The Internet – Role In Contemporary Broadcasting In Nigeria
The Internet – Role In Contemporary Broadcasting In Nigeria
Information dissemination has grown more sophisticated over the ages, altering the course of history and by that changing the patterns of life of the world. The world has become smaller, not in size but by technological development in the area of communication. To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.
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Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.Today, not only is it possible for people to communicate with other people living hundred and thousands of kilometers away from them, Sand bank 1972 stated “we have also come to live in a world where one person by the manipulation of nature could be in touch with millions of people in different places at the same instant”.
Electronic engineers have developed technologies that have made the world into a small global village. The broadcast media have also grown from mere theoretical postulations of James clerk Maxwell to the extent that they can deliver or transmit a world cup football match to a family sitting in the living room in any part of the world.
Among the amazing technologies that have made this development possible are cybernetic, cables, television, teleconferencing, fibre optics, satellite communication and the computer all of which are called New Communication Technologies (NCT’s) or Information Technologies (IT’s). At the centre of the modern communication technology is the computer. Computer application in mass communication has done more than being a store for retrievable information.
“As Sandbank (1972:4) puts it “apart from its usefulness in terms of media economy, it has come to generate effects that have made mass communication more beautiful and less tasking than it has been”. The capacity of the computer to keep signals in its memory and provide visual and audio interpretations to such signal makes it an invaluable hardware for information dissemination.
The fortunes of contemporary broadcasting in Nigeria have so changed for the better that the countries broadcast industry which used to be very dull can now boast of round the clock broadcasting.
BRIEF HISTORY OF BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA
A developing nation is an over changing society. The changes, which such a society undergoes, are usually reflected on the development of its major institutions. This has been particularly so with the Nigeria broadcasting corporation.
The experiment with wireless communication in Nigeria began in the early 1930’s through a relay re-diffusion service called the empire service of the British broadcasting corporation (BBC). This service was meant to cater for the interest of the British colonialists who wanted to be in touch with events in their country.
A gradual modification emerged by 1947 when the pattern of programme of the early radio began to cater for stories that were Nigerian based. In 1957, the Nigeria broadcasting corporation (NBC) was born. During this period, independent radio stations were being developed throughout Africa to accommodate more local materials. One of the powerful radio voice in Africa was Radio Brazil, an extension of the French overseas radio service.
In 1959 and 1960 respectively, the western Nigeria Broadcasting service (WNBS) and the Eastern Nigerian Broadcasting service (ENBC) were set up to augment the NBC. Later, in 1962, the Northern Nigerian Broadcasting service was established.
In 1979, the NBC was renamed federal radio corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) but remained synonymous in structure and operations with the state owned stations. As at December, 1998, there were a total of 74 radio stations in the country. Eleven stations were federal government owned, 52 were state government owned while eleven stations belonged to various private organisation.
In December (1998) the number of television stations across the country was 62. Twenty seven of these stations were federal government owned, 26 belonged to various state governments and 9 to private individuals and organizations most of which are Located in Lagos.
BRIEF PROFILE OF NTA, RSTV, FRCN
Nigerian Television Authority was inaugurated in May 1977, although decree 24 of 1977 was promulgated in March 1977 having effect from April 1976. By that decree, the Nigerian television authority became the only body empowered to undertake television broadcasting in Nigerian. The authority was organized on the six zones structure such that each zone consists of 3 expect for one which is made of four stations.
The Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) is the largest television network in Africa as well as one of the oldest and most accomplished indigenous broadcast outfits in Nigeria. The NTA has over the years distinguished itself as a force in the field of television broadcasting globally its quality programmes have received numerous awards at international competitions and festivals.
The Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) can be traced bank to that modest beginning of 31st. October 1959 when the western Nigerian television (WNTV) beamed out the first television signals in Nigeria.
RSTV started transmission as a Local T.V station with a one kill watt transmitter on channel 55 Ultra High Frequency (UHF) in 1985. In 1991, the station was up-graded to cope with the challenges of modern broadcasting with a powerful 30 kilo watt transmitters, the station beams its signal on channel 22 Ultra High Frequency (UHF) located at Elelenwe near port-Harcourt.
RSTV is equipped with state of the art gadget, effectively covering Abia, Imo, Delta, Edo, Akwa Ibom cross River, Rivers, Enugu and Anambra State.
Its still-over is also felt in part of Ondo and Ebonyi State, The development which strongly recommended RSTV to advertisers with high professional programming and excellent pictures and audio quality.
