Instructional Materials In Teaching English Language – Effectiveness
Instructional Materials In Teaching English Language – Effectiveness
The education in the use of instructional material in the field of education can be traced back to the three stages of development in the history of educational technology namely, stone age, machine age, paper age.Stone Age: The concept of stone age dates back to the period when basic educational instructional material consisted of the use of stone and rock. During this stage, sticks, shells, seeds and cowries noticeable among others formed the counters. The rock surfaces formed the board, sharp edged pebbles, stones and sticks were used as pens to make scratches that left important messages for future generations, roots, herbs, leaves and fruits produced some indelible liquid used as ink for messages.
Paper Age: This stage started before the first century A.D by this period hand act, wooden Block were in Asia as a printing process, the first printed book was produced in 800 AD. Furthermore with the development of printing machine by John Guttenberg of German in 1445, came a wider horizon in the history of this stage.
Machine Age: Dfoefuna and Eya (1999) stated that this was the period of development in science and technology. This period can be called communication period because of the development in information generated retriever and transition that transmitted at lightning speed, this marks the period of introduction of satellites and computer into education system, radio, television and optic communication system became important in the classroom as a medium of instruction or instructional material.
According to Agwu (2005) “apparatuses, textbook, workbook, chart, audio visual aids chemical specimen act that is relevant, which will be used in a particular lesson consisted of instructional material”
Key (1999) defined instructional material as: Those things which are intended to help the teacher to teach more effectively or better, still enable the pupils learn. Instructional materials help the teacher in his work if they are not used properly; they can do more harm than good.
Azikiwe (1998) defines instructional material to be “All the five senses of sight learning, touch, smell and taste while presenting his lesson and are very important in language teaching especially the foreign language because they facilitate the direct association between sound and their symbols and also words and the objects they represent. Ayuackgbuo (2000) is of the view that instructional materials are those materials or resources employed by the teacher to make teaching and learning effective and productive. With the use of instructional material in teaching of English language, the students are made to perform actively poor usage of instructional materials in teaching to a large extent hinders student performance in English language in WACE/NECO, Osunda and Oglegbaen (2007) assets that,
Despite the new approaches to learning with instructional material in English language subject at the senior secondary school in Nigeria, students have been plagued with poor results and low achievement. In annual result form West African Examination Council (WACE) reveal Woeful performance from the student who have made enrolment for English language examination a yearly, ritual. It is worrisome to note too, that the performance of that student has continued to eleteriorate year after year. (p.6).
Oike (2007) is also of the view that “the performance of the school candidates in May/June West African senior school certificate examination (WASSCE) within the period, according to WAEC has declined with mass failure recorded in English language and called in stakeholders to initiate measure to arrest the tread.
Instructional material can also be seen as a means of instruction, which must be selected in the basis of it objective. Above all, the use of instructional material reduces the problem of interference and translation in teaching of English language.
According to Obemeata (1999) instructional materials are “those things that promote the effectiveness of instruction during teaching learning process, the use of teaching material according to him, makes teaching real and concrete, and is one of the significant development in the field of teaching, in this present century. Ezeja (2000) on his own view on the use of instructional materials, asserts that “it helps the teachers to achieve effectively ad makes teaching easy for the learner to understand the lesson very practical and lively.” This means that instructional material enhances effectives teaching and learning. Instructional materials when properly used help to make ideas and concept clear, they can raise learning from verbalization to true understanding and also make learning more vivid. Ogwa (2002) observed that “a teacher that uses teaching aid to deliver his or her lesson will cover more facts at short intervals than one who uses only oral speeches for lesson delivery.” He further stated that when instructional materials are used, student can see and conceptualized what is being taught much easier than nothing is used of teaching aids, teachers meet a lot of constraints and there are cannot be used without electricity, it is expensive for the teachers to buy and make use of. According Agwu (2005);
Teachers meet a lot of problem in the cause of using instructional material, this is because, the excitement usually generated by the instruction can generate a lot of noise, undue movement of pupils chairs and table in order to see the teacher. (P.25).
