Human Resources Training And Development – Impact On Workers Productivity

Human Resources Training And Development – Impact On Workers Productivity

Human Resources Training And Development – Impact On Workers Productivity

One of the main objectives of any organization is to provide goods and services to the general public. Organization performs these all important role through the prefer utilization men and material/resources available within the organization.

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In order to perform these crucial roles in the organization, there is need to train and develop the human resources of the organization. Above all, the world is dynamic and in order to keep abreast with the changes on the organization’ environment, in-service training and developments had become imperative.

In local government, it is believed that it is immaterial installing computer in the ministries, when most of the typists have met been trained on how to use them. This emphasizes the need to train and retain these typist for them to be computer literate, in order to make effective use of the computers further productivity.

In view of the changing operating environment and these introduced by technological development the human resources must change to keep pace with the change day times. There must be a deliberates training of men and women for new task and for new ways of behaviour.

There should also be constant orientation and re-orientation of human resources for highly productivity.

According (Rae, 2001) in-service training is on the job or off-the job training that is designed and performed to help an individual or group to learn to perform a job or task effectively. In-service training is given to now employees so that they can quickly become part of the organization and start contributing meaningfully to its success. They hence training is also given to exist employees to re-orientate themselves after major organizational change.

In-service training according to Akinyele (1992) means “specific learning activities which are job oriented directed towards the improvement of the job holders present and future on the job performance and contribution towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. Stoner (1982) sees in-service training as “the teaching of technical statistic to non-managerial personal”. As a matter of fact, staff training is the major concern of management at all levels and line managers and responsible for identifying the in-service training needs of their staff.

It is an obvious fact that a major problem that plagued this country as low level of productivity due to dearth of trained personnel .

According to Richard L. Meier (1972), “at any moment in its course, every human society possesses a fund of knowledge which it the residue of accumulated experience of prior generation in the society as well as of other societies from which it may have learned or borrowed”. Naturally, this funds of knowledge has the property of growing and increase over time as long as the society the society maintains itself it was also emphasized that knowledge itself deals with both a comprehension of environmental forces and an understanding of inter personal relationships with frame work of customs that have been mutually accepted. The application of this collective wisdom therefore tends to maintain the unity of the society, the risk of obsolesces. Heath is wealth so said the adage. To maintain the society, good heath must be assured, and the work has to be done through human resources for overall benefit of the larger society, especially in the health sector.

According to the world health organization (WHO) bulletin (1998),” death rate is increasing along with infant mortality, complications of pregnancy which occurred in over 15 to of the women. The major killer or crippling childhood diseases like malaria, diarrhea, measles, malnutrition, tuberculosis are increasing in Africa.

Chief Augustus Adebayo (1982), writing on inadequate in-service training on local government contends much progress has been made in the variants local government of Nigeria towards training and staff development during the past decade and it is again this background that the present day Nigeria places emphasis on manpower training in all major expect of our socio-economic and political endeavours at the national, state the local and local government levels. Upon all these the scale of in-service training is still fall far short of normal requirements for efficient in terms of job performance. In-service training and development therefore veritable tools for enhancing efficiency and higher productivity.

To tackle to the above problem, there is need for adequate trained manpower resources for productivity. This therefore the study of this research work.


The failure of the first and second development plans of Nigeria according to Adebayo where partly attributed to inadequate and lack of trained manpower to handle the development plan as programmed. Since the country has been experiencing low productivity due to the dearth of training personnel.

According to Sam Aluku (1984), “productivity cannot be increased due to inadequacy of personnel, crude implement we are using in local government for instance health for all by the year 2000, the goal set by the world health organization for its member nations called out be achieved because of manpower structural inadequacy and lack of material drug, etc.

The problem of this study therefore, is to analyze the inherent disadvantages that has followed this lack of in –service training of personnel and proper solutions that if religiously adopted, would enhance human resources effectiveness, world capacity output as well as place the country among the community of industrialized nations with adequate trained wealth personnel for the improvement of health service generally. In-service training have become a “sin qua non” for higher productivity.

To carry out this research, the researcher posed the following research questions:

1. How often does Njikoka local government commission conducted in-services training programmes for her workers?

2. Does Njikoka local government have staff training programmes?

3. Has staff on in-services training any contribution to the development of local government?

4. How adequate is the existing training programmes of Njikoka local government.


The objective of the study is to:

a. Ascertain the extent to which Njikoka local government commission organize in-services training and development programme for its workers.

b. Examine the extent- to which the in-service and development programmes organized by Njikoka local government commission have positively influence higher productivity.

c. Identify the hindrances to effective training generally and Njikoka local government in particular; and

d. Determine the extent of damage done by inadequate manpower training in local government.


This research work will help the local government any organization as well as individuals in assessing the impact of human resources training and development on workers productivity.

The research finding would also helps policy marker and management consultants to adopt adequate strategies in human resources training and development.

