Problems And Solutions Of Staff Training And Development In Business Organizations

Problems And Solutions Of Staff Training And Development In Business Organizations: (A Case Study Of Niger Breweries Plc, Enugu)

Problems And Solutions Of Staff Training And Development In Business Organizations: (A Case Study Of Niger Breweries Plc, Enugu)

The Nigeria breweries PLC, Enugu is a public limited company, which was established in 1946 for the sole purpose of brewing. The company has brewing plant sat Enugu, Aba, Ibadan, and Kaduna. It has a wide range of products to include Star Beer, Guilder, Maltina, Amstel Malta, among several others.

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The development of the company has been as a result of intensive training programmes given to workers. However, inspite of certain government policies, which is unfavorable to the brewing industries, and the unstable economy in the country, the company’s personnel policy ensures effective training and development at all levels. When new employees are engaged their training needs are planned and judiciously purposed taking into consideration the particular need of the consideration the particular needs of the business and individual qualities of the employees concerned. Hence the company created a training department linked/subordinated to the administration department and charged with the responsibilities of recruiting, training and development has helped the company to establish a pool of skilled and qualified personnel.

Training as a natural of the sequence of selection and induction of employees and receive sufficient attention from suitability of using each individuals full lap ability becomes a continuous programmer of employee development.

Training as a process of learning a job up to the average level of competed of an experienced worker performing the same job. In effect shows that the length of training period required is the time it takes to achieve an average experienced workers’ standard of output and quality not the time required to be able to perform the job. All employee regardless of their previous training education and experience, need to be introduced for their new working environment, and to be shown how to perform specific, task.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

All organisation have pre-determined objectives or goals these objectives and goals are the ends toward which the activities of the business.

These organization strive to achieve their respective goals since this is the parameter for assessing the success of failure, and those objectives cannot be accomplished without human effort. The managers and employees must be equipped in order to carry out this assignment satisfactorily.

Udoji in the service review commission has in his report that “of all the aspects of personnel management, perhaps the most important for us in Nigeria today is training. Training is virtually important for our public service. Inspite of some outstanding efforts we remain short of skilled manpower so necessary to a successful development policy training is an important means of meeting the chronic manpower shortage”.

The vital role human resources is playing for the purpose of growth and survival of indigenous enterprise spurred me to investigate, analyse and appraise the nature and problems of staff training and development in Nigeria Breweries Plc, Enugu. Then the questions remain.

1. How are training needs identified?

2. What is the attitude of management towards staff training and development?

3. What are the types of training methods used by this organization?

4. What are the effects of training on the performance of workers?

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

In view of the problems stated above, the purpose of this study is to investigate the problems with a view to developing a framework to the analysis and improvement of staff training and development programmes in this company.

1. Identifying the specific areas in which staff training is required.

2. Identifying the factors that hinder staff training and development in the company.

3. To ascertain the type of training programmes of the company.

4. To find out the extent of training effect on the performance of staff of Nigeria Breweries Plc.

1.4 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work boarders on the problems and solutions of staff training and development with reference to Nigerian Breweries Plc, 9th Mile Corner, Ngwo, Enugu.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following questions have been formulated as a guide for this study.

1. Has the company any specific personnel that undergo training?

2. To what extent does the attitude of management affect staff training and development?

3. Has the company any specific method of training?

4. To what extent have training and development helped in improving the performance of staff of Nigeria Breweries Plc, Enugu?

1.5 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of staff training and development will be derived from examining critically the problems the organization is faced with, and various ways of solving them. Based on this, if this study succeeds in achieving its objectives. The findings of this research work are expected to contribute to the following:

1. Help the company to have a training policy so as to identify the training needs of the company.

2. Help to ensure return on investment by attaching incentives to motivate staff

3. Provide suggestions on how to avert the factors that hinder staff training and development.

4. Help to ensure return on investment by attaching incentives to motivate staff.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter is aimed at reviewing literature relating to the theme and sub themes of this study: the review will therefore cover the following areas.

