Political Leadership In Nigeria – A Problem To National Economic Development

Political Leadership In Nigeria – A Problem To National Economic Development:  (A Case Study Of Ebonyi Local Government Area Of Ebonyi State)

Political Leadership In Nigeria – A Problem To National Economic Development:  (A Case Study Of Ebonyi Local Government Area Of Ebonyi State)

Leadership has been a natural gift from God right from the time immemorial. Many people are blessed interms of leadership positions.

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Leadership as a natural gift from God is the process through which God use to select the best leader who will direct and give instructions to others on how to pilot the affairs of the society.

There are various types of leadership in some institutions like religious, academic, political institutions etc.

Indeed, the success of every organization, state or nation largely depends on the leadership traits and the methods adopted. Therefore, leadership could be defined as the ability to influence others’ activities in a manner that can facilitate the realization of organizational goals and objectives.

Leadership is very essential for the survival of any country, especially Nigeria. It is note worthy to say that man, by nature is dynamic. Yet organizational or national economic development of a given country depends more on workers’ activities towards their schedule. On this premise, it is therefore imperative to channel political leadership towards the development of our natural economy which is one of the problems of national economic development in Nigeria.

Unfortunately, most of the leaders who were politically elected or appointed to represent their people in the act of governance changed their ambitions over night against the people or masses who contributed their quoters to ensure their success and upliftment of the society. In Nigeria, it has been alleged that nothing has ever been achieved by the political leaders, since she got her independence. In Ebonyi Local Government Area, where the research was based, there is no remarkable achievement. Since the creation of Ebonyi Local Government in the year 1996, various leaders have come and gone without any of them making serious move towards achieving any aim and objective of the Local Government. They were only interested in syphoning and diverting the Local Government money into their own private or personal account. It is against this background that the researcher wants to carryout a research on leadership in order to find out how it could be attributed to one of the problems of national economic development in Nigeria at large and Ebonyi Local Government Council in particular.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Nigeria is a country blessed with natural resources, but since Nigeria got her independence in 1960 from the colonial masters, her major problem has been on national economic development especially in the industrial and Agricultural sectors. The problem of our National Economic Development was constituted by our leaders. They tend to locate industries and Agricultural Projects in the areas that are not suitable for National Economic Development and since the creation of Ebonyi Local Government in 1996, Ebonyi have not been able to produce good political leaders. It is against this sense that the researcher wants to investigate why there have been persistent problem of economic development in Nigeria as a result of poor leadership.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This research work intends to determine the problem created by our political leaders in National Economic Development with reference to the location of industries. It examines on how to avoid ethnicity, explain what to do in order to have good leaders in Nigeria. Again, the research will determine what makes the leaders in Ebonyi Local Government Council to make little impact on the life of our people.

Again, it will try to unveil the problem of leadership and to put up suggestions on how to have good leadership in Nigeria.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The importance of his research work is that we have known that Nigeria has been blessed with mineral and human resources. But our leaders have misused those great opportunities. The study will enable the government especially the policy makers work out plans on quality leadership in Nigeria.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study will be concerned with the Nigerian political leaders as an obstacles to National Economic Development but the present writer will focus more attention on the political leadership from 1996 till present day and National Economic Development in Nigeria.

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research work in the case of investigation on the topic, encountered problem of finance.

The researcher equally experienced shortage of materials.

He also had a problem of time constraint and accommodation.

1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1. Who is responsible for bad governance in Nigeria political system?

2. Is ethnicity a contributing factor to bad leadership in Nigeria?

3. What are the causes of bad leadership in our present Nigeria political system?

4. What has the government done to institute good governance in Nigeria?

5. What should we do to have good leadership in Nigeria?

 

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

Since independence, Nigeria has casely struggled to have an authentic leadership but to no avail instead she has always had the misfortune of falling into the hands of rapacious power megalomaniacs owing to share incompetence and aspiration of her people.

The problem of leadership has become very crucial in the life of this nation which gives many concerned Nigerians sleepless night. Every sound of martial music welcomes a new light. The new government accusing the previous regime of bribery and corruption, and above all inadequacy of accountability which has warranted the changes hence they establish their own ground. Hopes are once more raised and in affirmation, the poor masses in the society welcome the intended “messiah”. But unfortunately, experiences has shown that immediately the new government comes on board, it solidly establish itself, history and stories begin to repeat itself. That means, the same problem becomes worse and more draconian, and more poisonous than the ill it came to cure.

