application starts printing the docu¬ment. This could take awhile depending on the document’s length and complexity; documents that have lots of pictures take a long time.
7. Go make yourself a pastrami and cheese sandwich.
If you have any printing problems, even after you’ve carefully followed all the steps three or four times.

The Windows Print Queue
Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 both have a funny way of printing. Instead of printing directly to the printer, Windows sends all the information needed to print the document(s) to your disk. The printing information is stored in something called a print queue (a line in which documents wait to be printed). Windows then feeds (spools) the -rating information from the print queue to the printer as needed. If you ever need to i-:r, cancel, or resume printing, you have to access the queue.
In Windows 95, whenever you print, a picture of a printer appears next to the time in the taskbar. Double-click the printer to view the print queue. You can then perform the rill owing steps to stop or resume printing:
 To pause all printing, open the Printer menu and select Pause Printing.
 To pause the printing of one or more documents, Ctrl+click each document in the queue, open the Document menu, and select Pause Printing.
 To resume printing, open the Printer or Document menu, and click Pause Printing.
 To cancel all print jobs, open the Printer menu and select Purge Print Jobs.
 To cancel individual print jobs, Ctrl+click each print job you want to cancel, and then open the Document menu and select Cancel Printing.
Windows 3.1 also has a Print Manager that controls the printing of your documents. To view the print queue in Print Manager, press Ctrl+Esc, click Print Manager, and click the Switch To button. You can then perform the following steps:
 If your printer is marked [Stalled], click it, and click the Resume button. Printing should start.
 To pause printing, click the Pause button
 To resume printing, click the Resume button
 To cancel a print job, click on the print job, click the Delete button, and click OK. You can delete only one print job at a time.

The Least You Need To Know
Whatever you do with a computer, you need to know how to save, open, and print files. In this tutorial, you learned how to perform those basics in all your applications. When¬ever you encounter a new application, keep the following in mind:
 To save your work, open the File menu and select Save.
 If you have Windows 95, file names can have up to 255 characters including spaces.
 In Windows 3.1 or DOS, file names can have only eight characters and cannot include spaces.
 To add an extension to a file name, type a period, and one to three additional characters.
 Before you can print, you must install a printer driver in Windows 95, Windows 3.1. or in your DOS application.
 To print a document from most applications, open the File menu and select Print.

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to
GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183
Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.  

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