It will help the Njikoka local government in general and local government commission in particular to appreciate the importance of human resource training to worker productivity. The study will guide the goods government of Njikoka to identify areas of training needs to improve workers productivity.

Finally, the work would highlight the effect of human resources training and development on workers productivity to the administrators of various ministries in the local government who do not give service attention on training and development of human resources


In view of the topic of this project the researcher is exposed to many management theories, otherwise known as classical theory of management. The scientific management was propounded by one of the earliest management scientific F.W. Taylor.

Scientific management school comprised those who first applied scientific principles to management with a view of aiding increased productivity and efficiency in the work place. Their work formed the basis of the further development of other management thoughts. In the beginning of the 20th century therefore, most of the previous management and practices were found to be inadequate with to meet the needs of the causes of inefficiency in the management of an organization and experimentation to find more efficient methods and practices. It was from such experiments and observations members of the group where referred to as the classical school, being pioneers in the drive for a systematic approach to the management process.

Summary, the scientific management involves the following principles:

 All managers most be trained to use scientific principles replacing the old rule of thumb methods for solving problems.

 Managers should select and train workers rather than let them choose their work habit and procedures.

 Managers should divide the work possible between themselves and workers.

 That managers should cooperate motivate the workers the workers to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the scientific management.

The scientific management theory therefore from a good guide for this study since in emphasized the training the development of human resources for the higher productivity and attain organizational objective.


The researcher is aware of the existence of other agencies that train human resources in Nigeria. It is outside the focus of this study to research other agencies. The main focus of this study if find out the impact of in-service training and human resources in Njikoka local government commission. The interest of the study is relevance of human resources training and development, the extent of achievement and the extent to which these have helped to improve productivity.

The geographical coverage of the study is Njikoka local government commission. Njikoka local government area in Anambra state of Nigeria is one of the 17 local government in Anambra state. The local government is located south east of the country. The study will focus on the activities of human resources in-service training and development in the commission. The impact of human resources training needs in other ministries or agencies in Njikoka local government and other local government in federation can only be alluded to as a way of using such impacts to classify what happens in Njikoka local government. However, such performances in other part of the state will not in themselves constitute subject for study.


The interest of this study is to highlight the relevance, impact of human resources training and performance workers productivity. It is also aimed at producing at a glance the effect of human resources training and development in governmental agencies. However, the geographical area covered by the study is Njikoka local government commission. The study therefore uses the activities of administration in Njikoka local government commission is illustrate what happened in other ministries in local government.

Every human activity has its inherent weakness and strengths. As a result this study own boundary of limitations. Finance, time, lack of adequate cooperation from the respondents and logistics where some of the problem the researcher faced in the cause of this study. Consequently, it is obvious that the researcher has some problems limitations during this research work which none is considered so serious as to affect its validity.


Hi: Staff training in Njikoka local government exist as a matter of government polices.

H0: Lack of in-services training has adversely affected the job performance of workers in Njikoka local government.

H0: Insufficient budgetary allocations have militated against government training programmes in Njikoka local government.

H0: Political influence affect staff training in Njikoka local government.

H0: Ethnic or geographical location affect staff training in Njikoka local government.

H2: On –the- job training is the most popular training programme in the Njikoka local government.


It has become necessary to define certain concepts, term and acronyms used in this project in order to gained ear audience on what we used these terms for in this project. Local government: A local government is a system of subordinate government made up of elected representative of people which has territorially defined constituency, corporate personality, power and functions to exercise in their locality.

In-service training is education for employee to help them develop their skills in a specific discipline or occupation. In-service training take place after an individual begins work responsibilities.

Job performance is how the employee is carrying out its job and ability to operate efficiently in relation to consider how successful it is.

Employee: Is a person who works for somebody or company in return for wages.


Akinyele C. (1992): New trend in personnel management.

Stone James (1992): Management, prentice Hall.

Richand L. Meier (1972): Management foundation, George G. Harap Ltd, London.

Bulletin of world health organization (WHO), 1998.

Augustine Adebayo (1982) Principles of practice of public administration in Nigeria, Ibadan, spectrum book Ltd.



The research reviewed many text books published articles in journals, magazine and new papers.

The information gathered from literature indicated that number of research have been carried out on in service training and development in the recent times. However, it is not known to the researcher that specific researchers have been undertaken precisely on staff training and development in Njikoka local government area in Anambra state.


In-service training is vitally important for our local government. We need to train people who are result oriented service, who can recognize opportunities and need objectives.

Chuks Madubum (1992) viewed in-services training as an important factor that contribute to improve performance of unemployed right from the day of Federick Taylor of the scientific management to the present day in-service could be thus viewed as being concerned with increasing knowledge and skill in doing particular job is located. In-service is described as a change agent, ie; its purpose is to effect a change in knowledge, skill and attitude.

