New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Issues – Challenges and Prospects
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Issues – Challenges and Prospects
Over the year’s economic growth in Africa have scientifically lagged behind population growth. To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
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To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to
Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.Development statistics has it that GDP of all sub-Saharan Africa countries put together is just about that of Belgium, one of the smallest countries in Europe its estimated that half of African’s 790 million people like on less than one ($) dollar a day. The mortality rate among children under 5 years is 140 per 100 and life expectancy is only 54 years. There is illiteracy, rate of over 40% for people above 15 years; in addition to widespread unemployment and under employment both in cities and areas. The situation is further aggravated by the increasing incident of HIV/Aids pandemic.
Again the backdrop of these gloomy statistics the new partnership for Africa’s Development crop of African leaders based on a common mission, hope and aspiration for the continent was drawn up based on the conviction of African leaders that cresting may have behooved on them the responsibility to eradicate poverty, squalor and hopeless from Africa. The NEPAD conceptual framework for redevelopment and positing favourable economic growth rate in Africa is a merger of two separate and earlier initiatives by Thabo Mbeki South African president and Abdoulaiye Wade Senegalese president. The millenuim and Omega plans. The merger of the two plans gave birth to the NEPAD programmes of action and vision by African leaders to champion the course of Africa’s economy recovery. The synthesis of these presious plans gave birth to a blue print and policy actions to address the key social, economic and political problems besieging Africa.
The NEPAD initiative has a policy focus that seeks to promote coherence and balance among African countries to ensure goal attainment on one hand and peer review mechanics on the other. The action plan is also predicated on a strong commitment by African leaders to integrate African economics as well as fully integrate itself in the global economy as an important and strategic player. NEPPAD is not by all measure wholesomely an African project. It is to work in partnership with advanced economies of the West prompting the representation of every member of the group of eight industrialized nations of the world (98) in the streering committee of NEPAD headed by Olusegun Obansanjo of Nigeria.
Meanwhile, the action plan placed the task of economic recovery and development on good governance, economic partnership and peer review of sister governances sound accounting practices and of elimination of corruption. Other measure include transfer of technology across Africa by African’s capacity building and development of public sector participants led economy.
The architects of NEPAD took time off the Euphoria of the expected success of the new initiative to reflect on the monumental failures of past initiatives to accelerate development in Africa, due to a variety of reasons. The reasons ranged from persistent aimed conflicts, political instability, widespread corruption questionable management and poor leadership.
O. A. U. had preciously estimated that in 2000 alone 21 Africa countries were involved in widespread destruction, deprecation and death. The result of all these upheavals are reflected into dismal performance of African countries in the ranking of UNDP”S scoio-economic human development index. Very mindful of the salary past the mozambigkan president Koaguin chissano echoed at the 2002 Africa economic summit in Durban money is not what will change Africa but attitudes and actions of its leaders and people …… chissano’s sentiments underlined the pragmentic stances taken by Africa leaders who gathered at the summit which was African leg of the world economic forum themed New partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD).
Meanwhile, the skeptics have posed an argument that no matter how good NEPAD appear at least on the plane of analysis, its bond to have problems at the stage of implementations. Lynda Chalker is one of such skeptics her concern is the problem of how to sell the initiative to established regional economic growing like ECOWAS and getting them to implement it. She insisted that …… NEPAD is a huge challenge to both African leaders and people as well as the developed world to deliver positive results.
Other arising unresolved questions about NEPAD which this study hopes to established is the ownership questions as well as the allegation from the gender sensitivity school against the action plan as lacking vital against the action plan as lacking vital elements of gender sensitive in addition to the faulting of the initiative as just a doing of the failed initiative in the past and lacked any new ideas. The optimists holds the potency of a new beginning for Africa, at least it will provide a common platform to engage the rest of the world in dynamic partnership including that it holds the prospects of creating a better improved life for all Africans. These contentious of investigations of this study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
African societies are in deed classified as marginally backward, low level of development and underdevelopment. The stark realities of underdevelopment in Africa was fully appreciated when it emerged from the iron clears of colonial rule. Development conceptualization here as the improvement of the qualitative living standard of the people were lacking till date in all ramifications. As a result, issues of development has dominated contemporary discuss in politics and intellectual realm. In the face of the growing concern for African problems, the new crop of African leaders in the 21st century had to take African’s destine in their hands; this led to the NEPAD initiative. Thus this study shall seek to determine the answers to the following research questions.