RSTV beasts the reach of other T.V stations. In the south east and the south zone respectively resulting in the ever expanding viewer ship of the station.
FRCN was introduced into Nigeria in 1933 by the colonial government. It relived the overseas service of the British broadcasting corporation through wired System with loudspeakers at the listening end. The service was called Radio diffusion System (RDS). From the Radio Diffusion System (RDS) emerged the Nigeria broadcasting service in April 1950, prior to the NBS, the colonial government had commissioned the Nigeria broadcasting survey undertaken by Messrs Byron and Turner which recommended the establishment of station in Lagos, Kaduna, Enugu, Ibadan and Kano.
The Nigeria broadcasting corporation (NBC) came into being in April 1957 through an act of parliament No 39 of 1956. The director general was Mr. J.A.C knot Obe. In 1978, the NBC was re-organized to become the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN).
The NBC was instructed to handover its stations that broadcast on Medium wave frequencies in the states to state government and it took over short wave transmitters from the states. The broadcasting corporation of Northern Nigeria was merged with the BBC stations In Lagos, Ibadan and Enugu to become the present day FRCN.
The management of the FRCN under the dynamic leadership of Dr. Eddie Iroh, transformed the corporation to become truly the network for the millennium. The present day management of FRCN is under the leadership of Ben Ndubuisi Egbuna
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the past few decades, technological advancement has occurred at a break taking speed. The New Information and Communication technologies (ICTS) the most popular of which is now the internet have changed both the world capacity for communication and media through which it communicates.
However, while citizens of the western culture are exploring the implication of the “multimedia” and information supper high way, Africans and the rest of the developing world still grapple with absolute equipment and lack of spare parts which greatly reduce the performance of their broadcast media.
For instance, since the attainment of its independence, Nigeria has plagued by triplets of greed, corruption and general indiscipline. It is a society where material things are acquired as an end in themselves rather than a means to the end of good society. It is a consumer not a productive society. As Okolo (1993:12) right Observes Nigerians define the “good life” of Aristotle’s fame in forms of fleeting instead of permanent pleasure and immediate rather than media gains. It is generally acknowledged that the internet technology, by virtue of its special characteristic can give abundant information, gather and disseminate news and cultural programmes, induce national integration prevent as well as provide administrative and managerial effectiveness.
Therefore, worried by the low interest connectivity in Nigeria, this study concerns itself with determining the extent of the net’s usage in contemporary broadcasting in the country.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study seeks to determine the rate of adoption of the internet innovation by the Nigerian broadcast stations as well as to examine the problems and prospects of getting connected to the net.
Specifically, it will:
1. Determine the extent of internet use by Nigerian broadcasting stations.
2. Find out the specific benefits of the technology accruing to the media using it and by extension to the country.
3. Probe into the problems and prospects of connectively to the net.
4. Find out the problems, which the internet possibly creates for the broadcast industry.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
According to Winner et al (1987:34) “the good of every research is to help further the understanding of the problem and questions in the field of study, if a study does not do this, it has little value beyond the experience the regardless acquires from conducting it.
This research is of particular benefit to both private and public practitioners of the broadcast media in Nigeria and other developing countries. It would create awareness and importance of the growth of broadcasting in Nigeria.
To the government, it might provide useful information as to the need of funding broadcast media in acquiring modern technologies for better performance, stable competition and to keep Nigeria alert with the developed world.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION/HYPOTHESIS
1. What is the extent of internet use by the broadcast stations?
2. What are the benefits of the internet to the broadcast industry?
3. What are the problems and prospects of getting connected to net?
4. What are the problems the internet creates for the broadcast industry?
H0: Broadcast stations always use the internet.
H1: Broadcast stations sometimes use the internet
H0: Internet is of benefit to the broadcast industry.
H2: Internet is not of any benefit to the broadcast industry.
H0: Internet creates a lot of problems to the broadcast industry.
H3: Internet does not create any problem to the broadcast industry.
H0: A lot of obstacles prevent the use of internet.
H4: There is no obstacle to the use of internet.
1.6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
This study probes into the extent of adoption of the internet by the broadcast media which disseminate information on the internet. The study is therefore best explained by the media system & agenda-setting theories. It stipulated that media influence lies in the nature of the three-way relationship between the large social system, the media’s role in that system, and audience relationship to the media.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. Information Technology: Is a term that “embodies a convergence of interest between electronics, computing and communications, all of which are leading to the rapid development of micro electronics.
