Motivated Workforce – The Role In The Development Of A State : (A Case Study Of Ebonyi State Civil Service Commission)
Motivated Workforce – The Role In The Development Of A State : (A Case Study Of Ebonyi State Civil Service Commission)
One of the major problems confronting management is that of motivating workers to perform assigned tasks to meet or surpass predetermined standard. Motivation is that energizing force that induces or compels and maintains behaviour, human behaviour is motivated. To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.
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To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to
Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.It is goal directed, it is not easy to motivate an individual, for the success of any motivational efforts depend on the extent to which the motivator meets the needs of the individual employees for whom it is intended. Motivation is an internal psychological process whose presence or absence is inferred from observed performance.
Ebonyi state civil service commission came into effect immediately on the creation of Ebonyi state on the 1st of October 1996. Ebonyi state civil service commission, Edith Number 11, 1996 recorded a work force of about 4000 for the entire state civil service, made up of the Ebonyi state employees from Enugu state and those from Abia state. The two states from where Ebonyi was carved out. The first Administrative team of this commission was made up of three members with one of them as the chairman (appointment list, 1997). It was this team that saw to the harmonization, restoration and setting up the standard for the state’s civil service. In addition, they saw to it that each civil servant from any of the two earlier mentioned states was put in their normal positions. However, there was an expected death of enough manpower in the areas of professional callings such as medical doctors, engineers, administration etc. In order to cover up for these shortcomings, the training (of what we have) to assume those position was therefore most called for. Hence there were lots in-service training, workshops/seminars, overseas training etc, to improve the quality of manpower in the state’s civil service. At the end of the year 2001 more than 200 persons had been involved in one trainnng or the other with about fifteen percent of this number benefiting from overseas training. It was however observed that the staff in commission, parastatals and boards benefits more from the various training than staff from the core civil service areas like ministries.
Evidence from different empirical studies point to the fact that there is no single motivator for every one, it is equally true that no single force motivates an individual every time. Need differ and the importance attached to need by different people also differ M. Scott Myers raise three questions and answers are as follows:
1. What motivates employees to work effectively? A challenging joy which allows a feeling of achievement, responsibility, growth, advancement, enjoyment of work it self and earned recognition.
2. What Dissatisfies workers? Mostly, factor peripheral to the job-work rules, lighting, coffee break, titles, seniority rights, wages, fringe benefits etc.
3. When do workers become dissatisfied? When opportunities for meaningful achievement are eliminated and they become sensitized to their environment and begin to find fault.
The answers to his question correspond with Herzberg’s motivators while the answer to his second question correspond to his dissatisfiers. Although Herzberg listed money as a dissatisfier depending on the individual’s pressing needs. A man with a large family could be motivated by financial need to accept a job. As long as the need to persist, it will continue to be motivated of behaviour. If the individual work hard but does not receive what he considers as adequate remuneration for the effort expended, he could be dissatisfied. It is evident that management can motivate people by designing job so as to satisfy motivational need. It is clear that any job that robs people of their needs for achievement, recognition, acceptance and self-fulfilment will end to dissatisfy. Money for example is not an end itself, people needs money to achieve independence, recognition from the society, status or privilege bestowed on people by society because of their wealth. When person has special need for these, he works hard to earn more for money for the attendant blessing not for the money itself.
Herzberg’s two-dimensional; theory and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs have much in common. A comparison of the two theories point out that the high order needs of Maslow (affection, esteem and self actualization needs) correspond with Herbertz’s motivators while the dissatifiers (hygiene factors) correspond with Maslow’s basic needs, person who is in need of esteem will sing wealth and gaining recognition success breeds success and reinforces a person’s esteem of his capacity to achieve greater success. When a person achieve, he develops a sense of importance and power and gets feeling of self actualization, as he perceives that he has full control of his destiny or environment and has perhaps achieved all that he is capable of achieving in life or a feeling of being “The greatest”. It is through the linkage of performance and reward that an individual achieved individual motivation. The identification of needs and rewards is a pre-condition and consequently increase productivity. Failure to achieve an objective gives rise is a series of defensive behaviour such as aggression withdrawal depression and projection.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The productivity of every work force is a very interesting aspect to managers and administrators over the year the employers of labour are concerned on what should be done to gain the optimum productivity from the labourers. Some times after a lot of efforts, the employers of still discover that the productive output has not yielded that expected result, hence further efforts and attempts are put in place to encourage workers to do more, This call to question the issue of motivation. Motivation is an inducement on a person to create the zeal in the person to proffer solution to a situation. However what and what or combination of what constitute a motivation has always been the question.
There are instance where improved productivity has not been able to be attained by merely increasing salaries as with the case of Western Electrical Company or where promotion has not been able to solve the issue of motivation. The problem will then be to identify those factors that constitute motivating factors and how those motivating factor can be used single or collectively to instill motivation among the workforce of Ebonyi state.
The following research questions will be answered.