Above, all instructional materials play a significant rule in the life of students. Aguokogbuo (2000) states that “instructional material help learners to come face to face with the real things or object” Mkpa (1998) is of the view that “a teacher who goes to class unprepared, without a lesson note time telling irrelevant stories to the student. to him, the teacher is cheating, thus he went further to state that a teacher who disperses facts to the student without the uses of instructional material expose the real thing to them is only telling and not interming.
Instructional material can be define as all the tools, which could be use in the classroom systems of which the teacher employs to make learning more conceptual, concrete, facture and illustrative without which the learner can forget what has been taught. According to Azikiwe (1998);
Instructional materials facilitate teaching and learning activities and consequently the attainment of the lesson objective, however, this depends on the adequacy and appropriateness of materials selected. This in effect means that learning resources are not selected haphazardly. Indeed, resource materials to be used should be carefully selected by the teacher this is an aspect of the teacher’s duty where special skill in educational technology and psychology of learning will come to be his assistance. (P.30).
Dekuffin and Coehra (1999) stated that “A situation where by the students are taught with instructional materials they tend to master or know what the teacher is saying and will be able to explain it in their own understanding.” Anike (1998) equally stated that the use of instructional materials by the teacher during teaching learning activity, “helps to provide the students with greater acquisition and higher retention of factual knowledge.” Instructional materials also help to vividly illustrate meaning. These are associated with quality of teaching.
Looking at the importance of instructional materials in the teaching of English language in SSI, it will be of important that all the secondary schools in Nigeria start making use of teaching aid in the teaching and learning process because of its importance and outcome. The achievement of this research is that by the end of this study, the use of instructional material will be given upper hand and recognition in the teaching of English language in SSI in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Statement of Problem
Following the increase in poor performance of students in English language, both in spoken and in written form, the study investigated relevant information on how to promote the effective teaching and learning of English language using instructional material.
The Problem of this Study
Therefore is to look into the effective use of instructional materials in the teaching of English language in SSII of Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this research is to obtain information on the effective use of instructional materials on the teaching of English language in SSI in Ohaozara Local Government Area.
Specially, this study was designed to
i. Find out the importance of instructional materials on effective teaching and learning.
ii. Find out those instructional materials needed in the teaching of English language.
iii. Find out how the use of instructional materials promote effective teaching and learning of English language.
iv. Find out the possible guidelines on how to use instructional materials in the teaching and learning of English language.
v. Find out the shortage and utilization of instructionals
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be useful to the teachers, students, employers of labours, curriculum planners, ministry of Education, school administrators and the nation at large. These will enable the teachers to improve on their method of teaching and strategies which in turn motivates the students during classroom activities. To the students, the use of instructional materials in the teaching of English language will act as a motivating factor for them to put their interest in English language classes.
The employers of labour will be enabled to benefit from their employees in the aspect of English language both in reading and writing. While the curriculum planners will be helped to put in place those missing link in the use of instructional materials and fill in the gap during curriculum planning. And on the part of the ministry of Education as well as the school administrator the outcome of this study can help them discover and understand the importance of instructional materials and at the same time make it as a law for all the teacher of English language to start using instructional materials in teaching.
If this achieved, they will increase the number of students’ performance in English language and in all the subjects offered in the secondary school. the use of instructional materials in the teaching of English language will equally help to achieve an effective teaching of English language in SSI class.
Scope of the Study
The research work is limited to SSI students of Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
i. What are the importance of instructional material on effective teaching and learning?
ii. What are those instructional materials needed in the teaching of English language?
iii. How does the use of instructional materials promote effective teaching of English language?
iv. What are the guidelines on the use of instructional materials in the teaching of English language?