According to Drew (1999:10) it is the technologies being utilized to restructure and reorganized the sphere of production, distribution and circulation.
Information Technology: The study or use of electronic equipment especially computers for storing, analyzing, and distributing information of all kinds including words, numbers and pictures.
ii. Internet Communication: It is a large resource for information gathering and dissemination which has witnessed a rapid and daily in crease in the number of people accessing it for information of various finds and magnitude from any part of the world.
According to Krchouiecka (1999:9) internet communication is a network of computers linked by telephone system which moves information around the world quickly and effectively.
Internet Communication: International computer network through which computer users all over the world communicate and exchange information.
iii. Network: This is the name given to a group of computers and computer equipment joined together so that they can share information and resources.
Network: A system linked together.
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2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Since this work tends to know the application of innovation in Nigeria’s contemporary broadcasting, the bulk of review of existing literature will be on new information and communication technologies (NCT’s) as they affect broadcasting.
To be orderly, the review will be done under three broad sub-heading, namely:
2.1 STATUS AND ROLE OF CONTEMPORARY BROADCASTING
The enhancement on the power of broadcasting can be traced to its emergence in the era of instant global communication, as an active participant in the event it covers According to Guravicch (1991:185) television and radio can no longer be regarded as a mere observer and reporter of events. These reports however, revolve around the socio-economic, political and cultural matters of the society.
However, since the electronic media unobtrusively intruded into the day to day life of whole societies, it seems an epoch in the history of broadcasting has come to a close. Like Cardiff (1991:3) observes that we are in the entrance of a new era in which channel scarcity is a thing of the past and in which individuals have access to not only a few number of television channel but also to a wide range of interactive video services. He further states that the second electronic revolution which will transform the wired home of the twentieth-century into a self servicing base from which people in the twenty first century will manage much of their business and leisure needs has arrived.
Despite the new electronic media, Stevenson (1994:148) asserts that Nigerian radio and television are well developed only in comparison to those of other developing African countries, against the standard of the west and even some parts of the third world. Nigeria like all of black African is media poor. In view of this, it is necessary that Nigeria and other African countries make it what the McBride report (1980:63) terms a “matter of urgency” to gradually introduced modern technologies such as the internet and adopt it to their needs and conditions for accelerating information.
Karikari (1994:114) however, observes that the potential of using the electronic media to promote democratic and progressive socio-political development had never been as urgent as it is today, when all over Africa, people strive for structural reforms and a new order of liberalism, openness and participation.
According to Aniebona (1990:116) broadcasting is relatively technology intensive. It is, therefore, useful that the electronic media technology be developed in order to promote social change through education. Gurevitch (1991:186) adds that, broadcasting assumes a significant role in construction of a global public opinion.
As Blumber (1989) puts it, the news media are not only a selectivity focusing and agenda setting force in international affairs. They are also a world opinion defining agency, for at present they virtually have a monopoly over the construction of world opinion, its agenda of prime concerns, and itself main target of praise and blame. At present, at least what they tell us about what world opinion apparently holds on a certain matter can rarely be double-checked by international opinion results.
Broadcasting in the words of Gurevitch (1991:187) acts as a “go between” a channel of communication especially in instances of hostile relationships.
However, the idea of positive responsibility to promote development is woven throughout Nigeria’s broadcast media history. For example, in 1973, the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN), which operates one network of radio and television stations, issued a set of policy objectives that included the following:
To provide efficient broadcasting service to the whole federation of Nigeria based on national objectives and aspirations.
To contribute to the development of the Nigerian society, and
To promote national unity by ensuring a balance presentation of views from all parts of Nigeria. (Ugboajah, et al 1980:134)
With a view to achieving these objectives expected of the electronic media, knowledge to technological development must be followed. But Jika in Nwosu (1991:187) explains that the Nigerian press is already more than thirty years (as at 1991) behind time in the introduction and use of modern technology.
Quoting Mali’s president, Alpha Ouma Konare on the need for the view media technology, Bolt (1997:8) warns that if Africans do not join its development, they will be overwhelmed by the evolution of this technology and be increasingly marginalized. Still deliberating on the status of Africa’s broadcasting technology, Klee (1997) “quotes former President Nuson Mandela of South Africa’s declaration at TELECOM ’95, thus:
This is a special moment in the world’s potential for transition to a truly information age, if we cannot ensure that this global revolution creates a world wide information society in which everyone has a stake and can play a part, then it will not have been a revolution at all.