1. What is the problem of motivation?
2. What is the meaning of motivation and motivated work force.
3. Is there a significant difference on job satisfaction between senior and junior civil servants who are highly motivated?
4. Is there a significant differences in productivity between workers who are highly motivated and those who are lowing motivated in Ebonyi state civil service commission.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study is designed to verify the following:
(a) Meaning of motivation
(b) Problem of motivation
(c) Impact of motivation
(d) The extent the motivation or non motivation of staff by Ebonyi state civil service commission has been able to improve or worsen the productivity in the state civil service.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will contribute to knowledge in the following ways.
(a) Find out the effect of motivation on job satisfaction.
(b) Inform the manager of our civil service in the effectiveness of motivation on increased productivity.
(c) Acquaint the Ebonyi state civil service commission on the usefulness of promotion ( a motivating factors) as it affects job satisfaction and improved productivity and development.
(d) Act as a veritable resource document to students and researchers of motivation and productivity.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study will cover Ebonyi state civil service commission which is the regulating body for all ministries in the state. This in a wider perspective is a study on motivation as it affect the entire civil service work force of Ebonyi state.
(a) One of the limitation if this study is that most civil service lacks the zeal to respond to the items of questionnaire.
(b) Some are afraid due to the fact that you might expose them to be hands of the powers that be. All these had a limiting reach out on the research this study.
The following hypothesis would be tested:
H1: There will be a significant effects of motivation on job satisfaction in the Ebonyi state civil service.
H2: There would be no satisfaction among Ebonyi state civil servants.
H3: There will be a significant difference on the job
satisfaction between senior civil servants job and junior civil servant who are highly motivated.
1.7 THEORITICAL FRAME WORK
Many management theories on motivation have been propounded, but the theories of Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg will be briefly examined in this paper because of this practical application to the managers profession.
Abraham Maslow’s theory proposed that motivation can be understood as resulting from a hierarchy of needs. He needs starting the most basic the physiological needs (eating, drinking resting etc) progress upward to security needs (pension, health, Insurance etc) to belongingness or the need to love and be loved to meet for self-esteem, self-confidence, recognition, adoration to be give importance, status etc
Herzberg (1959) in his two factors theory of motivation advances that a work environment makes workers happy or unhappy. According to Herzberg, incident which make workers happy include achievement, recognition, interesting work, responsibility and professional growth. These he called motivators the these factor are intrinsic and work itself, they make for actualization and growth. Extrinsic factors, Hetzberg called these factors “hygiene” factors, it has been established that the organizational climate in small way effects motivation.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Motivation is an internal psychological process whose presence or absence in inferred from observed performance, which involves hardworking and efforts.
Compensation is anything that is regarded as an equivalent, it also include financial reward provided to employees for the return of their salaries.
Department referred to important division of an organization into section or units i.e. a sub-section of an organization, which may take place in government, schools, business environment etc. All the staff in each department constitute growth of that department, and also the development of the organization at large, this means working towards achieving the co-operate goals of the organization, this to called unit of direction.
The impact of motivation on any action or behaviour is overwhelming because motivation concepts are relevant to everything: from our attempts to satisfy our basic needs to our efforts to probe the meaning of our very existence, all of the psychological perspectives have made major contributions to our understanding of the many facets of motivation. This chapter is subdivided into the following subheadings: meaning of motivation, problems of motivation and impact of motivation.
2.1 MEANING OF MOTIVATION
One of the major problems confronting management is that of motivating workers to perform assigned tasks to meet or surpass predetermined standard.
Maslow (1964), explained motivation as having the following of characteristics.
1) It is sustained: It is maintained for a long time until satisfied
2) It is goal directed: It seeks to achieve an objective
3) It result form a felt need-an urge directed towards a need.
A need creates a tension in the individual who move in a certain direction in order to achieve the direct objective, which reduced the tension. A satisfied need does not motivate. The author explained that motivation process starts with a perceived need, them a tension is created; which starts the motivating behaviour, then there is a move towards the realization of the need-goal oriented behaviour. As soon as the need is satisfied, the tension relaxes. To motivate an employee, management must create real or imagined need for the employees to aspire to:
Since every employee has needs, he is capable of being motivated. The task of management is to determine what are the valued needs that will make react according to organisational desire increased productivity. These needs can be classified in a hierarchical order starting from the basic needs to the higher order needs. Once a particular need is satisfied , it cease to be a motivator of behavior and other need then emerges. According to Maslow, these needs can be classified into five, such as
(1) Physiological need
(2) Safety need
(3) Social need
(4) Esteem need and
(5) Self-actualisation need
This is the basic need of man- food, clothing and shelter. These need are strongest in a man’s life as it must be satisfied before other needs. This need can be satisfied with money. A man who is starting life need money to obtain shelter, buy food and clothing. His major preoccupation will be to ensure that there basic needs are substantially satisfied. It appears to have a dominating influence than any need at this stage of a person’s career. At every stage in the organization, management is to recognize that every Kobo means much to the employee. He would trade some comfort for money.
