Position Of Local Government Education Authority In Quality Control Of Education

Position Of Local Government Education Authority In Quality Control Of Education In Afikpo-north Local Government Area Of Ebonyi State

Position Of Local Government Education Authority In Quality Control Of Education

Education is an instrument for equipping human being with skill, improved culture outlook, favorable attitude toward work and desire for self-reliance.

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Thus, the education industry produce human being in nature of educated persons. Education as an instrument for human development is achieved through teaching and learning. In Nigeria effort are been made through the various education policies and the programmes to enable the country realizes her national objectives through education. Education is seen as tools for the transformation of the individual lives in the society. It is also an indispensable factor for addressing the social-economic, social-cultural ,political as well as technological problem of any nation.

In Nigeria it is stated in the national policy on Education [FRN,2004]that the federal government has adopted education as an instrument per excellence for affecting national development.Education involves the training of human resource an the quality of this training is very important because of its position in achievement of educational objective. The extent to which education at all level in Nigeria realizes its potential for the wholesome growth and socio-economic development depend very much on the quality of management in level of education.

Human resource is perceived as the most vital resource that are at the disposal of the educational enterprise. Therefore the proper management of these resource in it would apart from being an added advantages in attaining educational goal, also make education waste minimal. In spite of all effort by management to ensure that quantitative education is given at all level of education, the system still suffer from some seemingly intractable problem ranging from poor funding ,mismanagement and control of resource inadequate monitoring and evaluation. This greatly affects educational administration in all level of education in Nigeria because when the system is not functioning well due to inadequate funding by the government, mismanagement and poor control resource by educational administrator and lack of monitoring and evaluation of the outcome of classroom teaching and learning in schools. All these militate against effective teaching and learning thereby denying the required standard set by the government as contained in the National policy on education.

For effective management of primary school to prevail in Nigeria ,the federal government put in place decree No 31 of 1988 which came as a welcome relief to these problem of primary school management in Nigeria. By this decree the federal government was to be responsible for 65% of fund for primary education while the state and local government were responsible for 25% and 10% respectively. The decree also established the National primary educational management board, local government education committee .district and village education committee .Also the decree established primary school management board at the stats level.

On January ,1st 1991,the head of state general Ibrahim Babanjida promulgated decree No 3 of 1991 which introduce the third –tier [3-tier] primary education management in Nigeria thereby returning primary school to the local government where they rightly belong. The Decree established for each of the local government area ,a local government educational authority under which the local government education was found and manage primary school in each local government area of the federation. The national policy on education [2004] stats that local government through their local education authority have responsibilities for the financial and management of education within their local government areas. It further highlighted on the function and responsibility of the local Government Education Authority to include the following as contained in (NPE 2004).

 

1. The appointment promotion, discipline and transfer of primary school teachers and non-teaching staff within their areas of jurisdictions.

2. The payment of primary school teachers salaries and allowances.

3. Payment of pensions and gratuities.

4. The retraining of teachers.

5. The overall management of their education plans.

6. Supervision and quality control in all primary school in their area in conjunction with the federal and state authorities.

Today educators and administrators are concerned with the problems of quality of teaching and learning in our primary schools. This study examines quality control as an invaluable managerial tool which must be used seriously if our primary school will live to grow and nurture well under the local Government administration. Thus, it is very important for us to examine the quality control measures that exist in the primary schools under the local government education authority’s administration. Primary education occupies a very paramount position in the educational ladder of all Nations as it remains the foundation to other levels of education. The quality of teaching and learning at this level determines the child’s learning ability in other levels of education.

 

The Federal Government has established the standard, the nation hopes to achieve educationally by providing the Nationals policy on Education (NPE) An analysis of the best way of getting there” is given in the Blue print . There is need for quality management and control in all educational levels primary education in Nigeria is so crucial that all effort should be made towards providing the best possible learning and teaching environment, opportunities and experiences for the pupils. The is more so as it remains the bedrock on which other levels of education are founded.

