Influence Of Extra-Mural Activities On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students

Influence Of Extra-mural Activities On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Effium Local Government Area Of Ebonyi State

Influence Of Extra-moral Activities On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students

Generally, it is believed that the major function of the school is to impart knowledge and intellectual discipline to students, while others argue that after school or extra-curricular activities are largely wastes of students’ time.

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Regardless, it is apparent that extra-curricular activities have become as much as a part of the students requirements as textbooks.

Anwana (1989) stated that extra-curricular activities are activities that is not within the school curriculum. There are many factors such as culture of a particular area, economic situations, socio-economic status of family that influence the type or nature of activities which students engage in after school and those which school leavers engage in before either entering the tertiary institutions choosing a vocation.

This research work therefore is mean to investigate the influence of extra-moral activities on academic performance of secondary school students in Effium Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

For example, students who join the Boys Scout movement, Girls Guide, Red Cross Societies, Youth Clubs, Drama and Debating clubs after school can benefit a lot from these group in terms of moral and spiritual development. Speaking before a group, getting along with people, that is cooperation and in social relationship and widening of their ideas will contribute a lot to their behaviour and academic performances.


Students’ period of extra-curricular activities in a school system after formal curricular activities should judiciously spent; and these will continue to be an increase in the rate of failure and fallen standard of education. It has also become their concern of the research to investigate into secondary school, why they really choose to enter into certain activities after certificate calluses. And also to examine the various activities registered by secondary school students after leaving school and before entering the university or choosing a job. Since a lot of the societal menace that have been registered during the “post SAP period” have been attributed to secondary school students.


a) Does students extra-curricular activities achievement?

b) Does students’ choice of subject (subject combination) and the their chance of University relevant?

c) Do students’ academic achievements influence their rate of involvement in crime?

d) Do students who participate in extra-curricular activities perform better in academic wok than those who do not?

e) Is it only students who perform badly in school certificate examination that resort to crime?

f) Does guidance and counselling services and students choice of vocation important as a course of study in the University?


a) Is there any significant relationship between students extracurricular activities and their academic achievement?

b) Is there any significant relationship between students’ choice of subjects (subject combination) and their chance of university education?

c) There is no significant relationship between students’ academic achievement rate of involvement in crime.

d) Is there any significant relationship between students’ participation in extra-curricular activities to academic work.


Due to the nature of the study, it covers only the three political council wards in Effium Local Government Area which comprise of:

1) Wigbeke war kd I

2) Wigbeke war kd II

3) Wigbeke war kd II

The schools randomnly sampled for the study include four (4) secondary schools thus;

1) Effium High School Effium.

2) Community Secondary school Effium

3) Community Secondary School Onuebeta.

4) St Joseph Secondary School Ugeze.


This study has to ascertain the influence of Exra-curricular activities on academic performance of secondary school students in Effium Local Government Area in Ebonyi State. But emphasis is not lay because of time factor and inadequate facilities placed upon it.

Furthermore, financial constraints and the use of school library is also restricted due to this shortcoming of the research work.


The study shall be beneficial to the prospective secondary school students who will learn henceforth to:

a) Budget or allocate their time after school properly.

b) Initiate the right choice of vocation or formal education. This shall be encouraged depending on proper guidance and counselling services.

c) The curriculum planners will from this study know how to plan extra-curricular activities for students after school. This also will affect curriculum revision.

d) The school counsellor (if any) should really put in more effort in directing of subject combinations to qualify them for their further education or vocation.

e) The Ministry of Education, from the recommendation will through mass education process educate both the parents and students on the dangers of misallocation of time and affect academic activities through strict supervision of schools.

f) The study will develop further interest in the area of the study and further researchers shall us this work as a source of reference.


The operational definitions as will be obtained in this study is stated below:

a) PERFORMANCE: According to Andu (1985) the term “performance’ is used to mean notable or “achievement”. It is used to ding something well. As used in this context, “Performance” means ability to stud, understand and pass a given examination. “performance” and “achievement” will be used interchangeably.

b) PRE SAP PERIOD: The period from independence 1960 to 1986 in Nigeria history can be regarded as the ‘Pre-SAP period”.

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c) POST SAP PERIOD: In the history of Nigeria, the period of 1986 from the inception of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) to present day is considered thus:


According to Ekefre (1983), the various informal activities engaged in by secondary school.



