Job Enrichment – Development Scheme For Secretary

Job Enrichment – Development Scheme For Secretary (A Case Study Of Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation Eleme Port Harcourt)

Job Enrichment – Development Scheme For Secretary (A Case Study Of Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation Eleme Port Harcourt)

The job of a secretary in the organization is a very important one. According to the Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of English 1974, a secretary is defined as employee in an office who deals with correspondence, keeps, makes arrangement and appointment for a particular member of staff.

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Agrew et al in secretarial office practice define a secretary as the executive assistance or the junior partner of the executive. They went further to say that a secretary does not only transcribe rapidly a well panned dictation. In addition to routine work, the secretary also makes minutes of a meeting with no difficulty and takes telephone messages with accuracy and ease. She is also expected to compose letters, carry out research for and prepare materials for reports a well as act as a representative of the executive in attending to the public and the business colleagues in his absence. From the foregoing definition, one can see that the secretary is the life wire of any organization as a junior partner of the executive or the executive assistant, she or he is placed in a special position of trust and responsibility thus she can handle the minor details that flood the office daily with little or no consultation with the employer hence the executive free decision. The secretary is always in constant contact with the public either by the telephone or by personal callers consequently, the secretary is more or less responsible for setting in tone of the office that is friendly and efficiently.

Secretarial position varies widely depending on the size of the organization, the number of workers employed, the nature of the business as well as the personal qualities. The position involves a widely variety of duties and responsibilities. In order to achieve the smooth and effective running of the office, the secretary must possess certain basic qualifications, undergo basic secretarial training as well as acquire some special personal qualities peculiar to secretaries. The secretarial job is not any job, for one to function effectively and efficiently are needs to possess certain basic qualifications and undergo basic secretarial studies either OND, HND, or ND, B.SC and other nice recognized certificates in the field. In addition to that, the secretary must develop the knowledge and understanding of the work involved as well as the proper planning of the day’s work.

Another important aspect is the enrichment of the secretarial job. The war manpower commission (1944), said that the word “job” has many connotations which for the sake of clarity and exactness require careful definition. However, in order to arrive at a precise definition, certain additional terms must be defined formally.

A task exist whenever human effort must be exerted for a specific purpose. When sufficient tasks accumulate to justify them employment or A, a position has been created.

Thus, a position is an aggregate of duties, tasks and responsibilities requiring the service of one individual Consequently, the number of individuals employed by the organization.

The job of the secretary is a task, which she had to carry out. And because this job is a very lucrative work, it has to be enriched in order for it to work out effectively and efficiently. It was said that a good enrichment leads to better productivity, so the secretary needs a good environment like having modern types of machines and typewriters to work with it, nice office, well – equipped with it, nice office, well – equipped with nice pay and making her to know that she is somebody very important in the organization, than neglecting her, this will make her develop her more. The secretary herself, as the first to see in the organization (departments) must possess certain attitudes which make her different from others. Neatly dressed, always in a good mood to receive the company’s customers gently and courteous. Without all these attribute, a secretary cannot perform her job very well no matter the qualification she possesses.

The secretary position in the company needs to be recognized and enriched for the effective running of an organization.

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In spite of the increasing demand by organization on employers of labour to reassess traditional view as they effect human resources, its management, acquisition and development, some employers of labour are yet to believe that so long as the staff can be used to get money no need providing her with some necessary materials that will make the job of the employee enriched. In fact to them the enrichment of job is a waste of time and financial resources.

This belief has made some organization not to provide job enrichment schemes opportunities, which have resulted in some staff performing below expectation. The study examined development of job enrichment scheme for secretaries with a view to ascertaining whether or not there exists adequate job enrichment programme or schemes for secretarial staff in Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.

1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study is to look at the following:

i. The ways in which secretaries job or the job of secretaries is being carried out in one of company, N.N.P.C.

ii. Whether the job of a secretary can lead to high productivity, when done well.

iii. To compare the schemes used in these companies and to find out with one is better and more develops.

iv. To examine the kind of secretaries being employed by this oil company whether trained or not.

v. To recommend the type of secretaries suitable for the company, if they do not have qualified ones.

vi. Finally to see if secretarial job is being carried out in the same way by the companies.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this study should enable the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (N. N. P. C) and infact other organizations to appreciate the need for the development of job enrichment schemes for secretaries.

It should also assist the organizations on how to improve upon existing development and some other programmes by defining opportunity areas and also identifying resources which can be effectively utilized to make real a more viable development and enlargement programme for secretarial staffs.