2.2 INTERNET AND OTHER NCT’S IN BROADCASTING
The New Communication Technologies (NCTS) have caused a great revolution in the communications industry, the world over by revolution here is meant the radical changes that have turned around the fortunes of journalism in the world.
One of the NCTS is the communication satellite. Dominic et al (1990:304) believes that development of the satellite in television technology has revolutionized the method of programme distribution. Among the types of satellite is the direct broadcasting satellite (DBS) which makes it possible to beam (line of sight) TV signals to smaller receiving dishes perched on top of houses.
The broadcast satellite as well as other technologies such as the portable microwave and helicopter borne honing devices can according to Yokan and Cremer (1985:11) as well as Schramn and Roberts (1971:015) cover just about any event and economically reach just any about everyone everywhere. This issue of poor reception can be overcome by interconnecting satellite and cable technologies with reception devices.
The microwave technology has a device called terrestrial microwave system which operates in the same general range of radio frequencies as do communication satellites.
They use of line-of-sight radio towers spread 70 to 10 kilometers apart (depending on the train) to transmit communication signals. Their advantages are lower cost and increased efficiently of transmission over traditional landline systems.
Bittner (1991:277) explains that microwave sensors are capable of producing information previously unobtainable with basic imaging to techniques such as photography, television or multi-spectral imaging used in past, remote observation progress in this area is said to have been so rapid that many private companies and electronic media houses operate their own microwave system to connect widely scattered offices.
Now, cable technology, although this is not classified as broadcasting in itself because its signals are not transmitted over air, it is an excellent channel for disseminating TV signals. Cable systems are equipped with satellite dishes in order that they may receive signals from super stationing and network.
Dominic et al (1991:306) sees the fundamental strength of cable as being able to control station placements on cable re-using its own frequencies and making for interactive communication.
Interactive communication is not just a single technology or service but a family of diverse systems and applications. It is widely used in the field of computer technology. Computers have been develop to provide a variety of functions including digital data transmission, which encompasses the complete storage, retrieval and transmission of all oral and visual messages produced in them.
Computer is the wheel of interactive communication. New technologies from the biggest company in the software industry, Microsoft, border on speech technology which Gates (1998:38) believes that, it is easier than punching the keyboard since one can talk to the computer and be understood and obeyed. Videotext is an example of interactive communication. Videotext refers to the various computer based interactive system that deliver screen text, numbers and graphics via the telephone or two-way cable for display on television set or video monitor.
Other devices based on the computer technology in broadcasting are digital filtering of signals, digital keying effects, electronic mail, computerized cameras, camera automation, hypermedia and teleprompters.
The teleprompter is an innovation that has added beauty to television production. It is a device in which the text of a news broadcast, for instance, is programmed in such a way that the text rolls down slowly for the news caster to see and read. The placing of the camera by its side creates the false idea that the newscaster is reading by heart and not from a script.
Two varieties of this exist. There is the studio teleprompter used by newscaster in the studio. The other is the field teleprompter which helps a correspondent to stand in middle of a busy street and report a well-written story without ever stumbling or searching for words. (Zetti, 1992:280-281) Though much older in existence than many other NCTS, the telex is another device which makes television production interesting. A high breed text communication service from British Telecommunication (BT), which introduced it in 1974, tale text blend elements of television broadcasting and print. A one-way non-interactive system, it permits a limited number of pages of text to be transmitted by television broadcasting, stations with their programmes production (Zetti 1992:280-281). It sends electronic pages over frequencies used for television signals. Then the pages with the aid of a special decoder appear on the home television set.
Teletext offers all the advantages of electronic processing and storage of data. It is terminal-to-terminal electronic mail service. The Teletext hand user has a hand-hold keypad resembling a pocket calculator that offers remote control and simple button commands change the screen for a TV image.
There is also the wireless paging device and intercom system which is relatively a simple and efficient means of contacting reporters and Electronic News Gathering (ENG) crew member in the field. The system consists of centrally located transmitter and small receivers of the size of a pocket calculator which can be clipped to belt, hip or clothing (Zetti, 1992:280-281).
The reporter can dial any number of the smaller receivers within radices of about 50 kilometers and cause them to beep or to give short messages. The beep signals the person in the field to look for the nearest phone and call in the more elaborate pager tells the reporter or editor when to call and why.