2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Training is a natural part of the sequence of selection and induction of employee if this important stage does not receive sufficient attention from supervisions and managers, the possibility of using each continuous programme of employee development, achieved by formal education and training schemes run by localized training which is mostly given by immediate supervisors.

It is imperative at the juncture to distinguish between training education and developments, which tend to be confusing many, their differences and applications. Although these three terms are often used interchangeably, they actually have distinct meanings.

The most widely accepted definitions are introduced by led Nadler on the Implication of the Human Resources Development, Concept, Training and Development Journal (1981).

Training job related learning experiences (preparing the individual for the current job).

Education: Individual related learning experiences (preparing individual for a future fairly well defined job).

Development: Organization related learning experiences (preparing the individual for new future jobs and performance patterns based on possible future directions for the organization from the above, we can see that a programme teaching of specific skill, such as wielding would be training if the employee uses the skill in a current job, and education if used on a future job.

Development would include learning experiences designed to help the employee deal better with people or with change human relations, effective communication, team buildings, or value clarification. A personal growth or career-planning seminar would fit into this category. All organization engage in one type of training or another.

Pigors (1981) stated that no organisation can choose whether or not to train employees. All employees regardless of their previous training, education and experience, need to be introduced to their new work environment, and to be show how to perform specific task.

The concept of training has been defined in different ways by several authors, and management practioners. Singer (1980) describes training as learning to use background knowledge inculcated on the part of trainee. He further defined training as the process of lecturing a job up to the average level of competence of an experienced work performing the same job” this in effect means that the length of training period required is the time it takes to achieve an average experienced workers, standard of output and quality not the time required to be able to perform the job, without undue mistake and mistakes at any speed.

An introduction course in teaching and training method for management development in Geneva (1982) defined training as the acquisition of development of those knowledge, skills techniques, attitudes, and experience which enable an individual to make ones most effective contribution to the combined effort of the term of which one is a member. It’s objective may be to prepare the individual to carry out his present job most efficiently or to prepare him for greater responsibilities.

Flipo (1980), defined training as the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.

Ackermsun (1964) also defined training as any planned programme designed to increase the performance of an organization by increasing their knowledge and skill.

Evans (1981) described training as the impacting of specific practical skill, often manual to employees, which will be relevant to the employee’s present or next immediate job. According to him, there are organizations that limit training to impact the minimum of knowledge and skill to cover just their present needs such training can be said to be job-centered because. We live in a dynamic environment, employees must be trained to acquire new skills to cope with change itself, be more adaptable acquire attitudes sympathetic to change-such training could be more educational than training and be said to be future centered” if they are developed to what ever potential they may have, they become more content on the one hand and have a use for their newly acquired skills in the future which can be said to individual centered?

Ayida (1977), asserted that training is concerned with impacting specific stills for specific purpose education is more broad, being involved with the long-term development of the individual intellectually, psychologically, socially, and physically. So training is a part of education and is a life long process for the management departments further in his opinion that it has become necessary to highlight the crisis situation in management development in his country and more particularly the fact that it exert in government and the private sector in an effort to explain some of the reasons for the current decline in quality of service all over the country, newly hired employees need training both to keep them a lert on their present jobs and to fit them to transfer and promotions. Training is an on going process, new problem, new procedures and equipment, new knowledge and new jobs are constantly creating the need for employee instruction.

Ubeku (1995) said that operative training is a process of transforming skills from those who process them and to those who do not, and management training as the process of developing managers to meet the present and future needs of the business.

William (1965) rightly defined training as the formal programmes or procedures, which a company uses to facilitate employees learning so that their resultant behaviour contributes to the attainment of the company’s goals and objectives. Hence for the purpose of this study, the concept training is seen and used as any organizational oriented producers, which are intended to foster learning among organizational members. The desired learning is in the direction that is intended to contribute to better performance of assigned tasks, satisfaction of the trainee’s personal goals and the overall organizational objectives.