As soon as the physiological need are satisfied, safety need appears. An individual’s safety becomes very important to him. Questions suchas what happens to me when I get sick? How am I protected from organisational hazard? Becomes his major concern safety needs is a protection against bodily harm, danger, and loss of employment, deprivation or threat. An employee likes to know that his employment is permanent. The loss of his job could induce him to seek ways of satisfying his physiological need. To encourage productivity, management may threaten him with the possibility of loss of employment. The organization should help to solve a person’s dependency need. The employee gets worried if he is not a confirmed staff or is subjected to discrimination or arbitrary managerial action. Safety need could indeed be very strong in an individual.
His need is often referred to as acceptance need. The individual has satisfied his two basic needs and wants acceptance, to love and be loved. He values friendship, affection and the sense of belonging. Affection need, esteem need and self-actualization is secondary needs. They are seldom satisfied by money. At this stage, the individual belongs to small clubs or informal groups at the place.
This is the fourth need. At this stage, the individual has need for recognition, accomplishment, achievement and the need for self-respect. He loves to take responsibilities and prove himself. The esteem need is the “ego” need he want his contributions to be recognized and appreciated by management and co-workers.
The feeling of independence, professionalism and confidence is highest at this stage. It is important for management to recognize and reward him for his contribution to the organisational effort. When people who work with him, appreciate him by helping to building his ego, self-esteem, confidence, power and prestige needs are satisfied.
This is the last in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This need is often called fulfillment need. This is the need for an employee to reach his highest potential at work place or in conquering his environment. As Maslow succinctly put it “what a man can be, he must be”. A man is actualized when he feels he has reached the highest he is capable of reaching in organization or life. The feeling of competency, being the best of having achieved manifests itself. He believed that an average citizen satisfied perhaps 85% of his physiological needs, 70% of his safety needs. 50% of his love needs, 40% of his esteem needs and 10% of his self-actualisation needs. This means that majority of people do not satisfy their self-actualization needs.
However, the scholar has succeeded in classifying human needs at least as an aid in thinking for managers. What is being disputed in Maslow’s theory is the issue of successive saturation. One can easily see the interrelatedness in human needs. Infact by satisfying one needs, the other need are apparently receiving attention for the dignity of human beings is predicated on the satisfaction of all the needs. It is to be stated that the need for goals are the drives that create the tension that are fulfilled y goal oriented behaviour, should the need remain unfulfilled as the lower part of the loop shows, new tension is created and new goal oriented behaviour is made to satisfy the need. If the need is satisfied tension is released. A new goal merges and tension is created, failure to achieve an objective given rise to a series of defensive behaviour such as aggression, withdrawal, depression and frustration.
McClelland (1961), postulated what he called n-achievement through motivation. According to him, some people achieve more than others because they have a greater desire to achieve. McClelland and his colleques discovered that those who had a greater need for achievement were neither high-risk takes nor low risk takers they appeared to be realistic about their goals and set moderate challenges for themselves. They were motivated by achievement and saw money as a measure of their progress, so were status and power which were not by themselves needs but were socially accepted measures or in satisfaction of the need to achieve, for instance, supervisor who has a need for recognition among his peers or colleagues will strive for status and recognition. All people who have no achievement are constantly interested in feedback as to the extent that they are realizing their objective.
McClelland has some basic assumptions regarding human behaviour, an understanding of those assumption is important for managers in directing human beings. He classified these assumptions into theory x and theory y.
THEORY X – THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THEORY ARE:
1) Work, if not down right distasteful, is an onerous chore to be performed in order to survive.
2) The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can.
3) Because of this human characteristic dislike of work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort towards the achievement of organization objectives.
4) The average human being prefers to be directed, wished to avoid responsibility, has relative little ambition and wants security above all.
THEORY Y-THE POSTULATES OF THEORY ARE:
(1) The expenditure of physical energy and mental effort in work is a natural as play or rest.
(2) External control and threat of punishment are not only means of bringing about effort towards organization objectives. Man will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which he is committed.
(3) Commitment to objective is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.
(4) The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but also seek responsibility.
(5) The majority to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organization problems of widely not narrowly distributed in the population.
(6) Under the conditions of modern life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized.
According to the author, mangers who subscribe to theory y behave according to the postulates in theory y. they believe that human beings like to take responsibilities and that commitment to an objective is a function of the regards with it. These reward are the needs that will motivate them to act. The reward create the tension in the individual subsides when realized. How we act or react to other people in influenced by our assumption about those people. If we believe that an employee has especial dislike for work and will avoid it if he can, if we believe that he is at work because the needs money to satisfy his physiological need we will attempt to motivate him with money and threaten him with loss of employment (security needs) if he does not put in a measure of his effort. A person to be universal, even people whose basic needs are satisfied, still have the need for achievement, status and acceptance, it is not surprising that people whose parent have amassed wealth for them and their entire linage still struggle to achieve and gain individual recognition, status and power.