According to Emma O. Chukuwuemeka (1498), “in-service training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules or attitudes to increase the performance of the employees”. The above definition is not out of place hence many scholar approach the definition in different perspective. Some scholar refer in-service training as an investment. Investment is therefore commitment of resources to the acquisition of assets, which in turn allows a stream of resources to be generated in the future. The asset acquired can be regarded as education, skill and mental or managerial utility.

Viewing in-service training from other angle, Udo Udo-Aka (1988), defined in-service training as the development of specific and attitude needed of job to maximize the productivity of the individual and improve the over all organizational efficiency”.

One obvious fact to note in Udo Udo Aka’s definition is that in-service is an organized procedure by which people acquire knowledge and skill for a definite purpose. The objective of in-service training therefore is to effect a change in behaviour (positive) of organizational goals-increase productivity. Although the researcher agrees with Udo Aka’s definition, many organization including Njikoka local government commission, regard in-service training of workers as an extra activity to be supported only it there are surplus money to embark on it. The normal situation should have been, the regard in-services training and development as a necessary tool that must be accomplished each year according to a given budget provision specifically made for it. This abnormality actually informed the researcher the need to embark on this project to create awareness are regards in-service training and development.

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Giving credence to Udo Aka’s definition, Armstrong Michael (1993) defined in-service training “an the modification of behaviour through experience the transfer of skills and know ledge from who have them to those about a significant improvement in job performance as a result of instruction, practice and experience”.

Also along the same line of thought, Mc is the and Thayer (1963) defined in-service training as the formal procedures which a company uses facilitate employees learning so that their resultant behaviour contributes to the attainment of the company’s goals and objectives. One thing to note in the above definition is emphasizes that in-service training encompasses activities ranging from the development a complex knowledge, inculcation of elaborate administrative skills and development of attitudes towards intricate and controversial social issues. In local government especially Njikoka local government in-service training is seen as being continues but in practices it concentrate on the total utilization of already trained manpower without making adequate provision to retrain and develop workers rather, effort is being focused on training new intake.

Highlighting on the impact of in-service training in any giving society, Victor (1977) observed that the major capital stock of an industrially advanced country is not its physical equipment its is the body of knowledge amassed from tested finding and discussions empirical sciences and the capacity of training of its population to use the know ledge”. Supporting the above view, Oshisami (1982) observed that, “development does not start with goods, it starts with people and their education, organization, and discipline. Without these three, all resources remain latent, untapped potentially. Every country a high level of education, produced the economic miracle”. The central idea of the above, centered on the fact that manpower is the life wire of any organization or economy. It produces and controls other factors of production and requires thoughtful provision, utilization and preservation.

There is no doubt that in-service training raises the quality of life especially in local government where such training and development are utilized in various ministries especially in the administrative carde in order to up-keep their duty one can imagine that poor job performance of local government is necessitated by incompetence untrained personnel. So also is in local government commission that house all the ministries that run the administration of the local government.


According to the advanced learner’s dictionary in-service training is the process of giving teaching in order to bring to a desired standard of behaviour” this definition locally explains the researchers intention in this work. In-service training is carried out in order to mould the individual to perform a certain standard of work, which is in line with the organizational objective. The same dictionary says that to “develop means to grow larger, fuller or more matured, organized, etc”.

The word education for example is at times narrowly used to mean the formal process of studying a syllabus of work, which usually involves attending at any educational institution. It is also used in the very much broader sense life itself is the best educator. In this respect the meaning conveyed is that of developing and individual personality, attributes, and knowledge of itself, largely or wholly independent of formal education.

Similarly, the word in-service training is used with as a synonym for education is restricted sense of learning behaviour which is usually capable of precise definition. On the other hand, development can be defined from various perspectives. According to Nwankwo (1988), development refers in general to change that is continually taking place in man and his physical, social, cultural and other environment. This change may be beneficial or sometimes detrimental to human survival”. On the hand, development is concerned with changes in the distribution of national goods and service and in the nature of social relations.

It has become necessary to state that development in this work concept refer to development of individual skill and attitude to work which will mike him more efficient and result oriented aiming all increasing productivity. It is also necessary to note that manpower training is essentially training activities but there is a tendency to use training for the moulding personnel of a lower cadre and development for top echelon. According to V. 12 Robert (1988), manpower development is a systematized system of training and growth which enables individuals acquire and apply knowledge, skills, insights and attitudes to the effective management of organizations. It has as its main aim the development of supervisory employees above and beyond their immediate requirement on the job and effective improvement of managers. It therefore tends to avoid managerial obsolesce.


One of the greatest problems that faced local authorizes prior to 1976 local government reforms was lack of trained personnel to fill existence vacancies. This problem was even compounded by the problems of un-cordinate system of personnel administration and outright marginalization local government by the state governments. It was therefore imagined that the panacea to these problem would be the training of staff to acquire high professional knowledge in local government is as to be equipped sufficiently to tackle these seemingly hydra headed problems. Accordingly, on the job training in local government offices and in-service training programme were vigorously pursued.