In order to maintain and reinforce their foothold and grip on the country’s constitution and the Local Government bye-laws are rolled out in quick successions with the dumping of the existing constitutions and bye-laws. This leadership problem has made clannishness, nepotism, favoritism and parochialism automatically become the determining factor in who is who in the government. Thus, meritocracy is mudered in place of mediocrity. Management Boards and Directors-General are quickly reshuffled and retired to enable the new government bring in their favourities. Through this way, the people will go back to square one to the bitter tales of woes and hopelessness. The fundamental human rights are violated with reckless abandon and the accumulation of money in banks, at homes and abroads begin like “gold rush” wile millions of Nigerians continue to starve and die. That was why Chinua Achebe challenged all thoughtful and current minded Nigerians to raise up today and reject those habit which cripple our aspiration and inhibit our chances of becoming a modern and attractive country.

The interpretation of the concept of leadership is sophisticated in nature. This further to suggest that there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define or explain the concept. For scholars like Bennis Warren G. (1992). Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality. In explaining this, max well John .C. (2002) argues that most of us learn the heard way that leadership is not merely having a vision. Anyone can dream. He opines that effective leadership knows how to lay down the action step for yourself and the organization so that the vision can be realized. This requires us to be practical and to understand the process along the way. In her position, Hopper Grace Murray (1999) argued that leadership is about the management of things and leading of people. For her, process of managing situations and stero-typing, the behaviours of people is leadership. By implication, the activities of man in an office interms of exercising strict control over resources under their control and the way and manner they direct affairs of people who relate with them in the office speaks of leadership. In the course of this resources management, it is expected that the leader should not exhibit sentiment in his or her actions. He should be fair and just to all. No wonder it is a prerequite for success as projected by Cosby Bill (2001) when he argued “I don’t know the key to success but the key failure is trying to please everybody.” This means that a leader should go beyond being pleaser so as to please God and obedient to the provisions of his or her job. In the position of Tombstone (2000) leadership lies on people who know how to enlist the services of better man than themselves. By exposition, Tombstone, was of the view that ones ability to utilize the intelligentsia of others to realize a given goal, leadership had occurred. This is the reason why Maxwell .Y. (2002) argues that he owe whatever success he had achieved by the large, to this ability to surround himself with people who are smarter than him. This was necessary because he knows his own limitation. George Bush, an American president saw leadership as the acquisition of power for the purpose of serving others. He stated: thus, we use power to help people for we are not given neither to advance our purpose nor to take a great show in the world, nor a name, there is but one use of power and it is to serve people.

According to Boragadus (1928) leadership is the creating and selling forth exception, behaviour pattern in such a way that other person respond. It would be through collective imposition of a person on others. Continuing, he stated that such an appointed person many not necessary have the starling qualities of a leader but he is installed by the will and wishes of a given people.

Webber (1985) revealed that a leader is the person that leads; a person who directs and usually accompanies armed forces. This implies that leadership could be through self-imposition which is devoid of constitutional issue. This type of leadership occurs when there is a treat of disaster or catastrophe.

According to Olueley (1985) leaders are born or made or both. All testimonies show that leaders are born or made. A born leader is somebody having all the inherent qualities of leadership but many not be able to display them if certain things are absent. And in view of this, a leader that has no group of people to lead politically will be disadvantaged in exhibiting and exercising the leadership qualities. Such qualities may become latent if certain conditions are absent or unavailable. On the other hand, it can be said that leaders cannot be made if there is complete absence of leadership qualities. If it is agreed that leadership are both born and made, question now is, is there any destruction in the art of molding such leaders? Leadership has an extricating line with economic development. A leader should have clear ideals of his goals and ambitions of the National Economic Development. At National level, he should understand the goals of his country at the material time. Political leadership through its policies and attitudes of its individual and members have an accumulation of wealth that has power to run any economy in the various industries of the national economy who has no overriding goal to raise the National welfare and quality of life chose to forma selfishly part of National Economic problem. Countries Saddled with an unpatriotic economic leadership are trapped in a continuous state of economic crisis capable of leading to political collapse in the long run.