A motivated employee has adult characteristics. He enjoys independence, has longer, dipper, and more consistent interest in what he does. But a frustrated employee is forced to act like a child, he has dependency syndrome with erratic or shallow interest.
Herzberg (1959), propounded a two factors theory of motivation-motivators and dissatisfies which has received enough publicity in the area of motivation. These two factors and theories have often been called ‘motivation maintenance theory”, :Motivation Hygiene theory”, or “Dual factor theory”
Motivations: according to Herzberg, the motivators are:
These are factor that will induce an individual to put forth adequate efforts in the accomplishment of organisational goals. Hygiene factors or dissatisfies. The dissatisfies are:
1) Relationship with supervisors
2) Working condition
4) Personal life
5) Compensation (money)
Herzberg et al, observed that an improvement in the hygiene factors. (Company policies and administration, supervision, working condition, inter-personal relations, personal life, money, status and security would serve to remove the impediments to positive work attitudes, when these factors deteriorate at levels below that which the employee consider acceptable, then job disatisfation ensures. However, the reverse does not hold true, when the job context can be characterized as optional, we will not get dissatisfaction but neither will get much in the way of positive attitudes.
Herzberg did not advocate the elimination of hygiene factors, instead that they are “House keeping chores” that must be done, if they are absent, motivators will not work as employee will complain and find unnecessary faults.
To encourage motivation, it is advocated that employers must encourage job enrichment. This involves making job meaningful to the job holder so as to enable him derives satisfaction from the work. Good job design help the employee to derive recognition, a sense of achievement, growth and responsibility.
The concept of motivation is a central one in an attempt it understand behaviour and it causes, the word motivation comes from Latin word meaning to “move” we use the concept of help to explain how internal factors seems to move animals and people towards certain goals. The nature of the goals or incentive toward which behaviour seems to be directed you example, food, water, success or control over others- determines the label that we attach to the motivation state-achievement motivation, or a need for power motivated behaviour is often so vigorous nature and may persist over long period of time. We therefore define motivation as a process that influences that direction, persistence and vigor or goal-directed behaviour.
2.2 PROBLEMS OF MOTIVATION
There is no area in the science of psychology in which the value of different perspectives on behaviour has been more evident then in motivation. One reason is because the range of motives which affect our behaviour is so great that some of them are bound to be irrelevant to the focus of a particular perspective. But a second reason that the perspective have been so important is that they have often provided us with radically different ways of understanding the same motivational states, and these theoretical clashes have stimulated research that has greatly understand the motivational factors.
Some of our most basic needs clearly have a biological foundation. Without water, oxygen, warmth, and other things that satisfy basic need we could not survive. Without a biologically based on sex desire would continue to exist. Therefore, the study of the internal and external processes related to the raise and reduction of biological has been and continues to be a major focus of psychological theory and research. The technical advances in the areas of neuro psychological have led to major advances in our understanding of states as well as how such state affect behaviour. As we shall see shortly. The biological perspective has also provided value insights into certain human problems related to motivational state.
Learning motivation , Given the image rat running through maize’s to obtain food that the behavioural perspective evokes in some people, it may surprise one to learn that certain radical behaviorists fell that should do away entirely with the concept of motivation. B.F. Skinner, for example. Feels that “fictional motives” are used to provide an illusory understanding of behaviour that can only be truly understood in believe that we need an internal motivation concept like hunger to muddy our thinking when we can study the effect of observation and controllable like “hours of food deprivation”.
Despite, Skinner’s extreme view other behavioural psychologists continue to study motivation. Infact, for many years learning ad motivation were virtually inseparable in behavioural research (Berlyme, 1978). One reason was that events that served as reinforces and enhances learning and performance frequently seemed to be related to the reduction of drives like hunger.
Indeed, for a time some learning theorist arranged that all reinforcement involved some kind of drive reduction. As subsequent research showed, that does not seen to be the case. Nevertheless. Most modern learning theorists give motivational variables a prominent place in their theories (Beck, 1978). The concept of motivation also hold us to account for performance fluctuation after learning has occurred.
Although, some of our basic biological needs seems to be innate, their expression can be modified in important was by learning (Bolles, 1979). Moreover, some of the important social motives that we consider later seems to be learned rather than innate. The behavioural perspective has contributed heavily to our understanding of how learning is involved in the wide individual different that we find in such motives as achievement, affiliation, power.
The cognitive perspective of motivation, emphasis the role of thought anticipation, imagining of future events and other mental process that influence goal directed behaviour, one influential cognitive approach to motivation is known as Expectancy value theory (Heckhansen, 1977, Jung, 1978). According to this theories, the direction and intensity or goal directed behaviour are jointly determined by the strength of he person’s expectation that curtail actions will lead to the desired goal and by the value that goal has for the individual. Goal directed behaviour will be strongest and most persistent if the goal is highly valued and if there is high expectation that the behaviour will result in attaining it. For example, a person who greatly valued academic success and expects that study will lead to such success will study harder than someone who does not have the same value and expectancy.