2.2 DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS IN BUSINESS ORGANISAITON

In any organization, certain evidence many reveal the need for training employees. If production records indicate for example, that workers are not achieving production standards, additional training may be required similarly, an excessive number of rejects or a waste of material may be accompanied by careful and continuous research. The determination of training needs in fact requires a careful and systematic investigation. Most organizations do not adhere to this principle, as a result, many training efforts are ineffective and a waste of money. In other to overcome this failure to approve training needs more systematically, McGehee (1965) suggests of three-fold approach to thinking about the training requirement of an organization as follows.

2.2.1 ORGANISATIONAL ANALYSIS

This involves a study of the entire organization, its objectives, resources, the allocation of these resources in meeting its technological environment within the organization. The kind of analysis help to answer the question of what is to obtain and in determining the training philosophy of the organization.

The first step is to obtain a clear understanding of both short and long term goals. Long-term goals need to be established in board areas for the entire company, next, specific goals and strategies should be stated for the company’s components down the line as a means of achieving those broad objectives.

The second step is an inventory of company’s attempts to meet goals through its human and physical production resources. The climate of an organization is in essence, a reflection of its manpower attitude towards various aspects of work, supervisions, company procedures, goals, objectives and membership in the organization.

2.2.2 JOB ANALYSIS

Job analysis for training purpose involves a study of jobs within an organization in a further effort to define the specific content of training. It requires an orderly, systematic collection of data about the job and its purpose is spelt out, in as much details as possible, what behaviour the jobholder. An expert can analyse this job to sany a semi-skilled machine operator with relative ease by following a standard procedure, observing the operator at work, reading, observing the operator at work, readily the normal describing the job, actually performing the job and asking the operator questions about the job.

2.2.3 MANPOWER ANALYSIS

The focuses on the individual in a given job, rather than on the job itself. In this three basic approaches, first is through appropriate observation, supervisory evaluation and diagnostic testing. Then we need to determine whether performance is below standard training is needed. Secondly, we need to know specific areas in which they many require training in order to minimize training time. Finally, we need to ask whether current employees with sub-standard performance can improve their work through appropriate training or should be transformed to make room for those who can do the job. At the same time, we must consider whether engineering modification in the job may bring employee performance up to standard, whether training is the widest course.

Regular analysis of data by various of coupling and by time periods makes it possible to ascertain when training is needed. Current knowledge, attitude, and skill of employees would have to be considered in relationship to what those employees uses to have in order to do their jobs.

2.3 APPROACHES TO STAFF TRAINING IN BUSINESS OR ORGANIZATION

Training method are numerous and its uses varied. Some are useful for specific groups of management and employees. Others are helpful for dealing with specific subject matters. Most training methods, however, have a variety of uses. In selecting methods, the following factors must be taken into consideration – cost, time, number of employees to be trained and the depth of knowledge-required e.t.c.

The major approaches to staff training and development in business organization include.

2.3.1 ON THE JOB TRAINING

The most common and widely accepted method of training employees in the skill necessary for job performance is on the job training organized to acquire the knowledge and skills to perform a job, using the actual equipment and materials that the job requires. It is also used when job method are significantly changes or when an employee is transferred to a different job proper on the job training breaks the work to be performed into logical and demonstrations by qualified instructor with opportunities for the learner to practice according to approved methods.

2.3.2 COACHING

The coaching process is potentially the most direct and effective way for one person to influence the behaviour of another, the individual being coached as given opportunities to inform of the results expected to accomplish and is counseled on the result actually achieved. Coaching as a training technique as effective at all levels of an organization. It occurs most often and most naturally in the superior subordinate relationship. Better than any formal programmes the relationship provides opportunity for close and continuity shaping of behaviour with the work environment.

2.3.3 JOB ROTATION

The major objective of position development is that of broading the background of the trainee in the business. It involves temporarily assigning the employee to function in a position other than his own.

Flippo (1980) stated that job rotation shows the general background and organization of point view, encourages inter department co-operation and acquires all the advantages of on-the-job coaching in each situation.

2.3.4 LECTURE METHOD

The lecture method is one of the most widely used training techniques. According to M.C Telee (1985) is the major advantages of the lecture method is its economy”. A great proportion of the training effort is due by lecture in which the groups set so large that the lecture is compelled to speak through a public address system. But this has laid to the misuse of the method.