According to professor G. A. Odenigwe, the training programme for senior officers under the local government authority system comprised:

1. Attachment of suitable officers to understand superior officers, second officers, for a specified period with a view to taking over duties eventually.

2. Awarding scholarships to suitable officers to train in England, including attachment to British local government councils.

3. Secretaries who have basic and systematic training in the art of local government in England trained junior staff and members of local government in duties and procedures.

The emphasis then was on the production of administrator with generalist orientation as it was then assumed that administration is the art and could be best learnt on the job. To this end, following they comparative democratization of local government system from about 1952 and the concomitant assignment of under range of function to it, there was the need to improve the quality of personnel available to local governments, hence the following courses were provided.

1. Senior local government officers course at the institute of administrator, Enugu and Ibadan mainly for administrative and treasury staff on scale 4 and over.

2. Diploma in public administration at the university for qualified senior local government officers”.

These in-service training courses were to prepare local government staff for better performance of other duties to equip them for new tasks or new procedures that will qualify them for promotions.

In 1971, immediately after the civil war, the federal, military government recognizing the vital importance of staff development system, organized the first national conference for commissioners of ministries of local government at the institute of administration, university of Ife, lle Ife on the need for improved and higher level in-service training for local government. Also, the conference afforded the opportunity to constitute national working committee on local government in-service training changed to:

a. Prepare an operational programmes of the proposals to have Nigerian qualification in local government administration and financial management.

b. Relate the various stages of the proposed courses to entry qualification, relevant working experience and post training remuneration with a view to ensuring, as far as possible, uniform salary for the Nigerian qualifications. The Nigeria working committee submitted proposals designed to facilitate the implementation of a national in-service training programme which was mainly concerned with courses structure and examination.

The committee recommended four stages of in-service training as follows:

1. Stage I certificate in local government.

2. Stage ii Diploma in local government

3. Stage iii Higher Diploma in local government

4. Stage advanced Diploma in local government.

In general, these in-service training courses did not achieve much result. As only very few staff benefited owing to these reasons that:

1. The existing local government staff though sufficiently experimented, did not possess the necessary qualifications required.

2. Because the new local government re-organization upon which the divisional administration was embarking in the state required the full use of all existing experienced staff to ensured the scheme succeeded.


The problem of attracting, in-services training local government staff were highlighted when the reformed councils took off without enough qualified middle to upper level manpower to run the appears of government.

The 1976 report of the committee on local government in-service training on employee job performance printing out that the manpower needs of the newly created local government especially the need for technicians with managerial training and expertise were urgent and pressing. It stated that local governments manpower development had been identified as one of the initial areas needing urgent attention since the inception of the current local government reform. It was realized that the only means to tackle these problem is on comprehensive and permanent basis to be able to produce and retain the caliber of staff. Both in number and quality, needed or efficient services in Njikoka local government system and also throughout the federation.`

It is therefore in recognition of this need to provide high level of manpower on a comprehensive and permanent basis that federal government instituted local government in-service training programmes at all the university of Nigeria, Nsukka, the university of Ife (now Obafemi Awolwo university) and Ahamdu Bellow university, Zaria. While the university of Nigeria, Nsukka serves the nees of 86 local government in Anambra, Enugu, Imo, Abia, Ebonyi, Rivers, Cross River, Akwa Ibom and Renue state, the Obafemi Awolwo university caters for 90 local government in six western states Ahamdu Bellow university, Zaria responsible for training the staff of 128 on local governments in the eight northern states.

And in order to ensure even participation of all the three tiers of government, the federal government takes the responsibility for training the highest level of officers of local government in the three selected federal university to train middle level officers while local government were held responsible for training their junior staff.

In addition to therefore mentioned training programmes, there is the existence of staff development centre on each state of the federation for the development of middle class workers.

It is also necessary to point out that there is development training for all categories of workers on Njikoka local government and also in federation. Njikoka local government routine seminars workshop and conferences aimed at enriching their staff with the knowledge of their job situation.

In all, there has been a diversified scope of in-service training for local government workers relative to what they were about three decades ago. This development seems to be in correlation with view of C.O Ejimofor when he said that in-service training is important to the quality of service and long ever increasing range of technological changes, the increasing scope of governmental activities, the careless clamour for social changes, make it necessary for workers to be prepared for adaptability and coping up with the problems of change.


The local government in Nigeria today is characterized by too few trained and specialized staff who have far too much to do. Realizing the importance of in-service training and development in Nigeria, the Udorji commission of 1974 emphasized that the major thrust of the commission recommendation is a management improvement strategy and its principal techniques is in-service training.

The report what further to highlight that the major constraint to Nigeria’s development is the lack of skilled and experienced men and women to carryout the tasks at the hand and ahead. To correct the deficiency, the commission proposed improvement of both manpower planning and in-service training. In its white paper on the main report, the federal government in most respects accepted this recommendation and most of its implications. In order to establish of complete and comprehensive of in-service training and analysis of in-service training recommendation is required.