Obi (1984) observed that Nigerian economic development is characterized by the spector of the effects of oil glut, in employment, currency devaluation, foreign exchange deficit and snuggling. He stated that rather than bording the economic base, our leaders narrowed it further by encouraging National dependent of foreign foods and generally, leadership is not guaranteed by ethnicity or religion, instead, it is the result of the through education, initiative and judiciousness in deciding and carrying out matters of public interest. Our leaders both in private and public lives should be people of in impeccable integrity and with deep sense of commitment and service. Such people will not have as their concern the enjoyment to trifle benefits of their position but guided by a sound and sincere, thirst to secure the interest of the masses, deal with maturity determination and foresight on all national issues. We no longer want such a leader who does not care to know about what happens to its school learners and graduates, a leader who does not care whether workers are paid or not. We need leaders who are able to look beyond their selfish and tribal noses, leaders who have authentically Nigerian and African values to pursue. Such leaders can only be respected at home and abroad if they have the mandate of the people through the ballot box.

LEADERSHIP AND DEVELOPMENT

The term “development” means many things to different people. This has led to lack of consensus on what development entails. This difficulty not withstanding at the individual levels it is increase in skill, capacity and capability, greater freedom, creativity, material well being etc. It could be seen as an advance in one’s life style or appropriately puts a “development” and these are all tied to or affected by the state of the individuals large society Development could therefore be safely defined as the increased capacity and capability of members of a society in dealing with their environment. In another way, development is a multidimensional process involving the reduction or eradication of inequality, absolute absence of poverty, no case of unemployment and economic growth.

Development as a concept is not limited to economic discipline, as some people tend to believe, instead, it touched on so many other areas of human endeavours. Todaro (1977) holds that in addition to improvements in incomes and out puts, development typically involves radical changes in institutional, social and administrative structure as well as in popular attitudes and sometimes even costume and beliefs. In the same vein, Tomori (1979) says that development implies the complete modernization of a society, it entails the conversion of a peasant society into an industrial one, and it measures change in the whole way of life in expectations and motivations and event the physical environment of our daily life.

The multidimensional or complex nature of the “development” is clearly presented by Seers (1969) when he says that the questions to ask about a country’s development are:

—what has been happening to poverty?

—what has been happening to unemployment?

—what has been happening to inequality?

The problem of poverty, unemployment or inequality cannot be solved by economist alone because it processes cultural, social, political and historical traits. The measure of development is not limited to economic indices alone. Rather, it is extend to include the degree to which provisions have been made for the people’s life sustaining needs, self-esteem, freedom and protection of life and property. Life sustaining needs include food, shelter and clothing. Self-esteem implies individual self respect, self confidence, sense worth and accomplishment. Freedom as used here is not limited to political freedom, it extends to freedom from poverty, from to hold religious beliefs and opinions, equality of opportunities etc. Protection not only relates to safety of lives and property but to the santity of the human rights.

Development is therefore deemed to have started only when man’s life-staining needs, self-esteem, freedom and protection are provided for and can be maintained for as long as man lives. For a country to be recognized as a developed one, there has to be a transformation in that country’s institutions, socio-cultural rules and general attitudes of the people so as to create an enabling environment for the country to be responsive to desire and attainable modern changes.

Furthermore, the literature of leadership and the quotes are endless. For the purpose of our valued understanding, leadership can be viewed under eleven classifications based on scholars position.

It can be classified as:

1. A focus group process.

2. Personality and its effects.

3. The art of inducing compliance.

4. The existence of influence.

5. The form of persuasion.

6. The act or behaviours.

7. A power relation.

8. An instrument of goal achievement.

9. An effect of interaction.

10. A differentiated role

11. The initiation of structure.

The above classification is credited to the works of Stog dill R.M. (1974) which are here under explained.

a. Leader as a focus of group process: Here leadership is seen as focuses of group process, the understanding of dimensions and the focus of a group explain leadership. This means that in a society, it is expected that the interests of those who are being led becomes uppermost in leadership consideration. This is the reason why some scholars like Coley C.H. (1985) maintained that “the leader is always the nucleus of tendency and on the other hand, all social movements closely examined will be found to consist of tendencies having such nuclei”. Black men in Stog dill (1974) argue that leadership is the centralization of effort in one person as an expression of the power of all. By this position, the power to lead is vested on the leader by the people. The leader’s action is centred on being influenced by the needs and wishes of the group member.