In this chapter, a review and analysis of previous research materials on positive and negative effects of extra-curricular activities of students will be discussed based on the following:

a) Their academic performance.

b) Health and

c) Socialisation.

It will also look into the role of guidance and counselling in the development of students’ extra-curricular activities.

Furthermore, the negative extra-curricular activities of secondary school students shall be highlighted in tems of drug abuse, drug trafficking, armed robbery/419 trick-stars and why youths take drugs.

Finally, the research work would delve into the effect of SAP on secondary school students in Effium Local Government Area in particular and Ebonyi State in General.


According to Idion (1991) in his lecture notes, extra-curricular activities or after school activities means those activities of secondary school which they perform, everyday right from the time student’s dismiss from school till the next school day. These activities are distinct from the academic proceedings of the classroom. These activities as pointed out by Udoka et al (1991) holds that, games, sports and clubs or social life are so important that they are given places on the table. Equally important are recreational periods for relaxations, self-enjoyment and fresh air games and sports. According to Idiog (1991) generally makes the children to be fit and strong.

Extra-curricular activities therefore reinforces every aspect of children’s/child’s development physically, emotionally, socially and intellectually. The physical effect of running, jumping, twisting, falling down and getting up are meant to help the children accept the stress of life so respond to its physical demands and emergences.

Paul Haun (1985) says that I encourage the timid, disarms the aggressive, motivates the slow learnes, calms the restless and diverts the melancholic. As Kross (1986) would rightly say, extra-curricular activities are in for the preparation of physical fitness in old age and its an early childhood that maximum benefits of this achievement is realised.

a) HEALTH: It helps to build, sustain and promotes physical and mental health, medical experts claim that serious muscular activities stimulates growth and absolutely essential for the growing child. According to Rusk (1984) recreation is the preventive medicine of the future. Recreation has only played an important part in the treatment programme of many mental illness. It has been a considerable factor that facilitate the outdoor programme of schools. If properly encouraged, it gives them testing grounds for their roles outside.

b) ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: Recreation according to Udoka et al (1991) is a means of educational attainment. Skills and techniques are learnt during the appropriate use of one’s leisure time. It provides the students with the opportunity to grow in their understanding to originate an idea to develop it. Udoka et al further said recreation may be designing, building, caring and treating leather, writing of songs or verses of poem, building a market e.t.c. It serves to illustrate verbal classroom explanation with practice. The students themselves gain resources for classroom assignment and group projects. Recreation influences the stereotype ideas that children hold

c) THE NEGATIVE EFFECT: A more serious effect or result of the neglect of the outdoor activities in school is the impact on the children after school. Lack of these extra-curricular activities between young children exposes them to many dangers. Some develop low motivation, others are badly influenced by their peer group to delinquency. Some become irresponsible but worst of all, others take to smoking. Some of the victims according to Idiong (1991) explains that later behaviour serves as an escape from the tough time they meet. It gives them some sort of “a kick” to release them from boredom.


Educational guidance in a school setting is concerned with the provision of assistance to students in their choice and adjustments to school and after school live generally. Guidance and counselling helps to provide every student with information service and opportunities to enable him to develop his abilities, attitudes and capacities to the fullest.

According to Mundu et al (1991) guidance and counselling helps students after school to develop good study habits. As Ekefre (1986) pointed out that with proper guidance and counselling the student should be advised that they cannot be accepted for university degree courses in economics or political science unless they attain at least five credit grades at the ordinary level examinations including English Language and Mathematics. There is no doubt that some students who decide on their particular combination of subject do so through ignorance, but cold have made better choices if they had received proper guidance. This is the strong reason why all secondary schools in the country should have on their staff teaches who are knowledgeable le in guidance and counselling techniques so as to advise the students well in advance against indiscriminate or arbitrary choice of subjects.


“The Nigeria child is the only hope for the future of Nigeria because the Nigeria of tomorrow consists of the Nigerian youths of today; and how well the Nigeria of tomorrow comes to be depends on how well today’s Nigeria youths are prepared for their expected future role s as leaders” (Onalaja, 1990). Unfortunately, however, there are too many adverse conditions under which the Nigeria youths (secondary school students) live and no wonder many of them fail to survive, while those who survive are unable to perform maximally. As a matter of fact, Onalaja continued, many secondary school students se little or no future for themselves within the context of present day Nigerian society. This accounts for why they are apprehensive and aggressive and at times, hostile, these bad qualities in themselves have caused a misdirection of the generative power. No wonder the future of school leavers is cloudy.