At this juncture, primary attention should be given to middle level and management training and development. The restriction is imposed because the researcher has the intention to recommend that government should place primary emphasis on middle and top management development training. From the beginning therefore, it is important to understand the emphasis which the researcher placed on in-service training because the whole of the management change strategy is tied to improving management capacity through in-service training. It is also important to note that in-service training will be the most urgent consideration in accepting and implementing this researcher work. The researcher therefore focused on training as a corrective strategy of in-service training in Nigeria local government.

 A result oriented local government will need to recruit and train specialized personnel.

 The new local government will require professionals who posses the requisite skills and knowledge. Management by objective, a new concept in management permits specific in-service to meet specific requirements.

 The proper selection and training of staff and budget specialist and that would eventually provide the skills to make plan budgeting work.

 There is need for a positive and realistic programme of refreasher in-service training for most categories of staff in order to minimize inefficiency and increase productivity.

 Developing the skills and abilities needed to carry out responsibilities to improve personnel management in local government: the is therefore worried by lack of formal training programes in local government

 In-service training should be part of a comprehensive educational planning programme to ensure suitably trained from administrative carde down to the clerical.

 There should be in-service training programmes in university management. The training requirement of high level manpower development will expand the needs for advanced training faculty in universities.

The forgoing therefore illustrates the researchers vision/concern for in-service training throughout all branches of local government.


The purpose of in-service training and development is to supplement the trainers academic education or to train a person to enable him or her carry out higher responsibility. Generally speaking, organization created different type of in-service according to the need of the organization taking in consideration its function in the society. For instance, the type of in-service programmes available in the local government federation is similar to that which is obtain in Njikoka local government and establishment. Be that as it may, in-service programmes may be classified into the following:

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A. Induction training: This training refer to the training initiated to introduce a new employee to the structure, functions and ethnics of work environment.

B. On-the job training: This type of training is given to employee who is already perform the job assigned to him or her. It is intended to assist the employee to know the greater rudiments, techniques and depth study of his job to ensure efficiency.

C. Supervisor training: This aims all inculcating in employees, the skills of supervisor, controlling and training others some methods of supervisory training are conferences lectures, on-the-job supervisory training, under study supervisory training and the job rotational supervisory training.

D. Management training and development: This aims all giving suitable employees adequate training to prepare them to occupy higher managerial positions in an organization. It also concern with updating the knowledge and developing the utilities of the top executives of an organization.

Some scholar have their own views about the various types/ kinds of in-service training Eze (2002), reacting to induction training said that the following topic would usually constitute a typical induction course:

 The history of establishment, its product and or services.

 A tour of the establishment; to see the component plants, depots and related outfits.

 The organization structure including who or who.

 General, as well as departmental values or regulations with regions for their existences.

 Hours of works, overtime, leave and holidays.

 Employment benefits.

 Training and development scheme and staff policies, processes and procedures.

 Promotion opportunities.

Oshohobo (1992), writing on the job training, said that it is very common especially when the work requires more coaching and may be given assignments or project as part of a planned programme to develop their experience.

Nwachukwu (1992) in his own view supported by saying that “on the job training is the most popular and in some cases the only form of training programme used by some organization”. His reason was supported by Beach Dales (1980) who said that on the job training is most appropriate for teaching knowledge and skills that can be learned relatively Short time, a few days to several weeks and when only one or at most a very few employees must be trained at the same time for the job. In case of situations calling for in depth theory acquisition, classroom method will be preferable. He continued that on the job method is very beneficial in learning unskilled and semi-skilled manual type of jobs, clerical jobs as well as sales jobs”.


In-service training is desirable because of its importance particularly in the Local Government. Some of the benefits of in-service training programmes in Local Government as outlined by Odo (2000) are as follows:

• it reduced learning time to reach acceptable standard of performance. By issuing qualified instructors and carefully controlled learning situations, management is able to obtain shortened learning periods and high productivity from employees.

• Improved performance on present job. In-service training applies not only to new employees, but also experienced workers.

• A common objective of in-service training programme is the modification of employee attitude to achieve support for the organization’s activities and obtain corporation and loyalty.

• Satisfying manpower needs- where it is difficult to recruit sufficiently suitable workers in a given cadre, the best way to solve such manpower problem is through in-service training.

• Aid to solving operational problems in-service training help to reduce labour turnover, absenteeism and grievance.

• It increases production and brings about veracity on the part of employees,

Having known the importance of training what are the objective? What do organization stand gain. According to Nwachukwu (1992) productivity is all the aspect of all training programmes. The success and failure of an organization depends on employee’s productivity.

Training reduces turnover rate, by instilling confidence in the employ. A man who is trained has confidence in the ability to perform. He or she believe that he has control of his environment and is equipped to tolerate occasional disappointments, frustration and inconveniences.