The cognitive approach to motivation raised a number of interesting issues not considered by the behavioral perspective. For example, what happens when a person start to received extrinsic rewards for intrinsic motivation? What if Jennie, who already loves to read (intrinsic motivation) is given money or some other extrinsic rewards for time spent reading? From a behaviour point of view, the added rewards for reading should increased her total motivation to read. But what happens if the extrinsic reward is later with drawn? Will Jennie still enjoy reading for its own sake?.
Perhaps not one cognitive theory holds that extrinsic rewards can undermined and reduce intrinsic motivation. According to the over justication hypothesis, the crucial factor is our changing interpretation of why we perform the behaviour. If we come to attribute our behaviour to the present of the external reward, we will experienced a decreased desire to perform it the rewards is withdrawn, we become unmotivated (Lepper and Greene, 1978). In one study, for example, children who were known to spend a great time drawing with felt-tipped makers were suddenly offered certificate for doing so. As long as the certificates were given, the amend to time spent in Drawing remained high. But when they stopped receiving certificates, the children degreased their drawing by 50%, and they then drew less than ten children who had received no external reward for drawing. Does this mean we should never use extrinsic reinforce? Not at all, sometimes, extrinsic rewards can be used to get a behaviour started so that the individual can develop an intrinsic motivation for it. But it seems important to use extrinsic reinforcement sparingly. The rewards should be just powerful enough to bring forth the desired behaviour and they should be phased out as soon as the person indicates a desire to perform the behaviour for its own sake. There is also evidence that when performing a task which increase our feelings of competence, withdraw of an external reinforce does not produce the over justification effects of a decrease in interest (Arkes, 1979) our internal motive to feel competent apparently keeps our intent high. The most important point, however is that the desiring predications made by the behavioral and cognitive perspectives concerning this issues have helped advance our understanding of how reinforcement affects motivation.
The motivational underworld motivation is at the core of the psychodynamic perspective. A major focus of psychodynamic theorist such as (Charles bermer 1974) is on the motivational underworld of unconscious wishes and conflicts. This underworld is ignored or even denied by the biological and behavioral perspective. Within psychodynamic framework, however, much of our behaviour is viewed as a product of clashes between nocuous motives straggle for release and the defenses that have been erected by the individual to keep the incompatible impulses under control.
2.3 IMPACT OF MOTIVATION
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION: It is generally associated with the work of D. McClelland and Colleagues at Harvard University. Working from a list of some 20 needs identified by an earlier theorists H.A. Murray, McClelland focus their attentions on three particular needs.
(1) The needs for achievement (n – achievement)
(2) The need for affiliation (n – Aff)
(3) The need for power ( n – pow)
Of these three, the need for achievement received the greatest emphasis in the research. This was because this because as having a relatively stable tendency, and was activated by external events in the individual situation.
McClelland (1961) found that individual with a high need for achievement factor tendency to display the following characteristics.
(a) Their need for achievement was constant;
(b) They sought tasks in which they could exercise responsibility’
(c) They preferred tasks which provided a challenge without being too difficult, and which they felt could master. (i.e. they did not set themselves /impossible goals).
(d) D0 They actively sought feedback on their results,
(e) They were less concerned about affiliation, or social needs.
McClelland concluded that need for achievement was developed more by the experience of childhood and cultural background than by the inherited factors.
In the view of the suggested characteristics of the achieving type of person. McClelland’s ideas have been applied in the selection of managers. The psychometric test known as the thematic Apperception test (TAT) has been widely used to elicit a person’s in achievement , needs for affiliation and need for power tendencies. This test asks subjects to look at a series of pictures, which they have to describe in times of what is happing, who are the people concerned. What will happen and so on. The strength of individual’s need are inferred from their descriptions.
Vroom (1964), in an influential work, focused his attention on individual behaviour in the workplace. He observed the work behaviour of individuals with the object of explaining he processes involved. He assumed that much of the observed behaviour would be motivated i.e. that it was the result of preference among possible outcomes and expectations concerning the consequences of actions. His principal methodology was objective Observation. The essential elements of Vroom’s ideas have come to be called “expectancy theories”. The Crux of this theory is that motivated behaviour is a product of two key variables.
(a) The valence of an outcome for the individual and
(b) The expectancy that a particular act will be followed by predictable outcome.
Valence is the anticipated satisfaction from an outcome. This distinguishes it from the value of the outcome which is the actual satisfaction obtained. Expectancy is a monetary belief concerning the likelihood that a particular act will be followed by a particular outcome. The product of valence x Expectancy is force. Force is used in the sense of pressure to perform an act. Thus the basic formular designed by Vroom can be state as follows:
FORCE (MOTIVATION) = VALENCE x EXPECTANCY
Vroom’s ideas have been pursued by numerous other theories to the extent that in a recent review of motivation theory, Guest (1984) concluded that Expectancy theory continues to provide the dominant framework for understanding motivation at work.