This chapter is discussed under the following headings.
i. Importance of instructional materials.
ii. Utilization of instructional materials
iii. Sources of instructional materials
iv. Instructional material needed in teaching of the English language.
v. Guidelines on how to use instructional materials in the teaching of English language in SSI
vi. Summary of literature
IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
Instructional materials play significant roles in the teaching and learning process. Agwu (2005) stated that: Instructional material management is a crucial component of the entire classroom control and management, this is because the excitement usually generated by the introduction of instructional material can generate a lot of noise, undue movement of pupils, chairs and tables but make the student participate. The instructional materials and aid are used to supplement and complement the teacher verbal effort. (P.98).
Ogwa (2002) is of the view that” A teacher who uses teaching aid to deliver his/her lesson will convey more fact to the students at short intervals than one who uses only oral speeches for lesson delivery” (P.44). He also stated in seven ways the importance of instructional materials as follows:
i. The teacher saves effort
ii. The learner is active
iii. Learner’s interest is captured
iv. Clarification of concept
v. Retention of learned material
vi. Time is saved
vii. Reality in lesson presentation
According to Azikiwe (1998) “appropriate instructional materials have been found to be a very important tool every teacher must use in teaching and learning process” (P.12). He further outlined various importances of instructional aids as follows:
i. They supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and reduce meaningless words, responses of pupils.
ii. They have a high degree of interest for pupils.
iii. They make learning more paramount
iv. They offer a reality or experience which stimulates self activity on the art of pupil
v. Thy develop a continuity of thought; this is especially true of motion picture
vi. They provide experience note easily obtained
Uche Azikiwe no doubt states that resource materials more are indispensable tools in teaching, especially in a second language like English. Onwuka (1996) is of the view that “teachers will not succeed in this work, in communicating ideas, unless they appeal to their students’ senses” Aguokogbuo (2000) observes equally that “with the selections of curriculum materials, it will enable the teacher to know how suitable the content and language is to the development level of the students, if the materials are audio-visual.” According to Agun (1998), instructional materials “enable teachers present learning tasks and when properly used, they can help to make the participation of learners in the teaching learning process more meaningful and useful” (P.15). In the same vein, Dale (1996) is of the view that “the trend towards increasing use of resources materials is thus a broader and more interesting place” (P.29). Brown (1997) in the other hand; outlines same importance of instructional materials as follows:
i. To get and hold the learner’s attention
ii. To provide for a direct interaction of students with realities of social and physical environment.
iii. To re-enforce verbal message.
iv. To promote greater acquisition and longer retentions of factual knowledge.
v. To provide opportunities for independent and individual learning.
Dale (1996) has also cited the following as importance of instructional materials:
i. They supply a concrete basis of conceptual thinking and hence reduced unmeaningful words in responses of students.
ii. They make learning more permanent
iii. They often a reality of experience, which stimulates self activity on the part of the students.
From the observations above, it will be noted that appropriate use or application of instructional materials play a very important role in helping students’ understanding of the lesson.
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS NEEDED IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE
The teaching of English language is solely responsible for appropriate selection of instructional materials, the use of instructional aids reduces to the minimum, the problem of interference and translations in English language as a second language. Azikiwe (1998) categories instructional materials in these firms:
Visual: These are materials and devices that appeal to the sense of sight and touch as well as sense of smell, they consist of:
i. Non project aids, the chalkboard and adhesives.
ii. Pictorial aids charts pictures
iv. Three-dimensional aids
v. Projected aids. Film-strips and slides, and projectors.
vi. Laboratory equipment, chemicals and apparatus.
Audio: The oral aids are instructional materials that appeal to senses of hearing and touch. They are:
i. Records and record players
ii. Tapes and record players.
iii. Language laboratories
Audio-visual: Learning resources that fall under audio-visual aids appeal to the senses of sight, hearing and touch, they are:
i. cine and sound film
ii. sound strips projectors
iv. Video tape recorder and tapes
UTILIZATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL
Proper utilization of instructional materials enhances learning and ensures adequate participation on the part of the students. It may also help the teacher to teach a particular lesson more effectively or to solve a particular problem with ease. In this direction, Azikiwe (1998) outlines four ways by which instructional material should be utilize which are as follows:
i. Be related to the topic of the lesson.
ii. Be within the age and maturational level of the learners-bold and colorful areas at pre-school and primary school level.
iii. Preview by the teacher before the actual lesson to ascertain that everything is in order and
iv. Be accurate in content and acceptable in other placed for same lesson.