1.4 DELIMITATION

The research work was limited to the development of job enrichment schemes for secretaries in Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (N.N.P.C). The study shall not deal with cost benefits of any existing development of job enrichment schemes for secretaries and would not identify those who have benefited fully from these schemes.

1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Words and phrases used in relation to the study are defined below to enable the reader understand their precise meaning.

i. Oil Companies: Refers to those companies that engage in oil exploration and marketing.

ii. Job: work, task, undertaking proceeding, employment, occupation. This is any work or task done by any individual for a living.

iii. Job enrichment: It involves, including a planning task, a control task, or with a job which previously only involves operating tasks.

iv. Job evaluation: Job evaluation is an analytic and systematic method of determining pay rates for jobs.

v. Development: Refers to growth improvement, increase, expansion, or enlargement of anything. E.g, job, for its effective functioning.

vi. Scheme: Refers to plan designing purpose, intention, objective, aims, programme, project etc. it refers to any programme or project that has been carried out or which is to be carried out.

vii. Secretary: Refers to an employee in an office who deals with correspondences keeps records, makes arrangements and appointments for a particular number of staff.

viii. Enrichment: Refers to enhancement, improvement, advancement, furtherance, betterment or beautification of any programme or thing.

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

To start the work of this section, an intensive and extensive research was conducted with a view to finding previous work on the development of job enrichment schemes for secretaries. Unfortunately, no research work on development of job enrichment schemes in the oil companies was available. So other source were sought to determine the state of development of the enrichment schemes for secretaries in Nigerian based oil companies.

Literature were available on the following:

i. Job enrichment

(a) The claim of job enrichment

(b) How effective has job enrichment been

(c) Limitations of job enrichment

(d) What is needed to make job effective.

ii. Job evaluation and Description

iii. Job measurement and job satisfaction

iv. Working condition and Automation

v. Behaviour and motivation

2.1 JOB ENRICHMENT

For the purpose of clarity of concept in relation to the development of job enrichment, it is pertinent to examine what is job enrichment.

The idea of job enrichment was not a concept of this day. Research and analysis of motivation appear to emphasis the importance of making job challenging and meaningful. This applies to managers as well as non managers and it consistence with Herberg’s theory of motivation which job content factors such as challenge achievement, recognition and responsibility are seen as the real motivations through Herber’s theory has not gone unchanged, it has led to a wide spread kof interest both in the United States and overseas in developing ways for enriching job content, particularly for non managerial employees.

Kootnz et al (1980) said that job enrichment should be distiquished from job enrichment. The after techniques attempt to make a job more carried by removing dullness associated with performing repetitive operatios. In job enrichment, the attempt is to build into jobs a higher ksense of challenge importance and achievement. A job may be enriched by giving it variety. But it also may be enriched by:-

i. Giving workers more latitude in deciding about such things as work methods, sequence, and face or by letting them make decisions about accepting or rejecting materials.

ii. Couraging participation of subordinates and interaction of between workers.

iii. Giving workers a feeling of personal responsibility for the tasks.

iv. Taking steps to make sure that people can see how their takes contribute to a finished product and the welfare of the enterprises.

v. Supervisors get; and

vi. Involving workers in analysis and change of physical aspect of the work environment such as layout of office or plant, temperature, lighting and cleanliness.

vii. Ford (1973) said that job enrichment is similar to job enrichment, in that it involves expanding the module of work “However there are two crucial differences are involves the kind of tasks that tare include in the enriched job; the other follows from the first, and involves differences in the motivational effects resulting from enriched jobs.

Herbierg (1968) said that job enrichment involves a planning task, a control task or both, in a both which previously involve involved operating tasks. It is therefore “vertical job loading” in that the planning and control of (which was done by someone “higher up” on the organizationala chart) is now done up the operators themselves in this approach to work design, mechanics in automobile service departments – in addition to being assigned a large module of work would be assigned from job of taking with customers when they come into shop; which had been done by the manager what is wrong with the car and what repairs with the car and what repairs are needed. To go one step furthers, mechanics might plan their own work for the entire day rather than being assigned certain tasks by the manager.