It is properly reported by Mkpa (1990) that a solid primary education is likely to guarantee a reliable secondary and consequently an enviable tertiary level government policies on primary education such as the universal primary education programme of 1976 and the universal basic education of 1999 allowed equal education opportunities. Despite the laudable ovation and acclaim given to these educational policies, some quality control measures were overlooked. Expansion in primary education in most state of the federation has given rise to the need for quality control in other to ensure that the education since independence in 1960 is high in terms of school enrolment especially during the U.P.E programme of 1976. this quantitative expansion occurred without adequate planning that will ensure its quality. According to Emetaron in Aghenta, Ehiametalor and Ogunu (1993), the quantitative growth brought about the change in educational structure. The new 6-3-3-4 educational system remain the bold attempt to correct many fault of the old educational system and curriculum content. Thus a systematic, regular and formalized measurement and evaluation of the performance of our educational system especially at the primay school level is inevitable which study hopes to do.

PURPOSE

The study is aimed at finding out the position of local Government Education Authority in quality control of primary education. The study will identity the position of LGEA in the following areas:

1. Provisions and maintenance of facilities in primary schools.

2. The recruitment of qualified staff.

3. The school supervision of teaching and learning.

4. The external examination of primary school pupils

5. The staff training and development.

SIGNIFICANCE

The position of L.G.E.A in quality control of education has been of great importance in the educational sector.

Specifically, this study will be importance in the following ways:

Local Government Education Authority staff through the findings of this research will know their positions in the quality control of education in the various jurisdiction for perfect and effective management of education.

Secondly, these study will also help the stakeholder of primary schools to know their various commitment and the impact of teaching aids or schools facilities in primary school thereby making moves towards maintaining qualitative efficient educational structure for transparent teaching and learning in our primary schools.

Thirdly, the L.G.E.A will also through the findings of the study become conversant with their commitment in primary schools staff recruitment, instructional supervision and teachers training and development for proper management and administration of the schools objective or predetermined goals.

Lastly the study will help the entire community of Ebonyi State to bring great zeal in the education of their children.

SCOPE

The study will find out the position of local government education authority in quality control of teaching and learning in primary schools in Afikpo North. The study also try to find out what way and extent the position of Local Government Education Authority enhance or control supervision of teaching and learning in primary schools, the recruitment of qualified staffs, the maintenance of the facilities in primary school, the external examination of primary school pupils, staff training and development in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

1. What is the position of L.G.E.A in the provision of school facilities?

2. What is the position of L.G.E.A in the recruitment of staff?

3. What is the position of L.G.E.A in the supervision of classroom teaching in primary schools?

4. What is the position of L.G.E.A in pupils examination and promotion?

5. To what extent do L.G.E.A embarked on teachers training and development?

REVIEW OF SOME RELATED LITERATURE

In this Chapter, attempt will be made to design a conceptual framework for the opinions by different scholars as they relate to the topic of the study. The aim is to identify some methods and procedures for results are evaluated in our primary schools under the Local Government Education Authority. It will also identify areas that must be considered to improve quality control in primary education. However the following sub-topic will be adopted.

1. The concept of quality control

2. Administrative structure of the Local Government Education Authority.

3. Functions of Local Government Education Authority

4. Financial Management in Local Government Education Authority.

5. Areas that must be considered to improve quality control in L.G.E.A

6. Some Mechanics for formalized quality control of education.

THE CONCEPT OF QUALTIY CONTROL

Quality management and control remains the paramount tools that nurture and sustain the growth and survival of any organization or institution which the school is one. Emetarom in Aghenta, Ehiametalor and Ogunu (1993) maintained that quality control in education can simply be interpreted to mean to control the quality of education given the ability to improve on or maintain existing good aspect of teaching-learning experience or further still to provide for those good aspect that are lacking in the educational system. In other words quality control means making sure that certain standards are upheld and encouraged particularly at the primary school level of education.

The management of education all over the worlds means the management of human resources education deals with the training and development of human beings. According to Fafunwa (1974), education is the aggregate of all the process by which a young adult develops abilities attitudes and other forms of behaviors which are of positive value to the society in which he lives. Accordingly Okafor (1992) said that education implies the consciously planned and systematically applied formal education and training carried out through the various social agencies of education. Okafor (1992) also defined education as the process of acculturation through which the individual is helped to attain the development of his potentialities and the maximum activation when necessary according to right reason and to achieve thereby his perfect self fulfillment.