2.3.5 CONFERENCE METHOD

Busch said that “a conference is a carefully planned meeting with a specific purpose of goals”. This method focuses upon the principles of active participation to enhance learning.

2.3.6 ROLE PLAYING

The role-playing method involves acting out of situation by two or more persons, for example supervisor and subordinate. Role playing places the participates in stimulated circumstance where under stress, they tend to act as they would in reality and should never be rehearsed or view as demand behaviours.

2.3.7 GUIDED DISCUSSION

The guided discussion, like the lecture method, is a leader centred approach to training and problem solving it focuses attention on the topic at hand, in the case, the leader presents an idea to the group and encourage them to discuss it but retains the right to make the ultimate decision.

2.3.8 CASE METHOD

This method is mostly used in business and law school. Here the trainee is presented with a written case describing a concrete organizational problem. He is asked to study it in private and outline his best solutions, and later discuss with his group the adequacy of some oral of the proposed solutions and try to identify principles involved. There are no single solutions to most cases for it is intended to promote trainees discovery of underlying principles and encouragement to develop flexibility in his approach to organizations problem.

2.3.9 BUSINESS GAME

Business game is used mainly for teaching decision – making skill. It is built on models that purport to represent the complex interactions or economic and other factors in business. Through this interaction process the trainee develop a feeling for the realities of business and are able to increase the effectiveness of these decisions.

2.3.10 SENSITIVITY TRAINING

Sensitivity training is a technique directed towards attitude and the development of interpersonal skills and self – awareness. It attempts to make trainee more willing and able to communicate their feelings and receive the feelings of others. The general goal of this type of training is to open up the organization through increased management sensitivity and trust, as well as increased respect for the contributions of others, whether peers, subordinates or superiors.

2.3.11 VESTIBULE TRAINING

In order to give training needs more attention, and to employ instructors who are specialist, a vestibule school may be sent it up in an area off the production line. The cuts off transfer problems but not mainly used because of the high cost of providing duplicate equipment meant for that purpose.

2.3.12 SEMINARS

This is one of the methods of educating people by creating awareness, socially and entertaining them. In its course of training, it throws more light on what the trainee may know before, and also in solving problems.

2.4 TRAINING ORGANISATION

The basic consideration in organization for training is that the training be a line function if the basic responsibility for training lies within the line integration of training becomes more probable. Infact there is little to distinguish the concept of training from that of supervision. Haire (1956) speaks of the superior shaping his workforce. He suggests that in the process of directing his subordinates and in teaching them what is to be done, teaching them what is to be a trainer, which he said makes it easier to see how training function might be organized so as to make it an integral part of the total management of organizations.

In discussing how training should be organized in an organization, we face the problem of size, which help to separate the types of the training organizations like.

2.4.1 HOME TRAINING ORGANISATION

These are the different and the elementary part in training an individual at homes which modes a person for the assimilation of the next state of training.

2.4.2 EDUCATIONAL TRAINING ORGANISATION

These are educational schools which impacts the training on people through the act of reading and writing.

2.4.3 WORK PLACE TRAINING ORGANISATION

These are those training organizations one go into while at the work place. A good example is the First Bank Plc training centre for the training of its various to develop them while they are at the same time working.

In all these training organization, whether large or small, it is justifiable to separate training departments but under the general control of the personnel director unless in small organizations where they have problems in maintaining control of the training function. The effectiveness of a company’s training organizations effort depends upon the extend to which management is committed to supporting the proper assignment of responsibility to line managers and training specialists. The planning, implementation and carrying out of training programmes are influenced by policies guiding the organizations. The first requisite to provide a climate that is conductive for the continued learning and growth which must square with the policies and practices of the company, if not training can be more frustrating than helpful.

According to Fischer (1970) “training is not a personnel programme but a management tools”. Therefore, training organization depends upon its training needs, present and future since no two organizations have the same training needs so in that light, it is obvious that every training organization should be different.

