Pollution – It’s Causes And Effects On Society

Pollution – It’s Causes And Effects On Society: (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis)

Pollution – It’s Causes And Effects On Society: (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis)

The production of pollutions comes as the by-product of man’s actions. They are residences of things he makes uses and throws away, his cans and bottles, metals and plastics caps, waste rock and mill tailings, pesticides and herbicides, automobiles exhausts and industrial discharges

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. These are concomitants of a technological society with a high standard of living. They increase both because of population increase and because of an increasing expectation fro higher living standards, more is made, used and thrown away. But, as the committee on pollution of National Academy of science noted in 1966. “As he earth becomes more crowded, there is no longer a way one person’s trash basket is another’s living space.”

Pollution therefore can be primarily a consequence of irrigational behavioral.

These researches work little. “The effects of pollution to the society, it’s causes and effects, seeks to exonerate on what causes the pollution and how to handle the causes with a view to eliminate it.

It is also aimed at enlightening the general populace on a need to maintain a healthy environment as a prerequisite for a fulfilled and achievement propelled life.


The deterioration of environmental quality that began when man first assembled into villages and utilized fire has existed as a serious problem since the industrial revolution. Environmental contamination of air, water, and soil and food ahs became a threat to the continued existence of many plant and animal communities and may plant ultimately threaten the very survival of the human race.

It seems clear that if we hope to improve on the deteriorating standards of Public Health menace of pollutions should be checked structure for tomorrow.

What is urgently needed is a total system to modern civilization through which eh pooled talents of social scientists and medical profession can be focused on the develop into of order among the presently desperate segments of the human environment.


Can every human being have a life of quality in the twenty second century?

In this project I shall use the quality of life to express the way in which individual human beings feels that his or her life is worthwhile.

The quality of life requires freedom from negative think like hemger, cold, ailment, polluted air and water, over crowding noise streets and as well fear, but it must also contain for very human being in the world the positive aspect of frequent access to stress, unspoilt country side and sea side, healthy in a man made surrounding and certainties creation.

The problem I have to investigate is therefore how can I give every human being in the society particular people in Enugu State metropolis, the things essential to a life of quality without subjecting them to the pollutions which destroy life.

Such pollutants may be killing or harmful, destroying people’s enjoyment of life or drinking them made. This includes the indirect effects of such things as destruction of vegetation as well directs effects of food, water and air pollution and noise pollution.


In this study work, I shall focus more on the effects of environmental pollution in Enugu State meterology, it is causes and effects, to archive thus, the area of study (Enugu Metropolis) was achieved into 4 sections but of which 5 persons were sampled from each section making a total of 20 persons.

Copies of the questionnaire were used to collect data that were personally administered to the respondents by the researcher. In analyzing the data collected, simple percentage was used.


The main aim of studying the effects of environmental pollution in Enugu State metropolis is to stress its negative impact on the society and further for stall ways of eliminating the menace.

The solution to the problem is that of other problem lies with eliminating the causes of the problem, as it is said that is a problem solved and that is the major objectives of this research work.


Pollution could be defined as the additional material or energy to the environment that damages the environment or make it undesirable or unfit for life.


The sewage or waste is mostly organic matter. These are industrial waste that is discharged into the river that makes it harmful to human consumption.


Air pollution takes place when air is made impure by the presence of harmful substances in concentrations that cause injury to human, animal and plant life, and property.


Water is considered to be polluted when it is altered in composition or condition so that it becomes less suitable.


Noise refers to sounds that are wanted by the listener. Because it is unpleasant or bother some to people’s comfort.



In the modern world, more and more people are becoming urbanized and more and more goods are being produced to meet mains ever-growing demands.

Using Enugu state metropolis as a case study, the menace of pollution have done more harm to the people of the state. Both developments are tuning to bring about an increase in pollution. Major pollutants include the waste products of factors, the exhaust fumes of cars, lorries and other forms of mechanical transport untreated sewage and domestic waste. These may be discharged into the air fresh water or the sea.

In industrial cities like Enugu State in particular certain conditions these pollutions may build up to proportions which, apart from causing discomfort, become a serious danger to health.


In a text edited by B.N Lohami et al (1978) defines pollution as the additional material or energy to the environment that damages he environment or make it undesirable or unfit for life. In other words, it is these pollutions or unwanted substances which are harmful to pant and animals.