A. THE CLAIMS OF JOB ENRICHMENT

Kootnz et al (980) said that a number of companies have introduced programme of job enrichment. The first company to do so on a fairly large scale was Teas instruments, and other companies such as AT 8T, porter and combine, and General Foods, have had considerable experience with it. In all these companies claim that productivity was increased, that absenteeism and turnover were reduced and that morale improved. Perhaps the most glowing claims for job enrichment are contained in the report of a study made by the united states. Department of Health Educational and Welfare published in 1973. As a result of an analysis of workers attitudes and the quality of working life this study concluded that:

1. The primary cause of dissatisfaction of workers is the nature of their work-the quality of their working life and

2. The blue collar workers will work harder if their jobs are enriched and expanded so as to give the greater control over their work and more freedom from their supervisor.

B. HOW EFFECTIVE HAS JOB ENRICHMENT BEEN

There are different opinions as to how serial employee (secretaries) has been. As noted, personnel managers and consultants in certain companies have claimed greet success. However, one analytic finds the record not ready o bright. After going over a number of programmes and many studies of the experiences, Kootnz et al in their book messenger 1980, disclosed the following.

1. Large scale study of the university of Michigan center found that people ranked interesting work first in importance, pay fifty, and security of employment seventh. However, when pain removed managers nd professional people from the sample discovered that blue-collar workers ranked pay and job security higher then interesting work.

2. In Texas instruments, a company regarded as a leader in job enrichment, Fein found that only 10.5 percent of employees were actually involved. In the case of senatorial and cleaning employees where excellent result were probably due to the fact that the employees has been taken over from a contracting firm and had been company employees with much higher wages and benefits.

3. In the case of At & t, Feins claims that the benefits that occurred were due to job enrichment but to simple redesigning of jobs that were poorly designed in the first place.

4. Fein claim not be impressed with the apparently good results at the Topeka plant of general foods because this was a small and new plant in which the 63 employees were carefully selected from among too applicants highly desirously of a job in the new plant.

5. Likewise, Fein believes that the apparent success of the programmes at procter and Gamble took place in a company long known for its concern for employees” maintained by few other firms in this country”.

6. Fein also found no evidence to support the presumption that there is a strong demand on the part of blue collar workers for job enrichment. He quotes labour leaders who declare that they have never been asked by there members to negotiate for this and that all programme both in the United States and Europe have been initiated by managers and not by workers. He quoted Leonard’s woodcock, then president of the United Automobilie workers, as saying with respect to gas enlargement that “a lot of academic workers … writing a lot of non sense. Despite Fein’s analysis and criticisms it is difficult to believe that people do not want were meaningful works are done. But as will be noted presently, it could be true that proponents of job enrichment attribute their own scale of values by the same values.

C. LIMITATIONS OF JOB ENRICHMENT

Kootnz et al (1980) said that there are some limitations in the appliance of job enrichment. One of these is a matter of technology. With specialization machinery and assembly line techniques, it may not be impossible to make jobs very meaningful. Another is cost, another problem has been the difficulty of enriching job that requires low level staff of skill. One of the major limitations is the question of whether workers really want job enrichment, especially of the kind that changes the basic content of their jobs. Various surveys of workers attitude, even that attitudes of assembly line workers are not dissatisfied with their jobs that few want “more interesting” jobs. What these workers seem to want above all is job security and pay. Moreover, there has been considerable feeling that when managers begin changing the nature of jobs, the increased productivity sought may even mean loss of jobs.

It should be pointed out that the limitations of job enrichment apply mainly to jobs requiring low skill levels. The jobs of highly skilled workers, professionals, managers already contain varying degree of challenge and accomplishment considerably more than they are. But this can probable be done best by modern management techniques such as meaning objectives, utilizing more policy guidance with delegation of authority, introducing more status symbols in the farm of titles and office facilities, and bones and other rewards more closely to performance.

D. WHAT IS NEEDED TO MAKE JOB ENRICHMENT EFFECTIVE

Several approaches can be used to make job enrichment append to higher-level motivations. In the first place, we need a better understanding of what people want. As certain motivation researchers have pointed out, this varies with people and situations. Research was shown that workers with few sills want such extrinsic factors as job security, pay benefits, less restrictive plant rules, and were sympathetic and understanding supervisors. As we move up the ladder in an enterprise, we find that intrinsic factors becomes increasingly important. But professional and managers have not been the primary targets of the job enrichments.

Second, if productivity increases are the main goal of enrichment, the programme must show how workers will benefit. For example in one company with fleets of unsupervised two persons service struck, a programme of giving these employees 25 percent of the cost savings from increased productivity, while still making it clear that the company would profit from their efforts resulted in a starting increase of output and much greater increase in these jobs.