(1) Why the NEPAD initiative as a roadmap to the solution of African Underdevelopment crisis?
(2) How realistic is the objectives of the action plan?
(3) NEPAD, who’s programme?
(4) And why the skepticism against the action plan?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study shares in the most important objective of contributing to available knowledge on the NEPAD initiative. But has a special interest in the following area, which it intends to establish.
(1) A critical examination of the term NEPAD with a view to ascertaining its historical development and policy thrust.
(2) To analyze the problematic areas of NEPAD and challenges to the domestic initiative.
(3) And make a careful review of the prospects as well valuable recommendations on how to achieve a litch-free implementation of the action plan.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
(1) The study was able to explore and present the developmental phases of the NEPAD action plan for a better appraisal by students of NEPAD.
(2) The research presented the challenges and problems of the action plan for effective tacking.
(3) The study also highlighted a few strategies of successful implementation of NEPAD to make it meaningful to the civil populace.
(4) Its also a relevant research piece on NEPAD, for students and the public.
1.5 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The choice of a theoretical framework to aid this study was guided by the belief that only a framework that will facilitate a wholistic understanding of the NEPAD action plan will do. The political economy framework of analysis became apposite. The political economy paradigm is of the organic unity or synthesis of politics and economics in determining production relationships in a given economy, be it national or international political economy.
The paradigm is a logical outcome of several developmental stages in human history sterling from the traversing of mankind from the primitive society through the slave holdings and feudal federal societies to the rein of capitalism that integrated the pre-capitalist African State, into a capitalist led competitive global economy. The world economy is structured to favour the advanced economics who to favour the advanced economics who apparently, dictates the flow of wealth. This no doubt has a hang in the underdevelopment of Africa States, which NEPAD is out to address. The NEPAD action plan is a wake up call of some sort to all Africans president Obasanjo of Nigeria did say in a NEPAD business forum in Abuja Nigeria 2005 that …… he believes that the solution of African problems be it social or political lies within Africa. He further remarked that NEPAD is the engine of growth for Africa’s economy and development a strategy to position Africa as a great contributor in global decision and global wealth creation, accumulation and distribution.
NEPAD is intend to reposition Africa’s regional to the events and outcome of international economy especially in decision making were Africa plays second fiddle. The Nigerian example is a food for thought. A country richly blessed but still tried to the apppostrings of neo-colonial economics of the advanced capitalist economics of the West. Nigeria continued to post unfaviourable balance of trade and payments due to the structure of the world economy, which made her a producer of raw materials and consumers nations. The country and other African States are compelled to abide by the decisions of world trade organisation and other economic agencies of the international political economy even without fair representation. Its obvious she cannot have a fair and meaningful representation with a weak economy, a heavy debt burden, separate IMF conditionalities for loans and not to mention when she is cap in had beginning to aids and foster development. The framework of analysis has the characters to demonstrate such as, that persistent social, economic and political development problems in Africa are not entirely the fault of Africans but to show us, that the NEPAD action plan is out to address among others these fundamental historical factors which inhibited development in Nigeria and Africa in general; spennning from out first contact with the colonial masters in trade, both in men and material, during the colonial days and the present neo-colonial globalize world.
(1) NEPAD is an embodiment of African economic Diplomacy
(2) NEPAD can address Africans development.
(3) NEPAD is not wholesomely African
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The methodology used in this study is the secondary data method and data used were sourced from newspapers, magazines, textbooks; and extracts form internet. The methodology also covers the basic assumptions principles and descriptions employed for justification of the issues under study. The meaning, problems and prospects of the NEPAD initiative. As well as a critical analysis of the NEPAD action plan with a view to ascertaining its viability, the challenges to it.