Livy (1998) defines quality control as the practice of managing people at work. According to Odenuiyede in peretomode (2001) human resources management and control in education is the harnessing of the totality of the pupils skills, energies, talents, latent capacities. He went further and said that it is the systematic utilization and development of human potentials to realize educational objectives.

Quality control can be measure with the quality of educational input and outputs respectively. According to Igwe (1987) the approaches used in measuring quality control in primary education include the following:

1. The ability in the 3R’s and range of facts in a given academic and professional subjects.

2. The quality of teachers who operates the primary school system.

3. Scope of the curriculum.

4. Pupil performance at external examination.

5. Availability of quality of equipment and facilities

6. It is also measured by the final goals the people have set for themselves.

He went further to stressed that it is difficult to understand when people talked of poor quality education. The question always remains that in what context” However quality control in primary education is in terms of all the above mentioned variables.

Administrative structure of the Local Government Authority

The Local Government Education Authority is made up of other sub-units or department that helps in the control and management of primary education in Nigeria. Below is the organizational structure of the Local Government Education Authority.

The Secretary

Personal Financial and School Planning

Department Supply dept Service dept.

The secretary to L.G.E.A appointed by the local government council heads, the local government education authority. He is the chief executive of the authority who oversees the day-to-day running and management of the administrative functions of the authority. He supervises other department in the authority. He is also responsible for issues of primary school leaving certificate and organization of the refresher courses in collaboration with the inspectorate division of ministry of education.

The personnel department is in charge with the duty of overseeing the day-to-day administration function if the authority. He supervises other department carry out recruitment of qualified teaching staff, Discipline, transfer and promotion of teachers.

The finance department unit of the authority takes care of all expenditure incurred by the authority in the course of discharging their administration function. This is subject to external auditing from the state primary education board (SPEB). The department is also responsible for all matters connected with government grants, local authority subvention, collection of school in their area of authority.

School services department is responsible for school supervision and inspection of classroom teaching and learning. The department is also responsible for the organization of seminars workshops for teachers training and development. The department also ensures proper implementation of school curriculum during teaching and learning.

Planning research and statistics is vested with the duty of collecting information on the number of teachers in the schools and their respective qualification, number of school enrolment figures and number of pupils in each class, number of subject teacher in each school and class without teachers. The department also plan for curriculum development of primary school.

FUNCTION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT EDUCATION AUTHORITY.

In pursuance of the provision of the national constitution in the fourth schedule the local government council is given the function of providing and maintaining primary education. The federal Government in 1991 enacted the “Local Government Education Authority Decree” known as Decree No.3.

By this decree, the federal Government established for each Local Government Area of a State, a Local Government Education Authority whose functions include:

1. The management of primary school, and providing guidelines for the establishment of new school in the area.

2. Responsibility for day-to-day administration of primary schools in the area, acquiring and distributing materials and equipment to them.

3. Responsibility for staff personnel administration including recruitment, appointment, posting and deployment, promotion, discipline, retirement, training and retraining.

4. Dealing with school financial management assessment and provision of salaries, submission of annual estimate and accounts to the Local Government Council and ensuring the annual auditing of accounts.

5. Responsibility for general maintenance of primary school building and infrastructure.

6. Taking steps to ensure full pupil enrollment and active participation of the community in running the school in its area

7. Effective supervision of school and instruction;

This decree contains a repeal of decree 31 of 1988 which empowered the National primary education commission to manage primary education. The said the commission was also dissolved by decree 3 of 1991.The new law provide for the establishment of a local government education committee that will carry out the function of the authority and given the details for the conduct of its meetings. It empowers the authority to establish an maintain a fund for carrying out its duties, and to make standing orders to regulate the proceeding of both the committee or any of its committees.

This decree which is a national one was binding on all Nigeria. It passed the responsibility for finding and managing primary education in each of the local government area of the federation to a local government education authority to be establisher in each local government area of the federation. All primary school teacher in the public school are therefore employer of the local government council and must operate within the demand of the education authority.

Apart from the function recognition by the federal government decree No3 of F.G.N. (1991) the local government education authority which is under the control of SPEB was given the responsibility for:

1. Appointment, posting, transfer, promotion, and discipline of staff from salary grade level 01-06;

2. Recommending to SPEB on promotion and discipline of staff on salary grade level 07 and above.

3. Day to day administration of primary school under its area of jurisdiction.

4. Submission of annual estimates and account as well as monthly report to SPEB.

5. Payment of salaries, allowances and benefits to teachers in its area of jurisdiction.

6. Acquisition and distribution of materials/equipment to all primary schools.

7. Talking step to ensure full enrolment and attendance and stimulating and promoting community participation in its area.