In the third place, it should not be over emphasis that people like to be involved to be consulted and to be given an opportunity to offer suggestions. They like to be considered as people. In one aerospace missile plant, increased morale and productivity, as well as greatly reduced turnover and absenteeism, resulted from the simple techniques of have all the employees on playcards at their work stations and of having each programme group – from parts production and assembly to inspection work in an area in which main machines and equipment were painted the same colour and one another but on different colour from those of other group.

A fourth factor is that people like to be able to feel that their managers are truly concerned with their welfare workers like to know what they are doing and why. They like feed-back on their performance. They like to be appreciated and recognized for their work.

2.2 JOB EVALUATION AND DESCRIPTION

Arthur C. Croft (1977) defined job evaluation as an analytic and systematic method of determining pay rates for jobs. The principal steps are:-

i. Analyzing jobs to prepare job specifications.

ii. Developing a mathematical system for evaluating jobs.

iii. Evaluating jobs according to the system, normally utilizing a committee.

iv. Comparing wage and salary levels with those of the community.

v. Setting up a plan of wage and salary administration.

In the absence of an unbalance job evaluation play, management tends to grant higher salaries to employees in the more important function in the organization. Thus a typist job in the sales department. This situation is destructive of job evaluation report that:-

i. Employee morale has improved

ii. Supervisory pressures on management for wage or salary increases for their employees have lessened.

iii. Labour turnover due to the discontent about earnings has decreased.

iv. Labour costs have tended to stabilize.

v. Management has an effective too of personnel administration. Any system which confers all their benefits deserves careful study.

One of the most difficult tasks of managing is the evaluation of positions, tasks which should be distinguished from evaluating the performance of a person in it. Should a company controller’s position be rated higher than that of an engineering manager or a plant manager? Should the vice president for marketing out rank the vice president for manufacturing should the position of sales manager over one production to more or less highly places than the position of a sales manager over another product line? Should controllers of companies of similar size be rated equally?

Obviously the evaluation of position within an enterprise has great importance for such matters as compensation, prestige office allocations and furnishing, and the many other things that are meaningful to those who occupy managerial, as well as other positions. One would thing therefore that this would be one of the most highly developed areas of management, unfortunately it not.

Don Elizor said that word “job” has various connotations, which for the sake of clarity and exactness require careful definition. However in order to arrive a a precise definition certain additional terms must be defined formally. A task exists whenever an effort must be exerted for a specific purpose. When sufficient tasks accumulate to justify the employment of a worker, a position have been created.

Thus a position is an aggregate of duties, tasks and responsibilities requiring the services of one individual (the war manpower commission (1940) consequently re to member of individual employed by the organization.

It may happen that two or more positions require the same or very similar task for there performance. Hence the additional term job” was suggested. A job has been defined as a group of position which re identical with respect to their major on significant analysis. A job series consists of jobs with similar tasks ranked according to the level of work. A job series may be regarded as a group of jobs ordered in their most natural line to promotion. An occupational group embraces generally several job series in associated or related occupational group embraces generally. Several job series unassociated or related occupation, professions or activities.

Arthur C. Croft (1977) said that many companies have developed job specification, as in connection with job evaluation work.

Much of the material appearing on a job specification was completed can be utilized to prepare a living specifications. If the basic information is not at hand, the personnel manager should set up simple living specification. These should include a brief statement of the duties and indicated the things for which the employee will be responsible as will as the conditions of work. They should also stipulate the metal skill, and physical needs, necessary to do the work.

The personnel manager may feel that it is not necessary to set up hiring specifications because he knows all jobs in the organization thoroughly. This opinion may be true, but it is certainly true that, as the company grows he can not readily delegate some of his tasks as before interviewing some assistant if he has hiring specifications on hand. It is scarcely to be expected that the assistant would also have a thorough knowledge of all jobs. Moreover, it is good practice to have such material around because it tends itself to the development of training manuals, standard practice instructions, in job evaluation, merit rating and other uses.

2.3 JOB MEASUREMENT AND SATISFACTION

Enid Munford has described job satisfaction as resolves concept which reaction people cannot really clarity, vroom define “as the positive orientation of an individual towards work role which he is presently occupying she further states that most people would accept this definition as substantially correct but it is vague and tell nothing about the components of job satisfaction.