Lawler and Porter (1967), have extended attempts to address two major issues.
(a) What factors determine the effort a person puts into his job.
(b) What factors affects the relationship between effort and performance?
The variable selected by Lawler and Porter were as follows:
(b) The value of rewards
(c) The probability that rewards depends on efforts
(d) The performance
(f) Role perceptions.
Underlying their basic model is the assumption that people act on the basic of how they perceive situations. This subjective aspect of the model is crucial.
The model indicate clearly how efforts is determined by individual’s perception of their situation. It also shows that performance is qualified by individual’s own abilities and understanding of their role, as were as by the constraints in the environment e.g. (company policy).
The rewards that individual will find attractive, that is to say those that have or high valence for them, Vroom (1964) considered the question of job satisfaction as an aspect of motivation. The term ‘job satisfaction’ was regarded as the conceptual equivalent of the valence of the job or work, role to the person performing it. In his opinion the main variable affecting job satisfaction were
(ii) The work group
(iii) Job content.
(v) Promotional opportunities
(vi) Hours of work.
In concluding his discussion on job satisfaction, vroom comment that people report, their satisfaction with the job are directly related to the extend to which their job provide them with such rewarding outcomes as pay, variety stimulation consideration from their supervisor, high probability of decision and control over place of work, in practical terms, therefore, managers who wish to make use of their ideas embodied in expectancy theory will need to consider the following.
a) How can employee values and preference to identified?
b) What rewards are most likely to be valued by employee?
c) In what ways can reward be tried to performances?
d) How can available rewards be publicized?
e) What training resources are required to ensure that employees effort can result in effective performance?
f) How can job re-designed so as to incorporate the rewards sought by employees?
Job re-designed, including references to its motivational aspects in a topic, which is dealt within its own right.
Locke(1976), put forward a theory of motivation based on goal setting. This is called goal theory suggested that it is the goal an individual is aiming for which motivates, rather than just satisfaction of attaining it. Locke’s views is that what a person values or desire determine they goals he sets for himself but that what actually drive him (motivates him) are the goals themselves. Locke owns a researches indicate that individual performance was better when people had been set specific goals of a challenging or difficult nature, and when they received feedback on their performance. This approach clearly has implication for the practices of management by objectives or targets setting, which relies for its success on the mutual agreement of specific goals between a manager and his subordinates.
Another recent motivation theory is equity theory or social comparison theory which suggest compare themselves with other doing similar work in similar circumstance and judge whether they are being fairly treated by comparison.
Adams (1964), and his colleagues found that if employee thought that they were being treated equitably, their work effort was sustained if, they thought they were not been treated equitably in relation to other comparable employees then their effort declined, so far the theory has not been supported by research findings, but it does not have links with expectancy theory. Lawler (1971) for example note that in considering rewards the satisfaction gained by an individual is governed by the difference between the amount of that outcome, that person received an amount of that income he feels should receive. Moreover, the amount a person feels he should receives is strongly influenced by what he perceives other are receiving. The implication for management of those comment are the organization do need to provide a system of equitable payment for their employees. Regardless of any negotiations with trade unions, if managements want a motivated work force, then they must ensure that the rewards for effort other things beings equal are seen as fair by all employees.
Edgar Schein (1988) in a reading text on the behavioural science, identify a number of assumption that have been made about motivations. These can been made about motivation. These can be summarized in order to historical appearance as follows:
Rational economic views: This views of individual behavior has its roots in the economic theories a Adams Smith in the 1770’s, it suggest that people are primarily motivated by self interest and that maximization of gain. It stresses people rational calculation of self interests, especially in relation to economic needs. Ultimately, says Schein, all human beings can be traced into two categories, if this approach is adopted;
(1) The untrustworthy, money-motivated, calculative masses and
(2) The trustworthy, more broadly motivated moral elite. Whose task is to organize and manage. The masses, this approach correspond to Mc Gregor’s theory x view of motivation. (it is the Gilberths, Urwisck etc) it is still an important assumption made in many organization today.
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McClelland, D. C. (1978), :Human Motivation Cambridge University press.
Lawler E. E. and porter I. W. (1968), :Managerial Attitude and performance” Irwin R. D.
Vroom, V. H. (1964) “Work and motivation”, john Willey and Sons Inc. New York.
Locke E. O. 91976) “personal attitudes and motivation in annual review of psychology” Vol. 26, 457-480.
Adams, (1965) ‘injustice in social exchange in advance in experimental social psychology” academic press, McGraw, hill pp. 107-124.
This chapter describes the methodology (steps) the researcher for the study. It contains the area of study research designed, population, size and sampling technique, sources of data, instruments for data collection, validity and reliability of the instrument and method of the data analysis.
3.1 AREA OF STUDY
The study was conducted in Ebonyi state, with particular reference to Ebonyi Sate, civil service Commission, Abakaliki. It is concerned with role of motivated workforce in the development of civil service commission of civil service commissions.