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According to Ekpo (1986) in his lecture notes, he pointed out that many school leaves with their uncertainties resort to many undesirable societal habits such as drug abuse and trafficking, armed robbery, while few take into JAMB preparatory classes and vocational training centres.


In a study carried out by Udobong et al (1991), it was discovered that 30% of the secondary school students attended preparatory classes regularly, 20% did not attend at all while the remaining 18 % attend sometimes which goes to confirm that some secondary school students may not really want to proceed academically. Some take into vocational training centre where the girls are trained in the field of Home Economics with special interest in Cookery, Baking, Needle work, Baby care, Laundry and Home management, while the male are trained an areas such a raffia work and mental work, goes along way to make themselves reliant in life and to become useful citizens not only to themselves, but also to the community in which they belong (Ekefere, 1986).


How do Nigerian cope with the rise in the cost of living some of us cannot help: as such we take to something we normally would not like to do like gambling, just with the hope that we could survive through them (Olarinde, 1992) “Things are very hard these days” Bassey, (1992). Some irresponsible human beings locally known as “fast Guys” take armed robbery just a lobby to steal, kill and destroy both human and government property in order to make ends meet and meet the demand of our depressed economy.

Foyin (1990) in a daily times news paper dated June 7th noted American to have painted Nigeria black in a commercial scan or citing locally known as “419” (Advanced sea fraud) in which foreigners are the target. The citizens emergency center of the state Department (foreign ministry which issue the reports based on respect from the missions abroad says, in Nigeria street crimes continue to e like the problem of health hazard ever present. These scans are usually both fraudulent, illegal and lead to badily harm. Those not familiar with doing business in Nigeria the report noted should be hesistant about responding to unsolicited offers. According to the statement, the “419” operate frequently in Airports which are specifically targeted by criminals, and travelers should be alert of pick-pocketers or persons posing as officials who after assistance and then disappear with travelers passports and baggages.

In Eko magazine of April 10, 1992 a reported by Segun Ige Felix a musician by profession wrongly accused of “419” deal. He Felix, said “There are o many young men who turn car dealers overnight. They sell expensive car all over Lagos without visible financial cases but nobody accuses them of “419” because of that some small car and other small thing they see. Cases of this locally known game are rampant in many cities, state capital and town all over Nigeria.

DRUG ABUSE AND DRUG TRAFFICKING: The daily times of may 22, 1992 noted that a study by the federal ministry of health, counseling patients who present themselves at the health facilities in 1989 with drugging related problems reveal that the commonest age range of drug related admission to hospitals was between the 20 and 29 years (61%) followed by those between the ages of 30 and 39 years (26.5%). Furthermore, an epidemiological study conducted by the counseling up of their children and wards in the fear of God and also encourage them from associating up their children and wards in the fear of God and also encourage them from associating with bad characters. As proverbs 22:6 says “Train up a child in the way he should grow, and when he is old he will not depart from it” Even the president of this our noble country Nigeria in a reaction in Daily Times of 20th June, 1992 seeks united action on drug menace, he said “eradicating drug trafficking and abuse demanded exceptional efforts in co-ordinated responses”.


According to Anwana (1989) youths turn to drug for the following reasons:

(a) The identity crises

(b) Need to challenge authority

(c) Wih to reduce anxieties

(d) copying adults.

(e) To have experience to satisfy curiousity

(f) As a method to escape problems

Drug abuse is a serious societal cult as a former Oyo state governor of 1992, Chief Olusegn Osoba, said that it was unfortunate that these vices had become canker worms among our youths, he stated that in the pat they were hardly heard of, but at parent their adverse effects are adheard manifesting in different home. That teachers should not shrink their responsibilities to parent alone. That it is crucial and once it is substandard, the edifice of the person will surely crumble he concluded.