Enid Munford’s (1978) divided job satisfaction research into schools of thought:-

i. The psychological needs school exemplified by psychologist such maslow, Herbert, linker and others they see development of motivation as the central factor in job satisfaction and concentrate their alteration on stimuli which are believed to lead to motivation the needs of individuals for achievement recognition, responsibility status.

ii. LEADERSHIP AS A FACTOR IN JOB SATISFACTION

They devote heir attention leadership as a factor in job satisfaction. Psychologists like black and Morton and fledlen see the behaviour of supervisors as an important influence on employee attitudes. Their observations are more directed at leadership styles and response of subordinates.

III. THE EFFORT REWARD, BARGAIN AS AN IMPORTANT VARIABLE

Strongly represented at the Manchester business school by Lepta, Golan and Legged. This leads to a conservation of how the wages and salaries of particular groups are constructed and the influence of factors, sue as overtime pay and the state of labour market on earnings and employees’ attitudes to them. Some psychologists maintain that people have a subjective perception of what is a fair days work and if they do not receive this the job satisfaction may not be high.

IV. CONTENT OF WORK AND JOB DESIGN FACTORS

This school of behaviour, scientists say that factors described above are extrinsic to the tasks of employee is required to carry out and therefore a less important factor in job satisfaction than the work itself and the way as:-

“Punishment centered”

“representation centered”

“mock bureaucracy”

Punishment centered bureaucracy is the type of management behaviour which responds to deviation from rules and procedures with punishments.

Representative bureaucracy is the type of management behaviour, which responds to deviation from rule and procedures with punishments. Representative bureaucracy is the kind of management practice which today would be called democratic. The rules and procedures are jointly developed by management workers to meet a group of shared and mutually agreed effective.

Mock bureaucracy is when an organization has rules and procedures fix between what organization requires of its employees and what the employees are seeking of the firm.

2.4 WORKING CONDITION UNDER AUTOMATION

J. Woodword (1965) said that technology always has had an important impact on material practice. It is a vital element in planning both in the design of products and services and in their development, production, and distribution. Technology always has effected organization structure. For example, research conducted by Joan Woodword of 100 British Manufacturing plants indicates that organizational structure tends to vary with the types of technology employed in other works; certain structures appear to be more successful with certain kinds of technology. No one should be surprised that oil producing and refinering companies are organized in a way that reflects the special technologies of their operations. One should expect an automobile company with its engine parts of the body plants assembly lines to be organized differently from the railway roads and airlines, with their different technologies are organized. One would also expect staffing of organizations and leadership to vary to some extend at least with technology. Certainty intelligent managers have always recognized this.

Arthur C. Croft (1977) said that English companies have had experience with automation that tentative conclusions can be drawn regarding the typical effects of automation on working conditions.

1. Noise, hear, humanity, smote, fumes, and dusts, if previously present will likely be reduced or eliminated.

2. Accident hazards will probably be lessened.

3. Manual effort:- Lying, carrying working reaching, insenting, taking off etc will be reduced or eliminated.

4. Productive jams:- Work piling up or production line all balanced will occur less frequently.

5. Hose keeping will be essential

6. Gang work and group effort will b less, as fewer workers are located over the working area.

7. New skills – operating consoles, watching recording instruments, interpreting recorded data will replace former skills.

8. New information – materials, processes, mathematics, quality and standards will be needed. Since all these factors enter into evaluating time worth of a job, a revaluation of each new job is indicated. Experience shows that with a few exceptions, automation jobs fall into lower rated job classifications that it books motivated.

It even though we may agree n this it is not so clear that we agree on what characteristic of its behaviour makes the animal took motivated.

What one proposes, as a definition of motivated behaviour seems to depend more upon anything in the behaviour itself. Any solution to the problem of what it is about a particular behaviour that makes it appear motivated will therefore depend upon how we regard behaviour in general and how we explain it in general thus motivation seems to b neither a fact of experience nor a fact of behaviour but rather an idea or concept we introduce when we undertake to explain behaviour.

Stoner (1978) has argued that motivation is not the only including on a person’s performance level. The other two factors that influence low well a person performs, in a given situation are the individual’s abilities and the individuals’ high performance. This latter factor can be called ”role perception”. The relationship of all three factors to performance, can be shown by the following equation: performance of (motivation, ability, role perceptions). There are two main sources of motivation to work. One is job as an end in itself, the other is the oral towards which the job provides the means. This leads us to the concept of intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction.