The activities of the leaders are focused on ensuring the integration of the group. He design strategies towards realizing the group focus. It is also argued that leaders may not be separated from the group but may be treated as a position of high potential in the field of leadership. It is strongly believed from the arguments of Krech and Crutchied in Stog dill (1974) that by virtue of the leaders position in the group, he serves as a primary agent for the determination of group structure, group atmosphere, group goals, group ideology and group activities. Also contributing kniker Bocker as cited in Stogdill (1974) followed a line of thought, which seem to place him in the group centrality school of thought when he posits “when conceived in human social behaviour, leadership is a function of needs existing within a give situation and consist of a relationship between an individual and a group.

b. Leadership as personality and its effects: The concept personality appealed to scholar/theorist who sought to explain why some persons are better able than others to exercise leadership. In line with this conception, some equated leadership with strength of personality indeed the amounted of personality attribute to any individual may not be unfairly estimated the degree of influence he can exert upon others. Some argues that a leader is a person who possesses the greatest number of desirable traits of personality and character. Any person who is more than ordinarily efficient in carrying psychological stimuli to others and is thus effective in conditioning collective responses may be called a leader from the group but may be treated as a position of high potential in the field of leadership. It is strongly believed from the arguments of Krech and Crutchied in Stogdill (1974) that by virture of the leaders position in the group, he serves as a primary agent for the determination of group structure, group atmosphere, group goals, group ideology and group activities. Also contributing Kniker Bocker as cited in Stogdill (1974) followed a line of thought, which seem to place him in the group centrality school of thought when he posits “when conceived in human social behaviour, leadership is a function of needs existing within a given situation and consist of a relationship between an individual and a group.

Leadership is thus regarded as a combinations of traits, which enables an individual to induce others to accomplish a given task. These definitions tend to regard leadership as one-way influence effect. A leader may possess qualities differentiating him from the followers. The definition failed to recognize the interactive qualities in which leaders’ posses. It failed also to admit the exchange nature of social interactions between a leader and his followers that tends to project the reciprocal potentials that are potent for the survival of the society.

c. Leadership as the art of inducing compliance: Many scholars argued in line with the fact that leadership as a concept could be seen as the art of inducing compliance. Leadership is seen as ability to handle men so as to achieve the most with the least friction and greatest cooperation. It is the creative and directive force of morale. Leadership is seen as the power of interaction, which induces compliance from the followers, therefore, the moment works are heard towards realizing the goal of the groups through his ability to convince his members on the need to be obedient to wills, hence, leadership has taken place. In his approach, all port in Stogdill 1974 states that leadership means direct force to force contact between the leader and the followers. It involves personal and social control. Some define leadership as the ability to impress the will of the leader on those led and induce obedience, respect, royalty and co-operation. Leadership is also seen as the imposition maintenance, and direction of moral unity to our ends. Leadership is a process by which an agent induces a subordinate to behave in a desired manner. These explanations tend to regard leadership as an undirectional exertion of influence and as an instrumentality for molding of groups culture.

d. Leadership as the exercise of influence: The use of concept influence marked a step in the definition of leadership with regards to generality and abstraction. From this position, leadership implies influencing changes in conduct of people to co-operate towards some goal, which they come to find desirable. For Stogdill (1974) It is the process of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts towards goal achievement. Human in Stogdill (1974) Suggests that direct leadership is an interaction process in which an individual, usually through the medium of speech influences the behaviour of others towards a particular end.