8. Supervising school and education committee in its area of jurisdiction.

Financial management in local government education authority. The central purpose of financial management in primary school is the raising of funds and ensuring that the funds so mobilized are utilized in the most effective and efficient manner. This scarce and that all efforts should be made by educational administration and planners to ensure optimal utilization of founds.

Financial management has an impart on all segment of an organization (primary school),it is involved in the acquisition and allocation of resource and in the tracking of performance resulting from such allocations.

The most problematic aspect of local government administration is financial management .The federal government should revive the national primary education commission system and restore the system of revenue allocation as provided in decree No.3 of 1988. The only innovation should be that the NPEC should send the allocation for education directly to each local government council through the superintendent of schools. the local government educational authority should maintain a separate bank account from that of the council into which will be paid the federal, state and local government allocations for primary education. The signatories to this account should be the council bursar, the superintendent and the local government chairman. This is to ensure that funds cannot be withdrawn from it for any other purpose than primary education administration.

The federal government and the state government monitoring teams are to ensure that money allocated for primary education is judiciously used. The allocation to any local government for education should be withheld whenever it is shown that money already allocated has been misused. One of the monitoring team must visit each local government council at least once in four months. These teams should investigate any reports of mis-appropriation of education funds made by council members or staff of the local government.

Financial Management is controlled by legislation and financial regulations. The legal source of financing primary education include:

1. The federal government through the local government council’s share from the federation account.

2. Local government’s revenues, taxes, rents, licenses etc.

3. State government and aids.

4. Community / parents Teachers participation.

5. External credit facility. This is the need to mention the World Bank primary education projects.

In addition to the supervisory unit of each local council area, there should be a state ministry of education supervisory unity in each local government area. Both units should work to ensure the maintenance of standards in schools. The local government supervisory unit reports to the superintendent while the state reports to the commissioner for education.

Areas that must be considered to improve quality control in local government educational authority.

Certain problem areas stand constraints to quality control of education in the local government level. This problem area ranges from poor communication, poor supervision, examination malpractices and poor educational inputs.

Poor communication: The quality of instruction in most primary schools is poor. If communication is hampered, the entire organization suffers, when it is accurate thorough and timely, the organization can move effectively toward goal achievement, Peretomode (2001). Aghenta (1993) said that poor communication in primary schools is higher because most of the teachers are Grade II teachers, they do not take time to prepare their lesson neither do they teach with appropriate instructional materials as long as they do not expect any inspector, as a result of this they do not communicate effectively.

Communication is an important tool in any organization. Okedera (1979) said that where there is no communication, there is no message and this affect organization performance. According to Emenike (in Ndu, Ocho and Okeke 1997) the basic function of education rely almost entirely on communication among teachers and students and the coordination among various organization structures. The management of modern organizations places strong emphasis on information management, which has its stem the ability to communicate effectively.

In most cases, teachers of junior classes spent tome shouting and scolding the little one put in their care while those of primary six spent their tine revising past questions without impacting the knowledge to the learners, Nwadiani: in Aghenta, Ehiametator and Ogunu (1993). He further said that pupils do not read neither do they write much because the classes are large. Thus, the objectives of primary education which is the possession of skills for general literacy, effective communication and numeracy as contained in the (N PE: 2004) are lacking in the pupils, leading to poor quality control.

In these regard to poor communication that result form the level of low moral of teacher Grade II who are not well equip in planning his lesson before delivered to pupil and also teaching pupil without appropriate instructional material. As a result of low level of understanding of the Grade II teachers. They don’t believe that supervisor which may be external or internal, who check their daily activities which may come to their mind to communicate anyhow they like as items of teaching the students. And if only the local government education authority can employ or recruit the resourceful teacher from level of N C E holder to handle primary school, the mode of communication will change to effective system.