1.8 LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS
The initial constraint to this study was the fact that the NEPAD initiative being studied is relatively a new developmental concept in the field if intellectual discourse. There by posed serious challenge in terms of securing of the relevant information needed for the analysis. Again the dearth of materials, for the research made it expensive to acquire the available ones. It was also time consuming visiting all possible places to gather the data needed for the research. The limitations to the study thus arise from the constraints above the quality of the available research materials determined the quality of the reports of this research. And being a relatively new term one would admit that there are still more areas explore which this study may have erroneously or due to constraints omitted.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
(1) PEER REVIEW
Is a pragmatic mechanism to ensure commitment by African leaders to the idea, philosophy and principles of the action plan. The mechanism is intended to allow fellow Africa leaders to monitor and review progress made in implementing the stage-by-stage action plan of NEPAD. Also it’s a medium of comparing notes and sharing experiences as well as getting assistance from each other within the continent so as to ensure a smooth sailing of the NEPAD aganda.
(2) POLITICAL ECONOMY
Political economy is the interaction of politics and economy in a political system or a state. It defines relationship of dependence between politic and economy which can accelerate or retard development political economy is a well as approach or theoretical framework for the analysis of production relationship of any given state or societies political economy is both a displine and as a methodology of approach for analysing economic system and development programmes.
Even though, the use of this term in contemporary social studies is polemical the concept is employed in this study to mean qualitative improvement in the living standard of the majority of the people through provision of economic and social infrastructures like industries employment matter, electricity, health facilities, good roads, education, freedom, creativity, self displine increase skill and capacity etc.
The term integration like some other social science concepts is still controversial in meaning but in this study it is used to mean transactions between and across societies domestic and international on the basis of integration, interdependence and trans-nationalism issues of economy. Migration, trade, tourism, politics, sports finance and technology are the subjects of integration.
Development, conceptualized as qualitative improvement in the living standard of the people is measure in the variability of basic necessities like food, water, shelter, other social amenities as well as sophisticated and vibrant institutions and structures of the states.
There indices of development and more are not yet available in sufficiency in Africa upon independence the emergent states sought to no avail for development, reason the likes of president Arap Moi tend to believe that Africa is domed to perpetual poverty and background”.
The report of world economic forum (2001) on Africa also echoed the problems associated with African development. It noted that it’s a mixture of economic and political news in Africa. Whereas Nigeria, South Africa, Mozmbique, Tanzainian and Uganda leads the list of countries making adjustments to their economic potentials, so as to attract foreign investment the likes of Libenia, Congo, Sudam, Rwanda, leads a great pack of others still married in conflict that they may simply be qualified as “failed States.”
African’s having come alive in this millennium became confronted with the question of seeking a solution to the African development malaise.
The opinion of the world economic forum panelists comprising William Rhodes, Jeffrey Sachs, Alec Erwin, Reginald Menji, Mostapha there should be a working relationship between the private and public sectors. Willian Rhodes held in particular that the problem with African economics is that the private sector are mot aware of the advances being made in Africa. William Rhodes is also the vice chairman citigroup, USA. In the same way, Jeffrey Sachs, Director of the Centre for international Development at Harvard Univesity, U.S.A. while trying to rate African economies drew attention to Zembabwe, as a good example of how politics can destroy economy. He advised that the solution to African under-development will come from improvement in the political situations improvement come to countries in the political breakthrough—- he argued.
Olusegun Obasanjo one of the pioneer leaders and brains behind the New partnership for Africa’ Development initiative (NEPAD) believes that the initiatives remains the best solution to Africa development problem. The Nigeria leader held that the NEPAD programme is the engine of growth for Africa’s economy and development. He was quite optimistic that NEPAD is a programme of Africa union (A.U0 to resolve all the problems of Africa in politic, social and economics. It is a collective vision of Africans and their leaders to ensure development in Africa as well as make contributions to global wealth.
Steve Egbo also wrote NEPAD is generally seen as true African initiative borne out of genuine desire to move the African continent way from the encumbraces and implements of her past.