Moreso, the wireless intercom system which is a field model of the wireless studio (or phone) line system, makes possible a two-way voice communication between the people or the programme control centre and the field crew.
Zetti says, as are all wireless system, the intercom is highly flexible but subject to various interference such as other radio signal, x-ray.
The fibre optics is also one of the latest technologies on record. Fibre optics is a technique that uses optical fibres to transmit information (news) over a communication channel. The information may be in the form of voice, data or images. Fibre optics is capable of carrying any type of signal that can be transmitted on conventional metal wires. Replacing the use of the traditional copper cable, fibre optics benefits are clearer video and audio, low maintenance cost etc, which essentially are what the Nigerian broadcast media need to improve their production quality.
Now the internet, the world has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the number of people using the Net. From its beginning in 1969, as an experimental Network used by the US Department of Defence, it now links Universities, Companies, Libraries, Institutions, and home users across the globe (Walsh, 1997:3).
As Walsh writes “an incredible fifty million individuals mow access the internet services, taking advantages of the almost Unlimited possibilities for transfer, communication publishing and advertising.
As Gralla (1999:219) recalls, the internet began as a way for people to share text-based information such as E-mail, discussion groups and file transfers. Today, the technology has advanced beyond more text. According to Gralla, sounds, voices and music are now an everyday plant of the internet. Through the internet one can listen to radio stations interviews, music sound clips and much more. One of the uses of Net is its ability to listen to radio stations from all across the world. An increasingly number of radio stations stream their live broadcasts over the internet and one can listen right from one’s browser or by using software such as real player or the windows media player.
Entirely, new radio stations, say Gralla, have sprung (fitted) up as well that broadcast only over internet and that one can’t hear through one’s radio.
The internet has also engendered such electronic images as video conferencing. Video conferencing is a means of communicating with somebody a long distance away and seeing the person on the computer screen face to face. This is said to be chiefly employed by cable News Network (CNN) reporters in relating with their home stations form different parts of world.
Gralla elaborates that “You can use white board application which let you see and talk to other people at their computers, together live on you can also work on a file together live on your computer screens. You can watch live video coverage of a person whose job involves traveling from outer space. You can also watch taped videos whenever you want, not when a national broadcaster says you must watch them.
Explaining the subject, Obadina (2000:28) writes that undoubtedly, the growth of the internet is having profound effects on the global economy and sharping world civilization. The sea change does not only far wealthy northern nations but has for reaching implications for southern countries including poor African states.
The Net, Obadina says provides marginalized and economically underdeveloped nations with opportunity to get on to the international playing field on terms that are probably the least disadvantageous to then since the start of globalization more than a century ago. The Internet also provides a means for skilled people in poor nations with limited job opportunities to sell their labour to employers in rich nations, without having to migrate.
The Internet great revolution has further made it possible for many productive activities, particularly in the service sector, to take place across international borders.
There is no reason, Obadina believe, why African nations cannot benefit from this process. it can help check the brain drain by brining jobs to the Third World trains to move north for jobs. Besides, the increased job opportunities, the communication revolution has also lessened the disadvantages facing underdeveloped countries trying to boost their export trade in an international market dominate by giant western corporations. The combination of this modern telecommunications and improved transport system is helping small producers complete with the operations.
Observers believe that critics of culture imperialism will point out that the internet is heavily dominated by the west, particularly the US, and is essentially a medium for the propagation of western culture and ideas. Certainly, the vast majority of existing web sites belongs to reflecting institutions and carries materials reflecting western civilianization, but this is no reason for not using the new technology.
The flow of communication need not be one-way. The system enables anyone with access to a computer and server to input materials. The internet is fast becoming a medium of world civilization, allowing people to experience different cultures. The internet represents the ultimate inter-culture communication so far achieved by human kind. The challenges facing Africa is to project and promotes its cultures in the market place of civilization (Obadina 2000:29).
Unfortunately, as noted by Slibanda (2000:35), Africa is foremost in being economically stagnant and technologically marginalized, enjoying only one percent of the internet global communication connectivity, out of over fifty million intended world wide users with only one telephone for every 200 people.
Commenting further, on the issue, Nwosu (990:327) says the Third world information pole is lagging behind the western pole in the possession of communication technological hardware. In this regard Odadina (2000:28) thinks the situation leaves Africa spinning outside the global village.
On the other hand, scholars like Pitt (2000:4) believe that the most modern state of art “technology is not necessary the best choice for every radio and television station.