Accordingly, on individual’s effort to change the behaviour of others could be regarded as leadership. Thus, when others are successful in their own leadership style, and then if others are reinforced or rewarded for changing their behaviour, this evoked achievement is efficient leadership. The concept influence recognizes the fact that individuals differ to the extent that their behaviours affect activities of a group. It implies a reciprocal relationship between leaders and followers, but one does not necessarily characterized domination, control or induction of compliance on the part of the leader. By this, leadership exercised a determining effects on the behaviours of group members and on activities of the group.

e. Leadership as act or behaviour: Some scholar prefer defining leadership interms of acts of behaviour. In this direction, it is argued that leadership behaviours are behaviours in which the experiment wishes to designate or more generally experts in this are wish to so consider as leadership behaviour. Leadership is an act of a leader, which results in others acting or responding in a shared direction. Fielder (1980) proposed that leadership behaviour generally means the particular act in which a leader engages in the course of directing and co-coordinating the work of his group members. By implication, it is only the action, which are regarded as leadership are termed as leadership and it is a function of desires of those who are playing the games of leadership. Therefore, action of individuals speaks of them as leader or not and differential them from those that are not leader. From the above submissions, we observe that we have been particularly interested in definition that provide a basis for objective observation, description, measurement and leadership experiment.

f. Leadership as a form of persuasion: Several definitions by scholars of coercion from their definitions of leadership, while at the same time retaining the concept of the leaders as a determining factor in the relationship with followers. The use of persuasion seemed to meet this specification. For scholar like Schenk (1983) Leadership is the management of men by persuasion and inspiration rather than by the direct or implied threat of coercions. According to Clecta and Mason (1998) Leadership indicates the ability to influence men and secure results through emotional appeals rather maintained that leadership is the art of dealing with human nature. It is the art of influencing a body of people by persuasion or example to follow a line of action. On this position, two qualities of a leader are noticed. That is the value and valence of leader. For Donnel .O. (1974) Leadership is the activity of persuading people to cooperate in the achievement of common objectives. Eisenhower in Adair (1989)argues that a trial always noticeable in a successful leader is his ability to persuade others. There are times of course when every leader must make a decision and see that it is carried out regardless of what others might think. But whenever men can be persuaded rather than ordered when they can be made to feel that they have participated in developing the plan, they approach their task with understanding and enthusiasm. Therefore, ones ability to persuade others is a prerequisite for his acquisition of leadership traits hence the definition of leadership.

g. Leadership as a power relation: Some scholars see leadership as differential power relationship among members of a group. Some definition or some define leadership as a particular type of power relationship characterized by a group members perception that another group member has the right to prescribe behaviour pattern for the former based on his activities as a member of a particular group. Prominent scholar like Warriners (1955) Gert and Mills (1953) Bass (1960) as cited in Stogdill (1974) toyed the same line of thought. To most of them, leadership is politics is an exercise of power over others. Power is regarded as a form of influence relationship. It can be observed that some leaders more than others tend to transform any leadership opportunity in an overt power relationship. Many leaders are seen being drunk in power and in some respect, their exercise of power becomes very coerce and not diplomatic.

h. Leadership as an instrument of goal achievement: Some theories have included the idea of goal achievement in their definition of leadership. Some argued that a leader is a person who has a programme and is moving towards an objectives with his group in a definite manner. It is also a process of arranging a situation so that various members of a group, including the leader, can achieve common goals with maximum economy and a minimum of time and work. Leadership is viewed as the principle dynamic force that stimulates, motivates and coordinates the organization in the accomplishment of its objectives. The above definitions express recognitions of the instrumental value of leadership. It seems doubtful that groups would develop role structures solely for the satisfaction that might be gained by few members from status differentials.

i. Leadership as effect of interaction: Several theories have viewed leadership not as a cause of interaction rather as an effect of group action. Some stated that as a social process, leadership is that social interaction or social inter-stimulation which causes a member of group or people to set out new goals and react towards achieving it with new enjoyment and enthusiasm or a new goal with hopeful courage with different persons keeping different places. For Andeson (1976) a true leader in the psychological sense is one who can make the most of individual differences, who can bring out the most difference in the groups and therefore reveal to the groups a sound base for common purposes.

j. Leadership as a differentiated role: One of the outstanding achievements of modern sociology or society is the development of the role theory. This theory states that each member of the society occupies a status position in the community as well as in various institutions and organization. In each position, the individuals is expected to play a more or less well defined role. Leadership may be regarded as an aspect of role differentiation. Jennings (1988) Observed that leadership thus, appears as a manner of interaction involving behaviour by and towards the individuals”. Lifted to a leader role by other individuals.