He added that the NEPAD is believed to motivated by a new spirit of growth and development whose aim is to usher in development problem. The Nigeria new dawn for African continent that has been in perpetual darkness for thousands of years.
Crusoe Osagie was as well optimistic that NEPAD will eradicate poverty in Africa. And place African countries both individual and collected on a path of sustainable growth and development, such that it will halt the marginalization of Africa in the globalization process.
He noted in particular that the formulation of the NEPAD action is one of the most important development of recent times in Africa. He hopes that it places African at the apex of global agenda.
In attempt to down up support for the NEPAD programme, the Zambia leader Levy Mnanawasa asked business leaders in Africa to board the NEPAD train and not wait to be invited abroad. He was particularly mindful of the fact that Africans are tired of rhetoric from their leaders and wanted ordinary people could identify with.
African leaders as well endorsed the NEPAD programme at the African Economic summit held in Durban South Africa, the leaders reinstated the already well-known position that NEPAD is a programme to uplift Africa and provide African solutions to African problems.
As well the summit of O.A.U. head of states and government in Lusaka Zambia while adopting the NEPAD action plan in declaration 1 (xxxii), was very optimistic since NEPAD has become Africa’s principals agenda for development and providing a holistic, comprehensive integrated strategies frame work for the socio- economic development of the continent within the institutional frame work of African union (A.U).
In a message delivered through Ibrahim Gambari the head of United Nations (UN) office for NEPAD, the UN secretary General Koffi Annan told NEPAD Busines group meeting held in Abuja (Nigeria) that the UN General Assembly accepted NEPAD as a frame work for achieving support for the development of Africa.
The former British Minister of state for foreign affairs and overseas, development Baroness Lynda Chalker while endorsing NEPAD described it as “probably the most exciting initiative to come out of Africa. She however tasked African governments on the successful implementation of the initiative. She stressed that the success or failure of the programme will wholly depend on how it is implemented in the established regional economic groupings like ECOWAS, SADC, etc.
She reiterated that the regional Economic grouping will be required to play critical roles in the implementation of the initiative. While describing NEPAD as a great initiative she appreciated in particular the response of ECOWAS to the programme.
Narrowing her view to Nigeria Chalker, challenge Nigeria to start her demonstrative role in the domestic front. Because she is conversant with the socio-economic situation in Nigeria she was frank in advising that “how Nigeria handle the development of her people (s) and institutions well end a strong message to her neighbors and the rest of the world.
Ato Meles Zanawi the Ethiopian president while making a presentation on the occasion of African Development Bank (ADB) symposium provided explanation to the foreign partnership in NEPAD. He said ——there is a new partnership between Africa and the rest of the world with the objective of African development.
He continued —–the world “NEW” is significant in the sense that the old partnership was not a partnership at all as it was based on donor and recipient relationship, but the one of NEPAD is real and based on a new premise of common interest and objectives.
The head of Nigerian NEPAD Business Group Gordie Ibru also announced in the Abuja meeting that Nigerian NEPAD is seeking partnership between governments and governments, countries and countries most importantly a partnership between Africa and international economy (IE).
On the domestic economy of Nigeria the NEPAD Business Group was emphatic in tasking the Obasanjo led government to understand d that development is impossible in the absence of true democracy respect for human rights, peace and good governance. They reminded the government that it should be mindful of the fact that with NEPAD Africa has undertaken to respect global standard of democracy, the core components of which include political pluralism i.e. allowing for the existence of several political parties and groups, worker union, fair and open democratic elections periodically organized to enable people chose who will lead them.
On how to reposition the country to achieve a competitive edge, the forum suggested that the country should pursue policies that will give her sustainable:
i. Industrial competitive edge.
ii. Pursue joint ventures, training and secondments
iii. rationalize traffics and taxes.
iv. On Agricultuere the group opined that the country needed ;
(a) Focus on crops where she has comparative advantage
(b) Develop industrial zones and clusters.