From the above, a trained staff derives intrinsic satisfaction from his work which promotes his/her morale. In-service training helps to coordinate human and material resources. During the in-service training programmes, staffs are taught Local Government’s expectations and objectives. This gives rise to congruence and consequently everyone pulls in the same direction, coordination becomes easy. On the whole in-service training reduces cost as it increases productivity, lack of in-service training increases absenteeism rate, low out put, poor quality an results in high unit cost.

This means that in any establishment whether on Local Government and otherwise where in-service training is not emphasized the above mentioned a poses would be highlighted. Niger experience Maryland published Enugu.



J.C. Adiele, Training of staff in the Local Government. A paper presented on the occasion of Local Government (Imo State, 1989).

O.Ibe Lema, the Council Chairman and Local Government; A systems analysis of Local Government Administration.

Federal Republic of Nigeria, guidelines for Local Government Reform, (Kaduna: Government printer, 1987).

M.J Balongun, public administration on Nigeria (London: macmillian publishers, 1981)

Victor Diejomao (1977) The structure nature of Nigeria manpower resources, management in Nigeria, journal of the Nigeria institute of management, vol 13, No.5 June/July.

G.O Nwankwo (1988) Education and training of public management in Nigeria, Ontisha-Nigeria, university publishing compoany.

V.R. Gilbert (1988) An introduction to office and personnel management, Human Industrial Relations, published in Lagos-Nigeria.Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary, fifth Edition,Oxford University London, 1995

L.O. Osiji (1984) Problems of effective utilization of trained manpower in Nigeria Longman Nig Ltd Ibadan. Andrew F.Sikula (1976) personnel administration by Africa publishers Ltd. Onitsha, Nigeria.

Udo Aka (1982) “training consultancy organization in Nigeria. Impact and effective” conference paper, 2nd National conference of ITF, portHarcuort.

Armstrone M. (1993) A hand book of personnel management Kogun London

F.C. Eze (2000) Human Resources management on Nigeria the key components post Edition Enugu nigeria Onshionobo B.O. (1992) New trends in personnel management, Ascon. Nwachukwu C.C (1992) Management theory and practice, African feb publishers Limited.

O.M Odo (2202) lecture Notes public Administration Department, Enugu State University of science and technology.


This chapter will discuss the research methodology and sources of data collection, categorization of content, statistical treatment of raw data collected from the fields population of study, validity and reliability of instrument used for data collected

3.1 Research Design

In any scientific research, the research design adopted is always determined by the nature of the research problems and purpose of study. Te sampling method adopted or this study is therefore the sampling survey method which uses the administration of analysis of question to arrival dependable answer to any research problem.

In management science research, the sampling survey methods is one of the most reliable research method available. It is simple and logical in coding sample of interpreted data.


The main sources of data collection available to research are primary and secondary data.


Primary data for this research where sourced from the questionnaire administered to the staff of the Nigeria local government commission on addition to the oral interviewed with some officials of the commission and other relevant local government office holders.


Secondary data were sourced from different textbooks, newspapers, magazine, journals Annual reports and seminar papers. Added to these were pamphlets gotten from local government commission, which have some information on the topic of study. The secondary data therefore provided the data for review of literature and formation of the theoretical framework of the research.


This research work focused mainly on the impact of Local Government in services training programme on employed job performance, using Njikoka Local Government as a reference point. It equally used the feedback gotten from the respondents to used and arrive at a dependable assessment of the impact of staff in-service training on workers productivity.

The area of the research is Njikoka Local Government Area, Anambra State. it helped the research in penetrating into the different areas of the commission’s department and knowing various areas of in services training need in the Local Government, especially where it has become imperative in order to cope with numerous problems that threaten increase in productivity.


The population of the study comprise all the employee of Njikoka Local Government Commission. The commission is classified into four department namely: Administrative, finance, clerical and others.

The commission has a total number of 250 employee. In order to arrive at a reliable result, 154 questionnaires where distributed in the four department or groups of the commission. The questionnaires where distributed in several way that all the employee were represented.


Normally, the instrumentation deals on how the research generated his information, what instrument she employed. In this works, however, the research used questionnaires and interview method in order to generate information from thee respondents in Nigeria Local Government commission, Anambra State.


The research perceived this population as a homogenous one, since every employee irrespective of the official status is qualified to be sampled. A random sample technique was adopted.

According, the sample size was determined using yaro Yemini formular below:



n= sample size for the study

N= total population size

e= level of significance chosen by research which is put at 0.05

1= constant

Applying the above formular


The instruments that were used for data collection must be valid and reliable for thesis to stand the test of time.

Consequently, the instruments of data collection used for this work included well articulated questionnaires designed to suit the purpose of this work. Other forms of data collection instruments used for this projects involved references from written materials and oral interviews which proved to be valid on the project articulation,


To ensure maximum reliability of the instrument used for this research project, the researcher ensured that questions asked were not ambiguously constructed so as not to put the respondents on difficulty and not to communicate different meaning that could generate inaccurate answers.