Poor supervision: There is need for effective and quality supervision in schools; this is to ensure that the educational system is reliable. Peretomode (2004) said that reliability in terms of educational system can only be enhanced through effective and quality supervision. According to Haris (1975), supervision is directed towards both maintaining and improving the teaching – learning processes of the school. Also Haris (1975) defined supervision as that aspect of educational management, which has to do with providing assistance in the development of better teaching and learning situation. Ocho (1982) said that education supervisors need to know how to convince and motivate, criticize without antagonizing, work with professionals are rarely found in our schools with the result that there is little or no quality control in the system. Supervision in schools has been irregular and ineffective since supervisors do not visit most of the schools to supervise classroom instruction. Certain things go out hand and this impaired the quality control of education, which also affects the quality of learning.

As a regard to these, if only the local government education authority can recruit and motivate qualified supervisor out list from B.Ed level in the field of educational administration and supervision of classroom instruction, the objective of classroom in primary school will be merit through proper quality control.

Examination malpractices: Examination malpractices result from poor teaching, which emanate from indiscipline. In the view of Peretomode (2004), indiscipline relates to all forms of misbehavior within school system, which could be collective misbehavior or individual behavior. Examination malpractice is an easy way for a lazy teacher and pupils, when a teacher lacks knowledge in the subject area, the quality of teaching is likely to be poor and student will not learn well.

The students need to be motivated by their teachers towards proper study habit. According to Stew (1983) motivation is a proponent’s state that energized and guide behavior, which is inferred, from changes in behavior. This agrees with the opinion that good teaching motivates good learning and study habits. Poor teaching lead to poor learning and examination malpractices, Mbipom in Aghenta, Ehiametator and Ogunu (1993). He further stressed that this remains the major problem hampering the quality of education in all levels of education especially in the primary schools.

In these regard, it is observed that as a result of lack of resourceful teacher who are willing to impact knowledge to the pupil that will bring change in them, that result indiscipline and misbehavior in the school which will now led to high level of Examination malpractice. For examination malpractices to reduce, the local government education authority should recruit resourceful teacher that will equip pupils with enough fact, which will bring high level of understanding in their knowledge.

Poor educational inputs: This is made up of the financial resource inputs and materials resource inputs, the effects of inflection and economic crises are greatly felt in the primary school. Efficiency may be defined as the quantitative relation between the inputs and outputs of primary education system, Aghenta (1993). Educational financing occupies a sensitive position in determining the quality of education administered in our primary schools. The aims of education are toward human development that is why in Nwnkwo (1976) it is stated that the education provided must be directed toward the full development of human personality and the strengthening of respect for human dignity through proper educational financing.

Unfortunately, the strategic position occupied by primary education is not guarded, as it is the most neglected and inadequately funded level of education. Ukeje (1992) corroborated that when he remarked that our primary schools cannot be proudly shown to the outsiders. This is because our educational system is in a total shamble, highly deplorable with dilapidated structures and lack of equipment and furniture. Ukeje (1992) also added that the classrooms in our primary schools lack concrete floors, and thus infested with all sorts of micro-organisms, which can be inimical to the pupils’ lives.

In some local government, quality teachers are mirage. Most unfortunately, teachers’ salaries and allowances are sacrifices for non-performances of economy, thus, reducing the enthusiasm and moral of the teaching personnel. The funding of primary education is too poor, over the years funding of primary education has been a major debate between federal state and local government. Primary education are poorly funded, the annual budgetary allocation to education is not sufficient to sustain the growth of the system. All these grossly affect the quality of education administered to pupils.

Aghenta (1984) reports that some children report at school with little or no book at all, they can neither write, draw nor paint because they have neither pen, pencil nor paper. Inadequate classroom blocks and few facilities are provided when evaluated in the light of quality control and quality improvement measures. Many of our children are not taught, thus schooling becomes a terror and a nightmare. Middle mist and Hitt (1981) said that lack of proper funding; non-payment of teacher’s salaries and allowances reduces teacher’s morale in the society. This result in lack of job satisfaction, which affected the quality of teaching, discharged in the class to the student resulting in poor learning outcome.

It is observed that inputs in education are human resource, material resource and financial resource. Because of inadequacy of these resource in primary school level which is under the duties of local government education authority in providing those inputs into the school. For the objective of primary school to be merit through quality control, the L G E A should made all the necessary resources available to the school and as well recruit resourceful teacher of other resources.