Aniebona (1990:116) also believes that if the technology is not home-grown, there may be a predominant dependence on foreign manpower for national and local broadcasting. Dertouzos (1997:139) adds that the guest for the most sophisticated technology might give to inhibition, on the part of the developing media from giving priority to better suited alternatives.
Although the internet has already has a profound effect on the way. People learn, conduct research, buy goods and communicates (Krechoruecka, 1999:9), connectivity to the Net in Nigeria as in other African countries has remain low. Fleury (1999:3) is worried that “in 1999, excluding South African, only African in every 9,000 has access to the internet while around the world the average is one person in 40. Yet all African countries are connected to this Network of Networks and the number of internet service suppliers is growing rapidly”.
As with other information and communication technologies, the low connectivity is attributed to power cuts, lack of access to communication as a result of low teledensity, inadequate penetration and infrastructure, underdevelopment, lack of capital and investment resources for Network development, high cost of computer, information technology (IT) Component and materials, high cost of telephone, lack of human resources, inadequate training facilities, lack of awareness and cultural over-bearance and lack of political will (Usn, 2000:5).
Whatever the case, the relevance of the internet technology to the broadcast industry of developing nations cannot be over emphasized either from a cost effective or function point of view. The technology is able to produce remarkable changes in the quality of station programmes.
It may be difficult no doubt, to measure quantitatively the effect of the internet on the electronic media reportage as Kaplan (1996:352) observes but when applied with regard to prevalent socio-economic issues, the internet plays important roles in brining about useful changes.
Studies by Nora and Ninc (1980:2) as well as D’ Agnostino and Mosco (1985:119) also shows that other technologies in television such as Teletext and videotext have served to perform/reform impression, simulate new domestic demand as well as supply digital data for normal broadcasting.
2.3 IMPLICATIONS OF NCTS FOR BROADCASTING
Some independent media professionals are fearful that these media new technologies being increased rapidly might adversely affect the media.
Bouchari (1998:18) is skeptical about whether or not these technologies are being properly applied.
Similarly, Lefort (1998:3) believes that since the new devices have greatly outweighed their earlier counterpart in quality, the output and possibly quantity, the nations which have adopted them must reposition themselves to deal with the technologies using power.
Another strength of NCT is that they have broken the shackles of limited channels. Over the air broadcasting was always faced with scarcity of channels imposed by limited spectrum. But, with satellites and cable, multiple channels are possible.
On the other hand, it is possible that cable and other information services could only be obtained by the relatively affluent people. The poor and disposed will be left behind. This could be diversity to society, splitting the nation between the rich and the poor.
There is also the danger that NCTS may lead to unemployment as automated machines take over the role of humans whether the NCTS bring the promise of paid importance to the broadcast industry must not be underrated. Mass communication practitioners must understand that they will and can appreciate their relevance to particular circumstances.
For instance, NCTS have relived the amount of space required to operate machines. Interestingly also “in Africa, journalists are hungry to use the web as a tool for democracy despite the daunting obstacles,” (Sher, 2000:11).
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3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
In research design and methodology according to Obasi (1999) the researcher presents the type of design used in terms of whether it is a survey, archival research, documentary design experimental among others, the research design for this study is survey research. It also involves drawing up a set of questions to which selected members of a population are required to react.
3.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH POPULATION
The population of this study comprised the Nigerian broadcast media practitioners and information technology experts. Thus, the Nigerian broadcast media practitioners and information technology experts have been chosen by the researcher to be the target population of this study.
3.2 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
For equal opportunity and chance to be selected among the element in the universe of the population which refers to broadcast media professional and information technologist, the purposive method has been chosen by the researcher as the most appropriate for this study.
The organizations from which the sample were drawn are as follows: Radio Nigeria (FRCN) Enugu will be queen fifty (50) questionnaires, River state television (RSTV) port Harcourt will also answer 30 questionnaires and Nigeria television authority (NTA) Enugu, will equally answer 50 questionnaires.
For the Information Technology companies, link serve Nigeria will answer 25 questionnaires and telnet Nigeria all in Onitsha will also answer 25 questionnaires
All the questionnaires will be personally distributed by the researcher to the respondent. The researcher will give to five respondents in each office entered thereby monitoring them answer the questions correctly and it will be collected from the respondents immediately for security purposes.