2.5 CONSTRAINTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING

Individuals concerned with achieving the major objectives of an organization are concerned with training as one of the way organizational goals are achieved. Training is a problem, its responsibility are more than the organisation can manage. Appointing a training supervisor/director and forgetting him makes training very difficult which may hinder organizational goal few if any have had a substantial training in him to teach, organize a programme for teaching and to evaluate the outcome of training.

Some training problems emerge when:

a. It is regarded as an end rather than a means to an end.

b. Failure of management to accept responsibility for training.

c. Lack of knowledge and skill by managers in directing and executing training.

d. Lack of information concerning the nature of the learning process required.

If training sees no reason of learning and mastering his assignment and no provision is made for job advancement and benefits, there is little or no incentive to learn the job ahead. The attitudes of top management staff are crucial to the success of a training programme and could make training when their responsibilities are neglected.

According to House (1968), individual constraints are caused by the following:

a. Organizational social human relation influenced through formal authority system.

b. The delegation of authority.

c. The primary work group of the individual which may cause an individual to go back to his original method and style i.e. showing indifference, adopt an altitude that can lead to learning the organization and seeking employment else where and be dominant to work and wait for change in organizational environment to participate fully.

2.6 FACTORS THAT HINDER EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF TRAINED MANPOWER

An employee is not efficiently and effectively utilized if his employment does not offer him any challenge to imagination and ingenuity or does not demand the skills, which he acquired during training. No single factor can be said to be as the only responsibility factor low productivity of workers. Consequently, reasons such as job misplacement, nepotism, stateism and service conditions to workers hinder effective utilization to trained manpower.

2.6.1 JOB MISPLACEMENT

A large number of trained Nigerian workers are employed where they are not qualified or where their academic preparation has a direct bearing with the type of job they perform.

2.6.2 NEPOTISM

The recruitment pattern in the economy today shows that many people in management positions in service have within the set up, their immediate relation that are not qualified. Even where they are qualified, it is likely that discipline cannot be fully enforced in such an organization.

2.6.3 STATEISM

This has the undesirable effort of functionaries employing only people from their state of origin, where they are qualified or not. Many states would rather employ non-Nigerians from other states and as such trained manpower abound in some states while other made have problems.

2.6.4 SERVICE CONDITIONS

The service conditions under which an employee finds himself influence his productivity to an appreciable level. If he is not satisfied with the conditions and fringe benefits, his stay in the establishment will probably be short.

2.7 STAFF TRAINING/DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC

Training of staff and their development in Nigeria Breweries Plc has enhanced productivity, in the Word of Ohiwerei (1979), “training has helped the company after its inception in Lagos in 1946 to carry out and improve the developmental success of Nigeria Breweries Plc”.

He further enumerated some of the training centers established for the effective training of workers, and that the company also established training departments in all their branches.

Productivity improved as a result of training and development carried out in this organization. Since the government’s restriction on importation of barley and wheat for the breweries, the organization has, through training and development developed means of using local raw materials and it is generally accepted as those imported. The concept of training and development policy has been introduced to all the brewing industries in the country but only few organizations practice this training policy.

2.8 SUMMARY OF REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Considering what Fischer said, that training is not a personal programme but a management tool, managers therefore must accept the development of their staff as one of the prime responsibilities and they should be willing to be appraised on the basis of how well they carried out his responsibilities. Their greatest contributions should be to help their subordinates supply to their jobs what they have learned from training. The managers should also set specific training goals for their workers, monitors their results of the training, and make effective use of the organization’s training facilities.

Furthermore, any training programme holder should aim to make it possible for an individual to realize maximum productive usefulness in the work, as well as provide for a process of aiding the individual satisfaction through the training and development of appropriate attitude knowledge and skill.

SUMMARY OF RESULT/FINDING

The result from data collected and un analysed are as follows:

Table 4.1 shows that junior staff of NB Plc believes that the management of the organization only sends this senior leaving then on the duty training while the senior staff responses shows that organization training all level of staff.

Table 4.2 shows that the junior staff says that the attitude of management must regard to their training and development does not favour then.

Table 4.3 in the table, the junior staff said that they do not have a specific method of training while senior staff responded that they company do have a specific method of training.