(c) Intensify research and development etc.
v. On finance a friendly micro or macro finance policies will do
vi. Entrepreneurship should be taught in schools. The country should foster regional cooperation as a key to growth in her economic relations.
Jeffrey Sachs gave a catch of optimism when he asserted that Africa’s most populous country (Nigeria) has a real chance of turning around. The concern of most Nigerians now, I believe, is that irrespective that the NEPAD initiative provides Nigeria the base for something historic to happen, it is still not happing.
Drawing from president Arap Moi’s position the initial would be how to let us out of the encumbrances of past, especially when the continent perceives herself as a failed continent as well as the states.
South African finance minister Trevour Maynel noted that the key issue of challenge to the NEPAD initiative and its implementation as well as success would be how to persuade Africans who hold an estimated 40% (percent) of their savings abroad to invest in their own countries. He opined that:
We are starting with a large deficit in respect of African savings. This triggers issues of confidence which interfere with our ability to attract capital.
So also did, Revel Khoda the chairman of South African power utility. He held that for NEPAD to be successfully, the action plan should act as catalyst for not only attracting the cities to invest in their economy, but should be able to deliver cross-border physical infrastructural development. He stressed the need for long-range planning to meet individuals country and regional requirements. In this case there is the need to review existing protocols harmonize regulations and standards; also work along business lines with budget and time frame.
Thabo Mbeki, the South Africa leaders admonished also, that the peer review mechanism designed to ensure trict adherence to he tenets of NEPAD through constant review by fellow head of states and government should not be misconstrued by individual countries as interference in their internal affairs but as a way of working together to identify and correct common weaknesses and mistakes.
He acknowledge the fact that there will be mistakes and reversals—- we have never walked in this path before —–he declared Nigerian president Obasanjo also imposing standards of governance on ourselves, because we know that there are no alternatives. If we fail we can only blame ourselves. So we cannot allow NEPAD to fail —–
Kofi Annan United Nations (UN) secretary General also believes that NEPAD is a solid foundation for a healthy Africa but it require a lots of hard work from the leader of Africa and Africans. He insists Africa must be alive to her responsibilities if she will successfully wage the battle at hand- we will have to have the stamina and non political will to make a success of the battle— The goals of NEPAD must be pursue to fruition “whether any one gives us money or not” —– he insists.
3.1 UNDERSTANDING NEPAD
The choice of NEPAD as a subject for research is quite special in the sense that it has excited the imagination of scholars and leaders as well this chapter therefore is dedicated to understanding the subjective NEPAD, its making the structure, lead agencies, objectives and prorities.
African leaders concerned about the disappointing progress made in Africa’s developmental efforts adopted NEPAD in Lusaka, July 2001 as long-term development philosophy of the O.A.U/AU. It was the out come of the Fusion of previous initiatives that had been concerned at the down of the milenum as the long-term development down for Africa. Since the inception of NEPAD there has been some misconceptions about the things is all about. It is therefore important to try and clear some of the misconceptions.
3.2 WHAT THEN IS NEPAD?
While discussing the subject, some people have discovered NEPAD as a new vision for Africa’s developments, other see it as a last hope for Africa, yet some describe it as a process,a framework or blue print a kind of marshall plan for Africa’s recovery and development. To aid our understanding of NEPAD, let see what could be called official definitions of the concept NEPAD.
African development bank [ADB] defined NEPAD as a holistic, integrated strategic developmental plan to enhance growth and poverty reduction in Africa by addressing key social, economic and political priorities in a coherent and balanced manner.
Hon, Susan Whelan Canadan Minister for international cooperation while speaking from a donors perspective at an ADB symposium on NEPAD held in Addis Ababa Ethiopia May 27, 2003 held that NEPAD is a A comprehensive development plan, action, framework and strategy that emphasizes not just a new partnership between Africa and the international community but also a new partnership among Africans and between African leaders and their peoples.
The official NEPAD policy document also defined it as ‘A pledge by African leaders based on common vision and a form of shared conviction that they have a pressing duty to eradicate poverty and to place their countries, both individually and collectively, on a path of sustainable growth and development and at the same time to participate in the world economy and body politic.