k. Leadership as the initiation of structure: Many authors viewed leadership not as the passive occupant of a position or acquisition of a role, but as a process of originating and maintaining role structure. Some equated leadership with management of social differentials through the process of giving stimuli responded to integratively by other people. Goudner F. (1980) argues that there is a difference between a stimulus issued by a follower and one from a leader. There is the probability that there is the stimulus structure group behaviour. It goes to suggest that when once the group activity has become dominated by an established and accepted organization, leadership is the function of maintaining, the operational effectiveness of decision making system, which comprises the management of organization.

TYPES OF LEADERSHIP

The works of great philosophers and social thinkers like Plato, Conway, Sanderson and Nafe, Bogardus and others tend to portray that varied leadership typologies exist.

Based on this we can therefore agree to have the following as the types of leaders in human society.

1. Authoritative leader.

2. Persuasive leader.

3. Democratic leader.

4. Intellectual leader.

5. Administrative leader.

6. Representative leader.

1. Authoritative or authoritarian type of leadership may be sub-classified into dictatorship and autocratic types. Invariably, some authoritarians dictate for their subjects where as some role on issues indiscriminately there by portraying their autocratic potentials.

2. Persuasive leader: A persuasive leader or a leader is typified as persuasive if that leader is concerned about the will of his subjects. By implication, the spirit of getting the group members convinced over a decision on an issue at stake becomes very important. Persuasive leader is the type who uses all necessary avenues to ensure that there is an understanding of members of this group about an existing issue, which demands attention. At the level of their agreements, following his ability to persuade them, decisions are taken. These type of leaders are diplomats and can be found at different levels of governance, whether at the local, national or international, majority of leaders who posses the quality of persuasion are also seem to posses some charismatic qualities. It is these charismatic qualities which empowers them to apply persuasion as a measure in their governance. By their action, the interest of their followers are aroused, reactivated and reinforced. This makes it possible for confidence to reposed in them.

3. Democratic leader: Democracy has to do with the people’s mandate and will. It has to do with consensus and resolution of the majority, which subject the will of the minority class to pressure. Democracy is what many societies who are not experiencing it want to experience because of its freedom and liberty. In democracy, the voices of the people are listened to. For a leader to be democratic, he must be holding the mandate of his people. He must be vested with people’s authority. He is also that person whose will procedes not that of his subjects. He seeks the consent of the majority before arriving at a conclusion on any subject matter. The interest of the people is put first before that of the leader. He works towards developing the group, equipping them with skills that will enable them arrive at a solution to a particular problem. His primary function is to satisfy his subjects and achieve that set goal of the group. His interest in satisfying his group goal is aimed at reciprocating in exchange, the people’s choice of him as a leader.

4. Intellectual leader: Intellectual ability has to do with scholarship. It is academic oriented and concern ones intelligence and ability to think well and understand the prevailing conditions of the time. Intellectual leaders are good and gifted thinkers who can reason on valued solutions to challenging problem. People who posses this quality are those who are in academic and are authorities in different fields of specialization. For instance Professors, Ph. D holders and lecturers in general and other gifted individuals who can think out scholarly possibilities of over coming some pressing circumstances. Such fellows are intellectual leaders. Their opinions become a guide out of a problem. They can design formulars, which are relevant in meeting the needs and aspiration of the group. They can also propound theories or proposition, which are subject to verifications and proof. Leadership, who posses this quality are gifted people.

5. An administrative leader: Administrative refers to those activities which are involved in the management of business. It is a proper method or process of management and organization of the aforementioned. (Companies, industries, firms, institutions, parastatals etc) an administrator, therefore is an administrative leader. He is the chief executive and managing director of any of the mentioned establishments. Some of the establishments can be privately owned whereas some can be publicly owned.

6. The Representative leader: Representative here reflects to the issue of holding a position for someone or speaking for a person. This is an occasion that experienced in the governance of the society since it may be difficult to bring all the people together at a point in time to address some issues. In a society like Nigeria with a population of about/over eight billion with over two hundred and sixty ethnic groups, it will be very difficult to harmoniously, bring all or everybody together at a point in time with the purpose of reasoning out solutions to confronting social and political problem. Nevertheless, since the society in which we operate in is heterogeneous, the demand for representatives in local, state and federal assemblies become inevitable.