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
This study designed in line with the descriptive survey pattern designed there were relatively data were collected from different department of Ebonyi state civil service commission, Abakaliki.
The population for the study include, all the staff of Ebonyi state civil service commission, numbering about 300 in all.
3.4 SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
The researcher used 160 out of the 300 staffs as sample for the study. To get the sample size, random sampling technique was employed. In the process of junior staff (01 – 07) and 83 senior staffs (08 – 16) were selected from the various department of the commission. The 160 staff selected represent 53% of the population.
3.5 SOURCES OF DATA
The researcher collected data from two sources: primary and secondary sources.
Primary sources: The researcher got relevant information from trips to Ebonyi state civil service commission, Abakaliki. The information comprises personal interaction, observation and administration of questionnaire to the selected staff of the various Departments in the commission.
Secondary sources: The information from the secondary source companies the commission of official documents, academic journals, text books and Newspapers. These complemented the information from the primary sources and covered the literature review of the proceeding chapter.
3.6 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
The researcher designed a questionnaire made up of 15 items about things that can motivate civil servants and affects their job satisfaction and increased productivity. The design was based on the research questions and hypothesis as posed in chapter one (1) of this study.
Finally, 160 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the 160 selected staff (respondents). During the distribution, the researcher waited at the end of the questionnaire. This measure was employed in order to ensure 100 percent returns.
3.7 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
The instrument used (the questionnaire) was first given to the project supervisor and some other experienced researchers for assessments, corrections and given to the project supervisor and some other experienced researchers for assessments, corrections and expert opinions. This helped in the validation of the instrument.
Besides, pilot test of the questionnaire was carried out at Ebonyi state Local Government Service Commission, Abakaliki, with the staff. This helped in establishing it’s reliability as the response and comments of the staffs were utilized in evaluating and revising the final draft that was for this study.
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
First, the response to the questionnaire items were structured in the following orders.
SA – Strongly Agree – 5
A – Agreed – 4
U – Undecided – 3
DA – Disagreed – 2
SD – Strongly Disagreed – 1
Secondly, because the study involved two levels of motivation (high and low) and two levels of ranks (junior and senior) the researcher used 2 X 2 factorial approach in the analysis.
Besides, employ statistical method involving two approaches – Anova (one – way Anova and Schetta). Thus the highest possible score was 75 while the lowest possible score was 15. the score between 15 and 59 were rated low motivation while the score between 60 and 75 were rated high motivation.
Finally, the data tables and analysis of results were interpreted by use of qualitative method. This was done in order to arrive at credible conclusion and recommendations of the study.
Chukwu Emeka, E.E.O (2002), Research method and Thesis writing: A multi-Disciplinary Approach. Hope – Rising Ventures publishers, Enugu.
4.2 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
The findings of this study revealed that the first major hypothesis tested in this study, which states. “There will be a significant effect of motivation on the development of Ebonyi state civil service commission” is found to be confirmed. This is based on the fact that F. calculated or observed value 42.12 is greater than F. critical 6.76 at P . less than .01 level of significance, as contained in table 1 above under analysis of results section. Hence, this outcome indicates that motivation as a factor yielded a significant outcome in relation to how satisfied civil servant are on their job. In other words, civil servants who are motivated on the job were productivity based on the finding of this study.
Also, the second major hypothesis tested in this study, which states that “there will be no significant effect of ranks on job satisfaction among civil servants” is disconfirmed. This is based on the fact that F- calculated value or observed value 97.51 is greater than F critical value 6.76 at P. less than .01 level of significance as contained in table 1 above under analysis of results section. Hence this outcome indicates that rank as a factory yielded as significant outcome relation to how civil servants are satisfied on the job. In other words civil servant who are highly ranked on the job were found to experience job satisfaction than those who are lowly ranked based n the findings of this study. In addition, those who are highly ranked (senior civil servants) with a group mean of 119.05 were found to differ significantly than those who are lowly ranked (junior civil servants) with a group mean of 59.53.
Furthermore, the findings of this study revealed that the third major hypotheisis tested in this study, which states that “there will be significant difference on job satisfaction between senior civil servant who are highly motivated and junior civil servants who are highly motivated”, is found to e confirmed. This is based on the fact that F. calculated or observed value 32.75 is greater than F. critical value 11.64 in P. less than .01 level of significance as contained in table 111 above under analysis of result section. Hence, this outcome indicate that high motivation as a factor yielded a significant outcome between senior and junior servant to how servants, satisfied civil servants are on their job. In other words, senior civil servants who are highly motivated with a group mean of 61. 61 were found to be differ significantly from junior servants who are also highly motivated with a group mean of 54.17, in relation to job satisfaction in the civil service commission of Ebonyi state.
Also other comparisons between, senior staff who are highly motivated with a group mean of 61.61 ans senior staff who are lowly motivated with a a group mean 57.44; senior staff who are highly motivated with a group mean of 61.61 and junior staff who are highly motivated with a group mean of 45.80 and even senior staff who are lowly motivated with a group mean of 57.44 and junior staff who are poorly motivated with a group of mean 45.80, a junior staff who is highly motivated with a group mean of 54.17 and junior staff who are lowly motivated with a group mean of 435.80 were all found to differ significantly except for senior staff who are poorly motivated with a group mean of 57.44 and junior staff who are highly motivated with a group mean 54.17.