Although from these definitions it may seen that NEPAD may mean different things to different people there is however a central theme running through all of them it is ‘A Frame work for promoting Africa’s growth and development.
In addition a much better understanding of NEPAD could be obtained fron the statement made by Ethiopia prime minister, His Excellency Meles Zenani……. There is a new partnership between Africa and the rest of the world is significant in the sense that the partnership of the old was not a true.
He added that the Newness in the partnership between Africa and the rest of the world is significant in the sense that the partnership of the old was not a partnership as it was based on donor recipient relationship but the new partnership is based on the premise of common interest and objective, mutual accountability and obligation.
Thus, NEPAD is based on the recognition of the fact that in the current global environment, Africa’s development is vital to the realization of the direct material interest of not only Africans but also that of the rest of the world.
Therefore NEPAD according to the official definition would imply that:
1. NEPAD is a vision and programme of action for the development of the African continent.
2. NEPAD is a comprehensive integrated development plan that addresses key social, economic and political priorities in a coherent and balanced manner.
3. NEPAD is a commitment that African leaders are making to African people and to the international community, to place Africa on a path of sustainable growth.
4. NEPAD is a commitment to African leaders are making to accelerate the integration of African continent into the global economy.
5. NEPAD is a framework for a new partnership with the rest of the world.
6. NEPAD is a call to the rest of the world to partner Africa in her own development on the basis of her own agenda and programme of action.
THE MAKING OF NEPAD
The mandate for the new partnership for Africa’s development [NEPAD] had its genesis at the O.A.U. extraordinariy summit held in Sirte, Libya during September 1999. The summit mandate president Mbeki of South Africa and Bouteflika of Algeria to engage Africa’s creditors on the total cancellation of Africa’s external debts. Following this, the South summit of the non-aligned movement and the G77, held in Havana, Cuba during April 2000, mandated respectively to convey the concerns of the south to the G.8 and the Bretton wood institutions.
Realising the correbution between the two mandate and the facts that debt relief forms but one aspect of the overall development agenda for Africa, the O.A.U. summit held in Togo in July 2000 mandated the two presidents to engage the development North with a view to developing a constructive partnership for the regeneration of the continent.
It was upon this that the presidents raised the issue of a partnership with the leaders of the G.8 at their summit in Japan during July 2000. The work on developing NEPAD, at that stage referred to as the millennium partnership for the African recovery programme [MAP] then began in earnest and a process of engagement on a bilateral and Unilateral level was pursued with great zeal.
During the 5th Extraordinary summit of the O.A.U. held in Sirte, Libya from 1st to the 2nd, of March 2001, president Obasanjo made a presentation on MAP, while president Wade of Senegal made his presentation on the OMEGA plan. The work being done by Presidents Mbeki, Obasanjo, Bouteflike and Wade was endorsed by the summit and it was decided that every effort should be made to integrated all the initiatives being pursued for the recovery and development including the Economically advanced [ECA]’s new global compact with Africa.
In reading this decision, the summit recognized the synergy and complementarily that exist between the various Initiatives, an integration process of the various initiatives followed by 11th, of July 2001, [or the new African Initiatives] [NAI] as it was temporarily known at the time, was presented to the O.A.U. summit of Heads of state and Government Lusaka Zambia.
NEPAD was enthusiastically received and Unanimously adopted in the form of declaration [xxxvii] as Africa’s principle agenda development, providing a framework for the development of the continent.
3.4 THE STRUCTURE
NEPAD has four-tier structure namely:
1. The summit of head of the AU: This is the supreme body that provides political leadership, it is composed of 53 heads of state and government of the African union.
2. Heads of state implementation committee [HSIC]: Is made up of a selected group of 20 member state [4 per SAU region], it has the responsibility of over seeing the implementation of the NEPAD action programme.
3. The steering committee: This committee is composed of personal representative of the heads of state of the 5 founding member states. It is responsible for developing the terms of references for identified programmes and projects and overseas the activities of the NEPAD secretary.