However, in order to test effectiveness and efficiency of the instrument with regard to validity and reliability, data gathered through secondary sources were reasonably compared with different sources.



This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. The data were presented in simple table that are self-explanatory.


Distribution of Questionnaires from Hypotheses

Hypotheses Questionnaires Tables

1 1-4 2-5

2 5-8 5-6

3 9-12 17-9

4-5 13-16 10-11

The above table 1 shows the distribution of questionnaires from the hypotheses. It also shows the table to which each hypothesis belongs. It is indeed self-explanatory.

Table 2

Has Njikoka Local Government Commission ANY in Service Training Policy

Response Number of respondents Percentage

Yes 150 975

No 4 3%

Total 154 100%

From table 2 above, a total of 150 respondents representing 97% agreed that Njikoka Local Government has in-service training policy. An insignificant number 4 respondents, representing just 3% have contrive opinion. This goes a long way to show that in Njikoka Local Government Commission, in-service training policy for the enhancement workers exists as a policy.

Table 3

Does Njikoka Local Government Commission organize in-service Training Programme for her workers every regard?

Response Number of respondents Percentage

Yes 145 94%

No 9 6%

Total 154 100%

A critical look table 3 shows that 145 respondents representing 94% of the sample population agreed that staff in-service training are organized yearly for Njikoka Local Government. However, 9 respondents, representing 6% of the total sample size and that staff in-service training are not organized for staff of Njikoka Local Government yearly. This is an indication that yearly training are organized to staff of Njikoka Local Government.

Table 4

Are the in-service training programme organized all categories of staff of Njikoka Local Government

Response Number of respondents Percentage

Response Number of respondents Percentage

Yes 14 9%

No 140 91%

Total 154 100%

Table 4 which analyses the categories of staff in-service training programme are organize for in Njikoka Local Government, shows that 14 respondents (9%) are of the view that training programmes are organized for all categories to staff in Njikoka Local Government. However, 140 respondents (91%) where of the from the on-service programme. This means that some categories of staff such as causal workers, labourers and others categories of staff that perform odd jobs do not benefit from the in-service training programme. The reason is partly because of their level of education and academic qualifications.

Table 5

Have you as a staff of Njikoka Local Government attended any in-services training programme?

Response Number of respondents Percentage

Yes 100 65%

No 54 35%

Total 154 100%

From the above table, 65% of the respondents which is made of 100 respondents are of the view that they have participated and attended in-service training organized by Njikoka Local Government. On the other hand 54 respondents, representing 35% of the sample population are of the different opinion that they have never attended or benefited from in-service training programmes organized in Njikoka Local Government.

Table 6

Does in-service training programmes improve workers productivity in Njikoka Local Government?

Response Number of respondent Percentage

Yes 145 945

No 9 6%

Total 154 100%

From table 6 above, 145 respondents representing 94% affirmed in-service training programmes improve worker’s productivity on Njikoka Local Government as such should be encouraged. It also boasts the morale of workers and give them sense of belonging. Only a respondents (6%) are of contrary opinion.

Table 7

Does the State Government Allocate fund for in-service training programmes to Njikoka Local Government?

Response Number of respondents Percentage

Yes 120 78%

No 34 225

Total 154 100%

The above table shows that 78% (120) of the respondents are of the view that Njikoka Local Government allocate fund for in-service training programmes to its Local Government. This means that the State Government budget for the Local Government. However, 22% (34) respondents of the sampled population said that the State Government does not budget any fund to Njikoka Local Government for the in-service training of employees.

Table 8

Is the fund allocated to Njikoka Local Government adequate for in-service training programme?

Response Number of response Percentage

Yes 70 585

No 50 42%

Total 120 100%

Table 8 above originates from table 6 that is while the total population is 120 respondents because it was just those that answered yes in table 6. As can be seen from the above, 70 (58%) of the respondents agreed that the fund allocated for its in-service training programme is adequate and reasonable. Be that s it may, another 50 respondents representing 42% of the people said that the fund allocation is grossly inadequate and unreasonable for any meaningful in-service training programme to be embarked upon.

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Table 9

Does Poor Funding of in-service Training Programmes affect workers productivity in Njikoka Local Government?

Response Number of respondents Percentage

Yes 130 845

No 24 16%

Total 154 100%

From table 9 above, 130 respondents representing 84% affirmed that poor funding of in-service training programmes by the State Government go a long way in affecting workers productivity as only a few people may benefit from the in-service training because of fund. However, 24 persons representing 16% of the sample population believed that poor funding of in-service training programmes does not affect workers productivity in any way.

Table 10

Is the appointment of the chairman of the Local Government influenced politically?