2.5 THE SECRETARY AND WORKING ENVIRONMENT

Kootnz et al (1980) said that the determinants of the extent of decentralization dealt so far have been largely interior to the enterprise, although the economics of decentralization of performance and the character of the dynamics conclude elements well beyond the control of an enterprise’s manager. In addition there are definite external forces affecting the decentralization. Among the most important of these are government controls, national unionism and tax policies.

1. PERCEPTION IN THE ENTERPRISES ENVIRONMENT

People’s perception of reality are influences by many factors, such as background, past experience, values, exceptions, interest, attitudes and vigid views about the natures of people. It is important for a manager to understand some common perception fallacies in order to achieve increased personal awareness which, in turn should result in better managing.

Perception pertains to information received from the environment. It includes for examples, seeing the factory, receiving the noise of the machines, feeling the heat from the furnace, tasting the food on the cafeteria, and smelling the fumes of the engine exhaust, is not will all of our sense, rather, the focus will be on those particularly relevant for management.

SUMMARY ON LITERATURE

From the review of the related literature. It appears that the concept of the development of job enrichment schemes for staff in business organizations have been talked about by many writers. The jobs of the secretaries have to be enriched. This is to ensure adequate manpower and to met with the rapid solid, economic, political and technological changes in modern organization and its attendant problems constantly making increasing demands on management to develop the job enrichment of their workers and to acquire skills required for effective job performance.

4.0 ANALYSIS OF DATA

This chapter presents the analysis of data on the development of job enrichment schemes for secretaries. After the analysis we shall be in a position to know whether the organization or companies recognize secretaries and their importance and also whether these company enrich th job of these secretaries.

To be able to analyze data gotten from the questionnaire, comparism of percentages were made to establish if the job of the secretaries has impact on the organization, and if it has the research also wishes to establish if the organization is making maximum use of the secretaries job.

There are basically ten questions the managers questionnaire apart from personal data and also some other questions from the secretaries questionnaires. Each of the questions carry Yes or No while some carry weight of 5, 4, 3, 2, 1.

For this study a score of 50% and above means that the job of secretaries are being enriched, less than 50% means that the job of secretaries are not being enriched.

The analysis of individual questions in the questionnaire was done by summing up the number of respondents and their percentage. But as for questions that carry weight, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, with 5 for mostly prepared, 1, least preferred. While for the other ones Yes or No is provided.

SUMMARY OF THE MANAGERS QUESTIONNAIRES RESULT

S/NO QUESTIONS % RESPONSE

1. Do you employ many people? 75%

2. Do you employ secretaries? 75%

3. Do you have a secretary 75%

4. Do you believe that the job of secretaries could lead to high productivity? 60%

5. In your mind do you think that the job of secretaries are being enriched? 70%

6. What d you think that could be done to improve or develop the enrichment schemes for secretaries?

40%

7. Schemes for secretaries?

(a) Further training

(b) Adequate remuneration 35%

8. Do you think that there is any need for more secretaries to be employed in the companies organizations? 75%

Total Average score 72.14%

From the above one can see the various response from the managers in percentages to all the questions posed in their questionnaire. It is evident from the data presented in the table that the job of the secretaries are being enriched, because the toal average score of 72.14% is well above 50%. But later in our discussion we are going to see if this is true from the opinion of the secretaries in their own questionnaire.

Findings and discussions sixty-five questionnaire forms were distributed out of which forty-five were returned. Therefore our analysis was based on a population size of forty-five.

Our analysis of the information generated from the questionnaire forms provided answers for the research questions these were used to examine the perception of the managers about their secretaries and how important their secretaries questionnaire form were used to determine the truthfulness or otherwise, of what the managers says about the job of secretaries. Secondly the information was also used to know if the secretaries jobs were being enriched.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development of job enrichment schemes for secretaries for this study, Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (N.N.P.C) was studied. The method of investigated employed in this study include interview and questionnaire.

5.1 CONCLUSION

The analysis, findings and discussions showed that there is job enrichment scheme for secretaries which has been developed but which needed more improvement on it. The company are aware of the important of the secretaries jobs in the organization. For instance, most of the important jobs done in the organization were done by the secretaries.

This leads the researcher to conclude further that no one organization can exist kin isolation of the secretaries. This is because organizations need secretaries and the secretaries are the life wire of the organizations. The secretary are the first people to meets in the organizations and they deal on things like public relations, handling of correspondence, meetings, seminars etc. with this company e observe that these jobs are being enriched and developed but that they should be improved on since the total averages score was 72.19%.