4. The NEPAD secretary: The secretariat has a small full time core staff based in Midland, South Africa that coordinate the work of NEPAD.
LEAD AGENCIES OF NEPAD
To facilitate the implementation of NEPAD priority programme in the various sectors the strategy adopted was at the continental level. The main functions of the agencies are to define terms of reference and action plans as well as monitor implementation of the programme in their areas of competence. On the basis of this approach, the following lead agencies have been assigned specific responsibilities:
i. O.A.U./ AU/FAO: Agriculture and Market access,
ii. ADB: Infrastructure and Banking as well as financial standards.
NEPAD COORDINATING COUNTRIES
In order to ensure effective coordination and give political guidance to the process number of countries have been assigned the responsibility of coordination action in the priority areas as follows:
i. SOUTH AFRICA – capacity building on peace and security.
ii. NIGERIA- Economic and corporate governance.
iii. EGYPT – Agriculture and market access.
iv. ALGERIA – HIV/AIDS and other communicable diseases.
COORDINATING REGIONAL GROUPINGS
To ensure the implementation of NEPAD programmes, the existing regional Economic groups in Africa are expected to play the role of coordinating agencies for a number of its pronsy programmes. It has been acknowledged that certain types of NEPAD interventions could only be effectively conceived and implemented with a regional context [eg peace and security, infrastructure, human development health and education, agriculture and environment, market access and capital flows]. In line with this strategy, a meeting of heads of state of ECOWAS leaders in designating one regional organization.
OBJECTIVES OF NEPAD
The main objectives of NEPAD a agreed upon by leaders of Africa, is to eradicated poverty in the African countries and place Africa both individually and collectively, on a path of sustainable grow and development thus halt the marginalization of Africa in the “Globalize World”. And to promote the role of women in all activities related to NEPAD.
3.4 GOAL OF NEPAD
NEPAD envisages a major transformation of the African socio- economic landscape. In this regard, a number of goals based on the internationally agreed millennium Development Goals were set. These goals includes:
i. To achieve and sustain an average gross domestic product [GDP] growth rate of above 7% per month for the next 15 years.
ii. To reduce the proportion of people living in extreme poverty by half by the year.
iii. To enroll all children of school age in primary schools by 2015.
iv. To make progress towards gender equally and empowering women by eliminating gender disparities in the enrolment in primary and secondary education by 2015.
v. To reduce infant and child mortality ratios by two third by 2015
vi. To reduce material mortality ratios by 100 = third quarters by 2015.
vii. To provide access for all who need reproductive health services by 2015, and finally,
viii. To implement national strategies for sustainable development by 2005, so as to reserve the loss of environmental resources by 2015.
FUNDAMENTALS AND PRINCIPLES OF NEPAD
There are a number of fundamental principle underlying the NEPAD initiative reflecting the commitment of the leaders to ensure the success of the initiative. These principles related to:
i. Ensuring broad base African ownership, responsibility and leadership.
ii. A partnership with the international community based on common interest, mutual obligations and accountability.
iii. Making African attractive in order to mobilize resources from both domestic and foreign investors.
iv. Unleashing the full economic potential of the continent and
v. creating conditions necessary for sustainable development.
3.11 NEPAD’S PRIORITIES
In order to achieve the objectives of NEPAD a list of priority areas of intervention was drawn up on the basis of leson and experience gained from the past. The list of covered even main areas as follows:
a. peace, security, Democracy and Political Government.
b. Economic and Corporate Governance including Banking and Financial standards.
c. Regional cooperation and integration
d. Infrastructure, including information and communications, technology, Energy, Transport, Water and Sanitation.
e. Human Development Education and Health.
f. Agriculture and Environment.
g. Market Access and Export Diversification
The list of priorities above covers only what is deemed as critical area of social economic activity. Apart from implementing infrastructural projects in all these areas listed above, programmes of capacity building to enhance economic management and corporate governance and assistance to be given to help African institutions comply with minimum standards and codes are also envisaged.
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Issues – Challenges and Prospects
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