But according to N.C Tanh in his book titled “New Biology for West African Schools, defines pollution as the release by man of substances or energy into the environment in quantities which are harmful to him or other living things or in some way reduce the quality of life.



According to united states public health services air pollution may be defined as the presence in the out door atmosphere of one or more containments or combination, therefore of in such quantities as may be injuries to human being, plant and animal life.

The executives release of air pollutants in the atmosphere by anthropogenic activities disturbs the dynamic equilibrium in the atmosphere and thereby affects man and his environment mostly in Enugu State metropolis the atmosphere in dynamic system that steadily absorbs various pollutants from natural as well as man made sources, thus acting as a nature sink. Gases such as carbon, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen and sodium oxide are continually into the atmosphere through natural activities such as forest, fires, volcanic eruptions, decay of waste materials.


Water Pollution can simply be defined as the indiscriminate dumping of solid waste into water bodies. Water is considered to be polluted when it is altered in composition or condition so that it becomes less suitable for the purpose for which it would be suitable in its natural state. The quantity f world wide water sup[pliers is declining as a result o pollution in the city.


This pollution arises as a result of the solid waste. It can be defined as excess supply waste. It can be defined as excess sup-ply of waste materials. Once waste is collected from a house hold it has been disposed of as far as the house hold is concerned. It normally results from an imbalance and the demand for it.


Noise refers to sounds that are unwanted by the listener. Because it is unpleasant or bothersome to people, it can said to be a sort of pollution. Noise does not be a sort of pollution. Noise does not necessarily have any particular physical traits to distinguish it from wasted sound merely to draw attention to its unwantedness.


Some industries also pollute water with inorganic material and with heat. Mercury discharged by certain manufacturing processes has caused serious mercury pollution.


Pollution has a great effect to the society and has caused a lot of concerned to both government and the society at large. It has grave consequences both on the individual and the society at large. At person brought up in a bitter and uncomfortable environment is most people suffer form typhoid fever, cholera, malaria fever as a result of water pollution. Study has shown that the respondents had agreed that pollution has had effect to the society and hence needs urgent attention.

Neglect of pollution is not difficult to recognize. It is characterized by failure to clear the environment failure to clear the refuse dumps, ignorant of health, inattention to health problems caused by pollution are all forms of neglect.

The quality of life requires for every human being in the world the positive aspect of frequent access to trees, unspoilt country side and sea side, beauty in all man made surrounding and artistic creation, if this ascertain is true, what will befall this nation by the year two thousands and eight if pollution continues to affect the life of the society? Pollution carries along with some attendant suggest that people are more likely to be mentally retarded and experience series of unhealthy.

Pollution of air result form refuses of which are disposed of by burning or incineration symptoms and living diseases. It also increases illness rate of other persons with server bronchitis.

However, the governmental put deaf ear of the cry of the masses on the heart flowing problem of pollution.

The deposits of sills, sands, clay and garbage, which are left by floods, constitute sources of environmental pollution on polluted areas unless they are quickly removed. Environmental pollution can lead to the displacement of settlements and migration of people from polluted areas to other areas.

Another effect of pollution is that it can cause widespread malnutrition and associated disease as a result of insufficient of food and water. It also give rise to large-scale disruption of socio-economic life due for instance to crop failure, inadequate water and livestock pasture.

Pollution may have adverse physiological effects on man and animals. Pollution can lead to discomfort, chronic disease e.g. living cancer and asthma impairment of growth and death.

Some economic goods deteriorate in quality or get spoilt when they get in contact with certain solid particular and chemicals. For example when sulphur dioxide is absorbed by leather, it is concerted into sulphur is acid which causes the lather to deteriorate. Pollution is capable of inducing fogs, especially in stable atmosphere conciliations. This is possible because pollutants may act as could sensation nuclei. This is common in industrial cities. Some pollutants are toxic and can kill plants e.g. sulphur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride are particular toxic. These toxic gases may also chemical affect the soil.

Finally, I cannot conclude this highlight on the effect of pollution to the society without hinting on the pollution water. In the process the bacteria use up the dissolved oxygen. Too much sewage in a water body causes an increase in the bacteria population. This reduces the level of oxygen in the water. If the oxygen level falls too much, the aquatic organizations start to die and eventually the water body becomes dogged up and foul-smelling. Water polluted by sewage contains many diseases causing the death of organizations.