Aguokogbu (2000), is also of the same view and had outlined six ways by which instructional material should be utilized, viz:
i. Preview the material
ii. Plan; previewing will enable the teacher to plan effectively the method of using the selected media.
iii. Arrange the materials
iv. Prepare the class
vi. Follow-up activity
According to (1995) instructional materials when properly used, the materials and devices can supply concrete basis for conceptual thinking and reduce meaningless word responses of pupils making learning more permanent, have a high degree of interest for the pupils, develop a continuity of learning viz. like in motion pictures, contributing to meaning of words and hence to vocabulary development, provide experiences not easily obtained by other materials and they contribute to the effectively, depth and variety of learning. Nnoli (1998) in his own view stated that:
Radiographs when properly used produced and combined with tape recorded information as related to portrayed pictures make up an enticing audio-visual aid. (P.51).
Anyanwu (1998) noted equally that radio can be used effectively and efficiently in teaching of English language. Also, According to Ogwu (2002)
When teaching aids are used, students can see and conceptualize what is being taught much easier than when nothing is used to explain the lesson. The teacher thus finds it easier to pass across his or her lesson using teaching aids or material appropriate to the lesson at hand.
SOURCES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
According to Azikiwe (1998), “The school authority is responsible for providing teachers with needed materials, but where this is not possible a conscientious teacher should improvise applying the knowledge and skill acquired from studying educational technology. Aguokogbuo (2000) noted that some could be locally made or improvised while others are imported. Ofoefuna and Eya (1999) observed that “The teachers design materials, curriculum specialists and others whose purpose it is to develop an organized plan to promote learning.
CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
Instructional materials have been grouped into many categories, some authors classified them as curriculum materials, to some, they are instructional aids, while to others they are resources materials.
Aguokoguo (2000) quoted Ughamadu (1992) saying that instructional material can be classified as: printed material (examples: textbooks, journals, posters and projected materials examples; chalkboard, flannel boards, models 16mm films/projectors). Williams (1999) observed that “there are other forms of language teaching materials apart from textbook materials, examples; materials can be developed in an audio form and visual materials can be developed to accompany textbooks. Etc. Ogwu (2002) classified them as: the textbooks, pictorial Aids, non-projected Aids, projected Aids and Audio Aids.
Onwuka (1996) used the term as “curriculum materials” characteristics.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
This sub-topic will be discussed under the following headings: Audio-visual materials. According to Azikiwe (1998). “Audio Aids cover all recorded materials in video or tapes that can be played back. Using the recorder or gramophone, and the radio during a lesson, these types of aids appeal to the sense of hearing alone.” He further classified them as follows: Radio; Tape/Tape Recorder, Record/Record plays etc. He also outlined some of they advantages as follows:
i. They get to a much wider audience at a time unlike others that could be with a particular class.
ii. They have many other qualified aids that do not have such quality or regency and ability to give vivid expression of what is happening.
iii. They enrich and supplement the work of the teacher because he has more time for individualized instruction.
iv. They are readily available from school or from the teacher or students.
v. They are easy to operate since they do not need electricity projectors, screen, or darkening room.
vi. They are portable and fairly light to carry about.
vii. They lend themselves to self evolution for both the teacher and students.
viii. The learner has control cover the audio aids because the playing could be stopped as the need arises for explanation and clarification of point to the class.
He further classified Audio-visual Aids as “films, transparencies, slides, filmstrips and television/video tapes.”