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the above conclusion, the researcher is making the following recommendations.

i. The company should try to improve on the existing development schemes as this would enable them to have better performance from these secretaries.

ii. The companies should try and employ more qualified secretaries.

iii. The companies should buy and install new machines and also employ people or experts who will be coaching the secretaries on how to use the machine.

iv. The companies should try and give the secretaries employment benefit schemes provided by the companies.

v. The companies should try to examine the secretaries and know their various weaknesses and strength.

vi. Seminars should be held and lecturers should be given on the secretaries and there jobs.

vii. All the companies that need the service of these secretaries, should establish a common institution, where secretaries could be trained.

viii. Companies should support or contribute to the need endowment fund of those institution that train secretaries.

ix. Finally, the secretaries need to be well paid kin order to motivate them to have interest on their job and do the job with their whole mind.

RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MANAGER

This questionnaire is design to find the development of job enrichment scheme for secretaries.

(Tick where appropriate)

1. Name of respondent ……………………………

2. Sex of respondent ………………………………

3. Rank of respondent……………………………

4. Marital status……………………………………

5. Level of qualification……………………………

6. Type of organisation……………………………

7. How long have you worked in your organization………………………………………

8. How many departments does your company have……………………………………………..

9. Do you employ secretaries? Yes No

10. Do you employ many people? Yes No

11. Do you believe that the job of secretaries could lead to high productivity? Yes No

12. Do you have a secretary? Yes No

13. In your mind do you think that the jobs of the secretaries are being enriched? Yes No

14. If No, can you state any of the causes……………………………………………

15. What do you think that could be done to improve or develop the job enrichment schemes for secretaries if you believe that their jobs can lead to high productivity…………………………..

16. Do you think that there is any need for more secretaries to be employed.

In the companies or organization?

Please I hope you will comply with the directives given here.

Thanks.

Yours sincerely.

FOR SECRETARIES AND ANY OTHER INTERESTED PERSON OF WORKER

1. Name of respondent…………………………

2. Sex of respondent…………………………..

3. Marital status

4. Rank of respondent

5. The organization the respondent is working with……………………………………………….

6. How long have your worked in the organization or company?………………………

7. What major activity is your organization involved in?……………………………………….

8. Which of this is your salary level per annum

(a) Below 2,999 (b) 2,999 to 3,999

(c) 3,999 to 4,999 (d) 4,999 and above

9. What level of qualification do you have?………………………………………

10. Do you like your job? Yes No

11. If No, why?………………………………………..

12. Which of the following jobs as a secretary do you prefer most in order of preference

(a) Typing

(b) Shorthand

(c) Dealing on correspondence

(d) Public relation

(e) Entertainment

13. Apart from these jobs what other job would you as a secretary like to do ………………

14. Are you interested in further training?

Yes No

15. If Yes in what area?……………………………..

16. If you want to go, would you like to go on

(a) Full time

(b) Part time

(c) Study leave

17. State your reasons for choosing any of them?……………………………………..

18. Does your company have a scheme for staff development (further education) Yes No

19. Does your company have any employment benefit schemes? Yes No

20. If yes after how many years? ………………….

21. What type of scheme is it?

(a) Benefit scheme provided by the company

(b) A benefit scheme provided by the company with staff contribution?

22. How many people do your company employ…………………………………………

23. How many department are there in the company…………………………………………

24. What company are you attached to?…………………………………………………

25. What is the position of your boss………………

26. Is it under:

(a) Top management

(b) Middle management

(c) Lower management

27. What do you find meet interesting in your job?………………………………………………..

28. How do you purpose to make your job mere interesting by having:

(a) Bigger office

(b) Electric typewriter

(c) Stenographic machine

(d) Telephone

(e) Air conditioner nice furniture

29. Do you people relate with the other secretaries and other members of staff and other management?……………………………

30. If you ha to make a choice, would you still choose this company? Yes No

31. If No, why?………………………………………

32. From your opinion which of these provision by the company will make the job of secretaries to be enriched.

(a) Automation

(b) More assistance in the office

(c) Providing some necessary equipment like link telephone

(d) Conference and seminars.

33. Is the job of secretaries well enriched?

Yes No

34. If Yes……………………………………………..

Job Enrichment – Development Scheme For Secretary (A Case Study Of Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation Eleme Port Harcourt)

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to

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Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183

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