Therefore, the Enugu State Environmental protection Agency (ENSEPA) is fully responsible for the safe guiding against environmental pollution in Enugu metropolis and Enugu State as a Whole.


There is some identified sources form which pollution emanates. These sources are described with reference to they type of pollution.

Below are the pollutants and their identified sources:


Pollutants Major Sources

Hydrogen sulphide Cake Okens from gas cooker.

Incomplete combustion exhaust

From mechanic workshop.

Tobacco smoking.

Sulphur Oxide Domestic burning of fuels.

Oxides of Nitrogen Combustion of wood and refuge

Boiler used for cooking.


Pollutants Major Sources

Machinery noise from machines used in the

workshop, laboratory building

and construction equipments.

Home Appliances Radio sets, grinding machines

Human beings Noise form individuals.


Pollutants Major Sources

Refuse dumps all waste materials

Toiletries’ feaces, urine.


Pollutants Major Sources

Sewage Domestic wastewater, water

From bathroom laundry.


In this study, as I have studied the causes/the sources of differences kinds of pollution, I will like to look into the control measures that should be adopted to eradicate this fateful issue “Pollution.


(i) Government should enact laws to make factories and users of motor vehicles keep air pollution dawn by using anti-pollution devices and talking anti pollution measures.

(ii) Machinery should be improved so that efficient fuel combustion occurs.

(iii) People should be educated to make them aware of the causes and dangers of pollution.


(i) Refuse should be buried in an incinerator with built in devices to prevent pollution of air.

(ii) Sewage should be processed, treated and converted to useful fertilizers in sewage plans.

(iii) Chemical wastes should be converted to harmless biodegradable substances before being dumped in the sea.

(vi) Safety measures must be implemented to prevent crude oil spills.

(v) Strict laws must be passed to control water pollution by individuals and companies.

When all these tings is done, the people of Enugu metropolis and Enugu State in general will be like a New Jerusalem. There will be joy and comfort.


I have been able to discover the following in findings

(a) There had been considerable feting that the public health services (ENSEPA) has not taken a strong against pollution and are still weak when it comes to enforcement.

(b) The primary responsibility for pollution control continued to fell on the government agents for public health.

There is gross negligence by government agent (ENSEPA) and ministry of health) in controlling the menace of pollution in Enugu Metropolis.

It has been discovered that pollution of air is from refuse, of which are disposed of by open baring or incineration.

Air can also be polluted through common product in exhaust gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide. To arrive at the point, in this study titled” the effects and the causes of pollution to the society”. I have examined the effects and the causes and also find a suitable ways on which the problem should be solved.


Now there is concern and zeal amongst members of the public to declare war against pollution, the researchers consider it necessary to make some suggestions on how the goals of this action can be achieved.

1. The government should adopt a strong law against indiscriminate dumping of refuse.

2. The public needs education and enlighten on the need for a health environment.

3. Refuse burning should be restricted to incinerator.

4. Factories should apply the use of tall chimneys so as to discharge the gases high enough in the sky.

5. There should be constant inspection of streets by Enugu State environmental protection Agency especially on clean-up days. They should ensure that refuse dumps are constantly remounted.

6. Sewage should be properly treated before disposal.

7. Subsidization the government should make a variety o law interest loan for the purchase of pollution equipment.

8. Recycling of industrial waste and scraps of material should be implemented.


Form the analyst, it can be concluded that refuse dumps, sewages, dust and dirty environment are contributing factors to the menace of pollution to the society. People suffer a lot of set back, which ranges from ignorance challent attitude or matter affection the society and lack of commitments. They could afford to buy the required facilities and consequently could not keep there clean.

There is general misbehavior by some people that they cannot participate in cleaning their environment. This is a situation, which has placed must urban town in environmental mass.

I examined the effects and the causes of pollution to society and Enugu state metropolis in general, the factors, the problems and the solution on which it should be solved. However, the government put deaf ear to the cry of the people/masses on the heart flowing problem pollution.

The Enugu State environmental protection Agency (ENSEPA) is responsible for state guciching against environmental pollution in Enugu metropolis and Enugu State as a whole.

Pollution – It’s Causes And Effects On Society: (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis)

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