Table 4.4. the responses of the junior staff mean that NB Plc does not attach incentives to their training expenses while the senior staff believes otherwise.

5.0 DISCUSSION, IMPLICATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 DISCUSSION OF RESULT

This discussion of result of the summary of analysis of the administered questionnaires and interview conducted.

In the question of whether the company has specific personnel that undergo training Pigor (1981) stated that in organization can chose not to train their staff. All employees regardless of their previous training, education and experience, need to be introduced to their new work environment and show how to perform specific tasks. However, from the research, the employees are of the opinion that the organization should identify their training needs.

On the attitude of management to wards training and development of staff it is evidenced that an employee is not efficiency and effectively utilized if his employment does not offer him any challenge to imagination and ingenuity, or does not demand the skills which he acquired during training from the responses of the workers, it is shown that the negative attitude of management does not give room for effective utilization of their training experiences.

The issue of whether the organization has any specific method of training, most workers responded that the organization uses more of the on-the-job method, which does not give room for advancement on the new technologies. And that the effectiveness of an organization’s training effort depends upon the extent to which management is committed to supporting the activities of training specialists.

On to what extent have staff training and development helped to improving the performance of staff of Nigeria Breweries Plc, the junior staff believe that the organization should put in enough incentive to go with the economy of their training and development and to motivate them to put in their best capabilities.

5.2 CONCLUSION

Training has come to be regard as a vital tool of management capable of making important contributions to the goals of the enterprise. Starting with the identification of individual’s capabilities and needs and the requirement and problems of the organization, training attempts to improve the performance of both by chasing the gap between expectations and achievements.

Training is thus most as a means to an end itself but as a continuing activity, an integral part of the business system. Time and money spent on training and development should be considered as investment and not an expense it is investment in the future of the organization recognizing that employees are an organizations most important asset.

Benefits should be viewed as a return on investment, to the staff it can include improved activities, knowledge, skill, performance and rewards. And to the organization, increased productivity, reduced costs, and greater profitability.

The study shows that there are no incentives attached to training, it should be noted that efficiency of any programme depends directly on how well its members are trained. Training also motivates employees to work harder especially when incentives are attached. Employees who understand their job are likely to home higher morale. Since the contribution of every member of an organization is necessary for the success of that organization, it follows that every employee deserves to be trained.

Above all, if a training programme is to succeed in any organization. Management must recognize it essentially and lend its wholehearted support.

5.3 IMPLICATIONS OF RESULTS

The findings in this research study will help both organizations and their employees know the implications of training and development. Noting that training and development are investments that will benefits both parties in the long run.

5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS

The researcher deems it necessary to recommend as follows having investigated, explored and exposed some of the problems in terms of training and development of staff of Nigeria Breweries Plc.

1. It is important that all newly recruited workers should undergo on introductory training. This means proper introduction to their jobs as well as provide them with information about the organisation, its rules and polices. They should be introduced to fellow workers, and given ideas as to how their jobs fit in to the total operation. A planned orientation programme will help the new employees to identify with the organization and its procedures and give them some feelings on the significance of the work they will be doing. This will help them to overcome fears and anxieties that are likely to arise on their new jobs. And it also makes new employees feel a part of the organizations.

2. The organization should endeavour to seen their employees to overseas training so as to gain the experience of modern inventions and innovations as it related to their various professions.

3. The management of Nigeria Breweries Plc should also motivate employees by attaching incentives to training and development; as such incentives will spur them to greater performance.

4. The management of Nigeria Breweries Plc should change their policies that affect the welfare of their workers. Evidence shown that management does not give their staff the opportunity to make their own decisions which could bring about progress in the work environment and the management should also make use of their staff when such management positions exist thereby encouraging them to hold such positions.

5.5 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

The researcher wishes as follows:

1. To carry out a survey on the causes of management non-challant attitude toward staff training and development.

2. To find out the effect of lack of training and development on the performance level of workers.

Problems And Solutions Of Staff Training And Development In Business Organizations: (A Case Study Of Niger Breweries Plc, Enugu)

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to

GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183

Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.  

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