3.3 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
The principle instrument used to collect data for this study was a questionnaire. It was a 20 items structural instrument with only one major open-ended question. The questions were simplified as much as possible to enable the respondents to understand and answer them correctly.
3.4 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
Chi-square (x2) and frequency distribution statistical techniques were adopted in this study.
The formulas below were applied.
Chi-square= summation. Observed frequencies
Percentage= frequency of variable x100
Total number of respondent.
3.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE METHODOLOGY
Due to time constraint and finance, this research work will dwell on just the role of the internet and contemporary broadcasting.
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4. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
It is imperative that the researcher established the relationship among various tables presented above, especially on how the data answered questions of this study.
For the purpose of this study, the researcher considered all the respondents in the response category that agreed and strongly agreed as sharing one view. And in the same way, those who disagreed and strongly disagreed, for instance, where 10 respondents agreed and 4 strongly agreed, it is taken that 14 respondents agreed to the view and vice visa.
Consequently, according to table one, 155 respondents agreed that Broadcast stations always use internet while 25 respondents disagreed. From this information, the need for internet in broadcast stations can not be overemphasized by looking at the current technological stand of the world. Everybody is adjusting his/her belt in order to get in touch of the latest information. It is rightly said by sage that if one is not informed, such person will be deform. Any broadcasting stations that do not hook to the internet may be dancing around the bush.
Therefore, from the research, it has been discovered that most broadcast stations now in Nigeria have started broadcasting through the Net as we can see in televisions and hear in the radio.
From table two, 150 respondents agreed that internet is of benefits to the broadcast industry, while 30 respondents disagreed. The major role of the media is to give adequate and current information to the people. Internet helps media house to have access to such enviable information that will be of great help to people.
For instance, FRCN (Coal City radio) Enugu runs a mid-morning show, this programme is educative and will be given to the people or target audience is browsed through the internet.
Equally, through the internet, news can be monitored especially foreign news in order to inform the audience about what is happening across the globe.
Not only that, media practitioners will also know through the net the latest communication technique, tactics and strategies so as to be up to date with other media counterparts in the world of communication.
In table three, 160 respondents agreed that internet does not create any problem, while 20 respondents disagreed. The problem one may think with the use of internet is very in significant, depending on the users and others technical and logistic day as far as broadcast stations is concern, otherwise such a media outfit will be mesmerized technologically.
Moreso, table four indicates that 163 agreed that there is no obstacle in the use of internet. Every obstacle in the use of internet is reliable for charge. Most of the obstacles that do come in use of the net can be trouble shooted by the net itself without looking for external assistance of any sort.
Finally, at the end of this research, it can be deduced that the role of internet in the contemporary broadcasting in Nigerian is so crucial and should not be toyed.
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SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The objective of this study has been to determine the extent of the adoption of the internet by the Nigerian broadcast industry.
To achieve this, a statement of problem was formulated from the background information on the topic of the study.
In order not to lose focus, four research questions were drawn to guide research.
Also to lend credence to the claims of the study, existing literature on broadcasting and NCT’s, especially the internet itself was reviewed.
The result showed that the internet usage in contemporary broadcasting in Nigeria was terrible low despite the full awareness of the gains of the technology, that the internet has potential problems it create for the broadcast media, and that although getting connected to the net by broadcast media inhibited by certain factors, these media have very bright prospects of connectivity to the net.
From the findings of the study, it was concluded that:
One, despite the full awareness by broadcast media professionals, of the gains connectivity and usage of the internet, the rate of application of the net services to broadcasting is too low.
Two, the usage of the internet in Nigeria’s broadcasting industry could develop the socio-economic and cultural life of the nation.
Three, the internet should not be seen as a bush without thorns. Using it could create some problems for the broadcast media.
Yet the weaknesses of the net fall before the strengths.
Four, the obstacles on the way of getting connected to the act not withstanding, the prospect of the Nigerian broadcast media playing the information super high way are quite bright.
The problem of low technology in Nigeria is associated with the misprioritisation of values by most Nigerians.
The researcher recommends that government should therefore, articulate policies that will give research in science and technology.
Both private and public owned media owners should take steps to using the net in order to bridge the ever enlarging gap between the western nations and under developed nations.
The electronic journalists also need it to express their views and opinion on the socio-political and economic affairs of the nation. This situation will result in the uprightness of government and high position holders in the country.
Without doubt, Nigeria is endowed with enormous human and material resources, enough to lead the world.
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The Internet – Role In Contemporary Broadcasting In Nigeria
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