REFERENCES

John Okwoeze Oday (1997): Mother Teresa and mobutu sese seko. Printed by snamp press united Enugu.

Joseph, A. Richard (1982): Democracy and Prehendal politics in Nigeria Fourth Dimension company limited.

Ezera, K (1960): Constitutional development in Nigeria, published by Guzan publishers Abakaliki.

Achebe .C. (1983): The trouble with Nigeria fourth Dimension. Publisher Enugu.

Andershone (1977): Economic of West African: London macmilla Education limited.

Reberts .J. (1978): Governmental and power in West Africa. Ethiopia publishing Benin city.

Samuel son P.A (1995): Economics: An introductory Analysis. Kogakasha Company Ltd.

Thomas .V. (1981): Contemporary public Administration Harcourt Barace Jovanrich in New York.

Olueley .J. (1985): Military Leadership in Nigeria, University press limited Ibadan.

Olauwa Sanni H.A. (1966): Nigerian Economic Development, Ibadan Oxford University press.

Idah .N. Idah (2004): Citizenship Education for a new Nigeria. Published by Libra Press Ltd Aba.

 

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY

This chapter is designed to recapitulate the whole research work by summarizing the discussion, drawing conclusion from the findings as well as making necessary recommendations about the study.

5.1 DISCUSSION

In the course of this research, it was gathered that political leadership is generally effective to the development of Ebonyi Local Government Areas, as it is a source of economic development to the government in general.

These discussion/findings are geared towards democracy if the masses are allowed to elect the leaders of their choice through pure democracy dividents especially as it will help to upgrade national unity and development in our societies.

Moreso, it was also discovered that monetary influence, embezzlement and electoral rigging have serious effects on the political and even religious leadership of this country.

5.2 CONCLUSION

In concluding this research work, we have carefully revealed political leadership and problem of National economic Development in Nigeria as the bane of Nigeria policy. If Nigerians have any political hope projected into the future, it is that of return to main democracy (civil rule) Nigeria leaders always consider themselves to be above the law. This is most evidence under military regimes than civil rule. For many years the general view of international financial institutions was that failure by Nigerian government to implement certain policies is simply evidence of the fact that Nigeria policy makers are single minded, self seed liars, irretrievably condemn and to pursuing policies that maximize their power and sabotage those that might undermine it.

Nigeria political leaders ignore and undermine the principles of accountability with wreckless abandon. In government, accountability touches on the mortality, honesty, ethics and behaviour of all officers in the areas of finance, money, material and the management of man.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

1. It is recommended that the government should allow the masses to elect the leaders of their choice from Local Government, State government and federal government through pure democracy divident.

2. It is the duty of the government to provide social infrastructure and social welfare through the real implementation of political leadership in our local government, State government and federal government viz-a-viz to our national unity.

3. It is recommended, that since agriculture and industry play an interdependent role in the national economic efforts, our political leaders should be geared towards improving the agricultural and industrial sectors in our location.

4. It is recommended that our leaders must be oriented. They should be sensitized, consentized and humanized viz-a-viz to our national development.

5. It is recommended that our political leaders should stop location of industries based on party patronage. They should locate the industry where there is availability of raw materials.

6. It is recommended that our political leaders should pay more attention to the economic development of our local government rather than enriching themselves with the local government money (state and federal allocation).

7. It is recommended that government should organize a periodic and proper election to serve as a measure to limit and remove those dictators and selfish leaders from the mantle of leadership. If that could be possible, our nation will develop or will be developed.

5.4 SUMMARY

The purpose of this study is/was to find out the ill of political leadership; as a problem of National Economic Development in Nigeria. A case study of Ebonyi Local Government.

The study covered some of the major areas in the local government. The study was carried out in the office of the boss, the elected councilors, the civil servants, employee of labour and business owners.

The study also focused on the political leadership; A problem of national economic development in Nigeria and the contribution of the economic development in Ebonyi Local government area.

The instrument for data collection was questionnaire.

The research questions that guided the study include.