Ogwu (2002) stated that “Audio Aids are teaching aids which emanated from the radio or recorded materials for the purpose of instruction to learners” (P.65). He noted that the advantages of using Audio Aids are that they illustrate lessons. And they also proved invaluable material to the teacher as he or she uses them to substitute for the normal voice in the conventional teaching-learning situation. Aguokogbuo (2000) classified visual aids to be pictures, projectors and electronic media, slide/film strip projection, overhead projector, instructional television (TV) etc. He outline some of their advantages and disadvantages as follows:
i. They are expensive
ii. They cannot be used without electricity
iii. They project all opaque materials on to a screen.
iv. Using opaque projector, some the teacher the inconvenience of illustrations or drawings on the blackboard.
v. They can be used only where there is electricity.
vi. Since they require powerful light from materials they can be damaged it used for a long time.
Onwuka (1996) presented the advantage of visual aid in this form: “Dramatization is an important characteristics of the film, some subject such as history and literature are best presented in the dramatic way.”
GUIDELINES ON HOW TO USE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
Williams (1999) outlined three principles as follows:
The first principle is to related material development to a general concept of the language teaching syllabus, such as;
i. Content materials may be grammar-based, national-functional situational or thematic/topical.
ii. Process; the processes of language learning/acquisition (first or second language) are compeers, and not yet full understood, the development and writing of material should take this into account.
The materials may be rule-governed; the same content (i.e expression of obligation) may be presented in a format that engages the learner in communication.
The second principle is that teaching materials need not to be text-books only. But there are other forms of language teaching materials as follows: materials can be developed audio form, visual material can be developed to accompany the textbooks or to represent the whole units in themselves, students can take part in developing materials, and the teacher can draw from his own experiences in developing supplementary materials. And the third principle, very much related to the second, is that no one set of material can suit all purposes for all time.
Onwuka (1999) is of the opinion that tape recorder is a very useful device for language teaching, it particularly helps in developing creative expression, oral language exercise, poetry and creative dramatics.
i. In developing creative expression, children are motivated to write original stories and poem in simple correct English when this can be put on tape and replayed for class listening and discussion.
ii. Oral language exercises: Oral work can be taught to an advantage with the tape record, for example, exercise where the children select the correct form of the heard rather than read it speech improvement is to take place. Having student listen to sentence and with pencils indicate using ‘plus’ or ‘minus’ depending upon whether or not the word is used correctly can do testing. Enuciation, verb tense, proper word order, agreement of subject and predicate, proper use of the tape recorder, the gap between, written and oral speech are substantial lessons.
iii. Poetry: The tape researcher is very useful for teaching or poetry, students learn to say a poem only if they hear it being read. The best way to learn a short poem is to hear it cover and again, the tape researcher can be used to recording the poem and after the necessary explanation has been made, the student will then learn the poem, saying it together with the tape or after the tape.
iv. Creative Drama: Scripts for class or puttet plays can be recorded on tape. This is then played during actual performance.
Azikiwe (1998) observed that “the teacher could use any of the aids in conjunction with visual aids to create, audio-visual. Again, they are very effective in teaching, listening, speaking and reading skill, e.g. they could be used to teach grammar (pronunciation), dilation etc.
SUMMARY OF LITERATURE
It was observed from the review of most literature related to this study that it is pertinent to use instructional materials in teaching English language. Some of the authorities extensively reveal the importance of instructional material when used in teaching English language. They also classified instructional material bases on their usages, but much have not been said about the dangers of not using instructional materials in teaching English language which is the gap this study tends to fill.
SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS
1. The result colleted in table 1 proved that the instructional materials is important and effective for teaching and learning in SSI class of Ohazara Local Government Area.
2. The result collected in table 2 shows that those instructional material needed for teaching of English language are not available because of the unavailable instructional materials in SSI class. In Ohaozara Local Government Area they are not being made use of.
3. Table 3 also provides the use of instructional materials help to promote effective teaching and learning of English language, and the use of instructional materials help to vividly illustrate meaning
4. The result in table 4 equally shows that lack of guideline on the use of instructional materials in the teaching of English language cam hinder effective communication in teaching learning of English language
5 the result in table 5 shows that shortage of instructional materials in teaching of English language can also hinder effective teaching of English language
Instructional Materials In Teaching English Language – Effectiveness