Some Mechanic for formalized Quality control on Education.

The mechanics for formalized quality control highlights on some of the factors that ensures quality teaching and learning among teachers and pupils in primary schools. This includes: Teachers Training and Retraining, supervision of instructions and supervision of primary schools.

Teachers’ Training: The National Policy on education stipulates that the list qualified primary school teacher who can cope with the demands of the 6 – 3 – 3 – 4 system of education should hold a National Certificate in Education (N C E,). The present primary school curriculum is elaborate. Teachers in the field must be retrained and expose to meet the demands of the changing trend in education. During the programme, the teacher should be made to master the relevant portions of the National policy on education. The importance of childhood education to the society is observed by Oje (1992) when he said that the continuity of the society could only be assured when such a society takes pain to plan for and prepare her children for a responsible and some adulthood. According to Mbiti (1974) organizational efficiency depends on the combination of two factors, the personnel skill factors and the equipment and supply factor. Also Ogunu in Aghenta, Ehiamelator and Ogunu (1993) said that personnel skill implies that employees of an organization must posses the right attitude and appropriate competence skills necessary for the performance of work assigned to them.

Mbipom in Aghenta, Ehiamelator and Ogunu (1993) said that teachers in the field must be retrained and exposed to meet the demands of a dynamic system of education which may be through conferences in the school or local government area, seminars or holiday training programme, the teacher should be made to master the relevant portions of the National policy on education.

Supervision of instruction: In Peretomode (2001) instructional refers to that phase of school administration, which focuses primarily upon the achievement of the appropriate expectations of educational system. He went further to say that it is basically concerned with supporting and assisting teachers to improve instruction through changing their behavior. Ogunu (1981) said it is those activities, which are designed to improve instruction at all levels of education. Ehiamelator (1983) says that instructional supervisors “does much than inspect” he further stressed that inspectors are more like the watchdogs of teachers and do not directly enhance teachers instructional effectiveness of improvement.

Ocho (in Ndu,Ocho and Okeke 1997) opined that an efficient supervisory staff can do much to improve the quality of teaching and learning in our schools. He further said that they need to be current in specific educational fields and to understand the implication of economic, political and cultural changes to education and how to get staff adopt to it. An educational system without a hardworking and dedicated supervisory staff is doomed to decay. The success of any educational system depends on the efficacy of the modalities for effective supervision. Supervision of instruction in school is focused on the improvement of teachers’ instruction and pupils learning. Modern supervision sees the teacher as a colleague who is to be encouraged, instructed and guided to the end that classroom instruction and learning will be improved, Nwankwo (1997). Also Aghenta (1993) says that a high level of supervision of instruction is necessary if the quality of instructions in our primary schools must be control. Both internal and external supervision are important if instruction must be standardized.

Supervision of primary schools: The attitude, orientation and commitment of the member of the National Primary Education Commission (N P E C) will ensure regular and systematic supervision and evaluation of all primary schools in the country and will also maintain uninterrupted communication through S P E B and the L G E A with all schools in the country. To achieve this the Head master must perform his duty as a supervisor and keep supervisory and evaluative reports of all workers; especially teachers, in the school. The L G E A will maintain a cadre of supervisory or inspectorate officers who visit the schools on regular basic and who report through the L G E A to the S P E B. The S P E B should also have a cadre of professional and experienced supervisory staff who ensures that the L G E A do their work effectively and who regularly report to N P E C.

In this way N P E C is in a position to advise, direct and execute policies and programmes in accordance with approved plans of government

Summary of literature review

In the light of several opinions and views of several scholars on education administration in Nigeria and primary Education in particular, it has been observed that primary education is the pillar, which other levels of education rest on. The creation of education authority at the local government level (L G E A ) and the assigning of functions and responsibilities over the management of primary education has gone a long way in ensuring that some of the problems militating against primary education are addressed.

The study however, examines the concept of quality control and administration structure of the local government education authority. Also some functions and financial management in the L G E A were looked at and some areas that must be considered to improve quality control of primary education. Despite the enormous effort and the role played by the authority, the L G E A is not left without problems that militate against quality control. However, the local government education authority remains the sole administrator of primary education at the grassroots level.

Position Of Local Government Education Authority In Quality Control Of Education

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