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One of the most reliable survival measure according to Uka (1991) that secondary school students have adopted in the face of SAP is that they resort to corruption. According to Austin Isamah (1990), corruption exists when there is a harsh economic condition under which individuals cannot survive. This is especially so when such conditions are those of artificial scarcity with enough room for manipulation more than ever before corruption is highly pronounced when the unemployment and wages are not moving up, then it makes the acquisition of wealth through legitimate means impossible. The better truth is that corruption is becoming more deeply entrenched because for many secondary school students, it is the only way to make ends meet (Tell magazine, may 6, 1991 page

However, the structural adjustment programme has not been without considerably economic and social cost. Not only have young men and women resorted to living in war relationships but many more marriages are now being dissolved. The Daily Times of May, 30, 1992 page 3 noted that more school learned were now thrown into unemployment, while the university education ceased to be a sure ticket to the beginning of life prosperity. The situation where able bodied youths could not find any paid work to do; crimes like drug taking and prostitution have began to ravage the society. Hunger, homelessness, divorce, late marriages, and odd jobs becomes the lot of Nigeria school leavers as they struggle to survive the monster condemned SAP.

Since the programme seemed to have failed to solve the problems of law growth, rapid and high inflation and high levels of employment, suggestion for policy makers and advisers to develop alternative approaches to solving the nations economic problems was difficult (Business Times October 1990)


The 6-3-3-4 system of education according to Ekefre (2996) was to solve the problem of increase number of dropout of the five year secondary school system. It was meant to be a kind that does not create room for dropouts but to develop vocational skill along side with academic work.

More, due to reasons too numerous to mention the 6-3-3-4 system has not actually attained all the objectives thereby, school leavers are still faced with the problem of unemployment, hunger, just to mention but a few.

These problems mentioned or discussed in this chapter and other not mentioned have affected the activities of secondary school in Effium local government area. Unit of the national Drug law Enforcement Agency involving 87 arrested drug traffickers show that 80% of them were between the ages of 18 and 33 years. Some observers have noted that ages have result of lack of comprehensive social security network, the political psychology of Nigeria (Youths) secondary school students have been seriously affected. According to Mr Godwin T. Abar the 1991 former president Electoral commission for Ogun state said “youth prefer most of the time to see government as an instrument of oppression, repression and exploitation. This he said was why students and indeed the entire Nigerian school levers take to such criminal acts as secret cults, armed robbery and many other vices.

A few suggestions have been provided to the many problems of the Nigeria youths thus: some believe that it is the duty of older generation to assure the youths that have a part to play in the scheme of things by giving youths good education and employment after education. Others believe that youths have to carve out their roles by themselves. People hold that youths must learn to e patient and preserving good listeners and result oriented and must at all times place above all other selfish individuals interest. Nigeria drug traffickers now travel by connecting flights to Europe and America (Daily Times June 2, 1992).

Also Aniobassa who is in charge of Lagos operation zone said in the latest issue on DRUG FORCE: The NDLEA Quarterly bulletin that security at the murtala muhamed international airport was not to fight for drug traffickers to use gate way hence the preference and the boasters particularly at Idi Iroko.

Drug Education to be taught in Ebonyi schools soon, Kue (1992) was quoted as saying that’s the measures are amicably aimed at exposing children as early as possible to the knowledge of the dangers of drug abuse and drug trafficking.

The rivers state commissioner for health in the Daily Times of 20th June, 1992 pointed out tat drug abuse had destroyed several virile persons, particularly youths. He advised parents and guidance to bring students at one time or the other after the official school hours with the aim of either choosing a vocation further education or make ends meets

In this context, the extra-curricular activities of secondary school students is defined as those unplanned unorganized, informal activities carried up y secondary school students in an attempt to further education secure a job or earn a living.

(E) 419 – Advanced Fraud /PROFESSIONAL ROBBERY:- A system of obtaining wealth by tricks (cash and properly). They are professional cheats.

Influence Of Extra-Moral Activities On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students

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  1. Very educative,
    I would like to find out on a research about youth unemployment? Causes, effects and solutions etc….

  2. ekpen francis says:

    i found this research work to be very important, therefore, i want to appreciate you for job well done. i wish to also research on the psychological effect of preparatory period (a new policy in education) i.e extension period government secondary schools i appeal that you provide me with materials to facilitate this my project research topic. thanks for your expected coorperation.

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