1. Who is responsible for bad governance in Nigeria political system?

2. Is ethnicity a contributing factor to bad leadership in Nigeria?

3. What are the causes of bad leadership in our present Nigeria political system?

4. What has the government done to institute good governance in Nigeria?

5. What should we do to have good leadership in Nigeria?

 

REFERENCES

Abbot et al (1979): Agricultural Economic and Marketing in the Tropics. London Longman group limited.

Achebe .A. (1983); The Trouble with Nigeria, fourth Dimension. Publisher Enugu.

Akubuilo C.J.C. (1977); A text book of Agriculture. African, Educational publisher Limited.

Anyanwu AC etal (1977); Agricultural Economic and Farm management, London Macmillis Limited.

Aboyade. C. (1968); Industrial Location and Development policy, the Nigerian case. Nigerian Journal of Economics and Social Studies.

Andershon . E (1977); Economic of West African; London Macmillian Education Limited.

Gravin .W. (1976); Nigeria Economy and Security, Rex Collings London .

Boragadus .K (1985); Quoted in Olueley: military Leadership in Nigeria. University Press Limited, Ibadan.

Micheal .T. (1977); Economic for a Developing World, Longman Group Limited.

Musafar .S. (1962); Inter group Relations and Leadership; Approaches and Research in Industrial, Ethnic, Culture and Political area. Published in New York.

Negro and Negro (1980); Modern Public Administration, Harper International Edition.

Nwose .E.J. (1980); Patterns of Agriculture and Industrial Production and their Implication to Development of Nigeria in Reading Social Science, E.C Amucheazi (ed) Nigeria fourth Dimension Co-Limited.

Obi .W. (1980); International Economic Relation and National Development in Reading Science E.C. Amucheazi (ed) Nigeria, fourth Dimension Company Limited.

Olaloku .F. (1979); Book Structure of the Nigeria Economy, the Macillian Press Limited. University of Lagos.

Olueley .J. (1985); Military Leadership in Nigeria: University Press Limited. Ibadan.

Olouwasanmi A.A. (1966); Agriculture and Nigeria Economic Development, Ibadan, Oxford university Press.

Robbert .J. (1978); Government and Power in West Africa, Ethopia Publishing. Benin City.

Samuel .P.A. (1955); Economics, An Introductory Analysis, Kogakasha Company Limited.

Schmidt etal (1933); Leadership, volume 1 in Encyclopedia of the Social Science.

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NEWS PAPERS

Egbosa Osagi: leadership and the Nigeria Economy. Guardian, feb 22, 1986 page and feb 24 1986.

Elegalem A. Industrial Location and Export Polices in Nigeria, business time January 27. 1986 page 30.

Isace Aluko: Illusion of Wealth, news watch 1985 page 30.

Obi .C. Efforts to review the economic time. International, June. 4, 1984. page 5.

 

APPENDIX ONE

1. Have you participated in any political leadership?

Yes No

2. Do political leaders contribute to the development of our national economy? yes No

3. Do Ebonyi Local Government zone their political leadership? Yes No

4. Are you of the opinion that the problem with Ebonyi Local Government is that of leadership style?

Yes No

5. Are men more politically active than women counterparts? Yes No

6. Who are those people responsible for the development of our national economy? (politicians or civil servants) Yes No

7. Have you ever been influenced with money to support our political leaders in Ebonyi Local Government?

Yes No

8. Do embezzlement and misappropriation of fund in Ebonyi Local Government Area, hinder our national economic development? Yes No

9. Are the people of your area so aparthetic to politics?

Yes No

10. Are you of the opinion that politics is a dirty game?

Yes No

11. Do politicians fulfil their campaign promises to your community after elections? Yes No

12. Are there established industry for the development of our national economy? Yes No

13. Are the political leaders interested in the development of national economy? Yes No

14. Was the election free and fair? Yes No

15. Have there been established cases of election malpractices such as dual registration/voting, falsification of figures, thuggery etc in your area? Yes No

Political Leadership In Nigeria – A Problem To National Economic Development:  (A Case Study Of Ebonyi Local Government Area Of Ebonyi State)

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Comments

  1. igwe ikechukwu says:

    it a good job u have done here thank u

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