In recapitulation, one may observed that the different between senior and junior staff were found to be significant in relation to motivation as a factors on satisfied civil servants are on their job. In all 43 of the senior staff were found to be lowly motivated while 49 were found to be highly motivated. Also 49 of the junior staff were found to be lowly motivated, while 48 were found to be highly motivated.
BLUM, K.J. AND RUSS. J (1942), “Study of Employee’s Attitude towards various incentive”, in personal psychology.
CHUKWUEMEKA. E. E. O (2002) Research method and thesis writing: a multi- Disciplinary Approach, Hope Rising ventures publishers, Enugu.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The finding of this study are summarized as follows:
(1) There is a significant impact of motivation on improved worker performance.
(2) There is a significant impact of rank on job satisfaction among the staff of Ebonyi state civil service commission.
(3) Factors that effects workers performance includes (a) Lack of motivation (b) Lack of proper planning and non-implementation of motivational policies. (c) Corruption (d) Leadership in the hands of mediocre.
(4) Factors that improved workers performance (i) bonus (ii) promotion (iii) allowance (iv) fringe benefit etc.
(5) The level of motivation of a worker determined the level of performance of the worker.
Based on the findings of this study, one may conclude that motivation and rank as independent factors, were found to yield significant outcome in relation to job satisfaction and increased productivity in the civil service commission of Ebonyi state. Because every workers who intimately determined by the competence, motivation and effectiveness of human resource. I will end by pointing that motivation is crucial in management and any organization, which will plays definitely slow down productivity as well. A good workers must be motivated for them to be able to live up to their mandate of providing information and knowledge. Therefore, a workforce must foster high employee morale commitment and productivity through motivation of staff. This helps workers to live out their talents and skills.
Based on the finding of this study I recommend that the staff of Ebonyi state civil service commission be properly motivated so as to bring about efficiency and productivity.
(2) The staff should be motivated by providing fringe benefits, allowance like transport allowance, housing allowance etc.
(3) Employees of Ebonyi state civil service commission should be given the job and of the job training in order to know how to discharge their duties in the organization.
(4) Employee must design a positive, high employee moral work environment that enables staffs to use their talents and skills. Make staff professional and personal development a priority for staffs motivation. This is only way to retain the employee and create the motivational environment where they will thrive.
ADAMS, (1965) “Injustice in Exchange” in Advances in Experimental social psychology. Academic press, McGraw Hill pp. 107 – 124.
BLUM, K. J. and RUSS, J. (1942), ‘a study of Employee’s Attitudes towards various incentive’. In personnel psychology.
HERZBERG, F. ET AL (1959) ‘The motivation to work’ John Willey and sons, Inc. New York.
JONES G. R and GEORGE, J.M (2003), ‘Contemporary management” McGraw Hill co. Inc. New York.
LIAWLER, E.E and PORTER I.W (1968) “Managerial Attitudes and performance. Irwin R.D.
LOCKE, E.A (1976), “personal Attitude and Motivation in Annual Review of Psychology. Vol 26 pp. 457 – 480.
MASLOW, A. H. (1964), “Work and Motivation”. John Willey and sons, Inc. New York.
McClelland, D.C (1978), “Human Motivation”. Cambridge University press.
Vroom, V.H (1964) “Work and Motivation”. John and sons, Inc. New York.
Chukwuemeka, E.E. O (2002) Research method and thesis writing : A multi-Disciplinary Approach. Hope-rising ventures publishers, Enugu.
Ref No. E. B. 01/25/17 C. S., Ebonyi state civil service commission, Edith no 11, 1996.
Please tick the items that suit you in the space provided below.
(a) Sex: Male Female
(c) Marital status: Married Not married
(d) Place of work ministry Parastatals Private
(e) Senior staff Junior staff
Choose these factors that motivate you in the order of their strength or motivation. Use the following score.
SA = Strongly Agreed
A = Agreed
U = Undecided
DA = Disagreed
SD = Strongly Disagreed.
ITEMS SA A U DA SD
1 I am motivated, if I am recognized
2 Higher responsibility motivate me
3 Advancement opportunity motivates me
4 I am proud being a civil servant
5 Good working environment motivates me
6 I receives my fringe benefit promptly
7 My pay is higher than those in other establishment.
8 Security of my job motivates me
9 The hours of work affects my motivation.
10 Promotion opportunity motivate me
11 Allowing me to use my initiative motivates.
12 Concern over my family motivate me
13 Working in a big firm motivates me
14 Good policy and administration motivates me.
15 Increased salary motivates me.
Motivated Workforce – The Role In The Development Of A State : (A Case Study Of Ebonyi State Civil Service Commission)
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