Response Number of respondents Percentage

Yes 80 525

No 74 485

Total 154 100%

From table 10, 80 respondents representing 52% confirmed that the appointment of the chairman of Njikoka Local Government is influenced politically. It may be based on the party affiliation of the area from which the Governor or Head of service comes from. Be that as it may. Another 74 persons are of the view that the appointment of the chairman of Local Government is not in any way influenced on political grounds.

Table 11

Do you think that political and ethnic influences affect the selection of staff for in-service training on Njikoka Local Government?

Response Number of respondents Percentage

Yes 100 65%

No 54 35%

Total 154 100%

From table 11, 100 respondents representing 65% of the total sampled population are of the view that the selection of staff for in-service training on Njikoka Local Government influenced politically. On the other hand, 54 persons (35%) are of the view that the selection of staff in-service training is not in any way influenced on political grounds.

Take 12

Does Njikoka Local Government adopt on that job training.

Response Number of respondent Percentage

Yes 2 99%

No 152 1.9%

Total 154 100%

From table 12, 99% (152 respondents confirmed that Njikoka Local Government adopt on the job training method on training her staff. Only 2 persons (1%) of the sample population have contrary view.

Table 13,

Out of the various in-service training programmes in Local Government, is on the job training most popular?

Response Number of respondents Percentage

Yes 153 995

No 1 1%

Total 154 100%

From table 14, as can been seen, a total of 153 respondents representing 99% confirmed that on the job training programme was tremendously improved worker’s productivity in Njikoka Local Government. An insignificant number of just on person was of an opposite view to this assertion.


The biggest problem facing any establishment is development of staff for improved productivity. The Njikoka Local Government is fully aware of this problem and established a well articulated in-service training scheme for its staff so as to enhance productivity.

It is pertinent at this point to note that Njikoka Local Government has a well established in-service training policy for the manpower development of their Local Government. These in-service training organized yearly for certain categories of workers especially the educated ones as casual workers and labourers do not benefit because of their academic background and qualifications. However, investigations revealved that member of staff interested on the in-service training programme is too many that the Local Government cannot accommodate or send all of the at a time.

From the data presented, it was observed that these in-service training programmes not only improve worker’s productivity but also give them sense of belonging. Also engaging workers for in-service training purposed also boast their morale. The research also revealed that on-the-job training remains the most popular, effective and efficient adopted by the Local Government.

The Local Government was faced with the problem of fund allocation to meet with the in-service training needs. The effect of this poor funding is better experienced than explained as it has a chain reaction thus, reducing worker’s productivity and consequently affects the overall goal of the Local Government. The Bureaucratic nature involved in realizing public fund is frustrating. The Local Government at times continues to pursue the fund until the year is over. Even where the money is released it is epileptic and may not be meaningful to embark on any in-service training whatsoever.

It was also shown that political influence is a hindrance in the smooth functioning of the Njikoka Local Government. The chairman of the Commission, who is the administrative head is always appointed based on political influence. When this is done, such a chairman will certainly dance to the whims and caprices of his political godfathers. The resultant effect of this is that it goes a long way to effect the nomination of candidates for in-service training purpose, as the recommendation of these political godfathers must be considered so as to pacify them. When nomination of candidates are not based on merit, the effect is certain that wrong candidates that are not qualified may be selected and during the in-service training programme such deficient candidates may not cope with the trends of lectures in the training venue. At end, poor result will be achieved.

Irrespective of shortcomings as obtainable on the commission, it must be noted that the commission has justified its mission on Njikoka Local Government. The effect of manpower training and development as experienced on the commission calls for emulation by other ministries and parastals in the state.

The need for manpower training and development cannot be overemphasized as its merits out weigh the demerits.


From the analysis the following are the research findings:

1. There exist an organized in-service training policy for the training and development in Njikoka Local Government.

2. Only literate workers with basic education background and academic qualifications are share listed for in-service training programme.

3. The in-service training programmes available are not enough to meet the demand and aspiration of staff.

4. It was proved that in-service training programmes improve workers productivity and also boast the morale of workers.

5. On-the-job training was found to be the most effective, efficient and popular method adopted by the Commission in the training of manpower.

6. Poor financing was an impediment to the smooth functioning of the commission especially on its manpower training effort.

7. There exist ethnic problem which affects the proper functioning the programme.

8. There is political influence in the appointment of the arrow lead of the Commission which have a chain effect in the activities of the programmes.



Analysis showed that the Njkoka Local Government organized in-service training programmes and that the majority of workforce have benefited from such training programmes. However, a few staff such as causal workers and labourers do not benefit from in-service training programmes because of their level of education and qualifications. This is because no meaningful in-service training of such class of workers can be achieved because of the rate of assimilation and mode of communication.

It was also revealed by the study that the Commission do initiate in-service training programmes to the staff especially which the following lapses exist in the commission.

 When there is new programmes that required specialist staff.

 Negative attitude to work

 Low productivity

 Lack of interest in one’s job and,

 To fulfill government policy

Certainly, the management of the Commission is fully aware of the implication of the above negative trend in any establishment. When new programme are introduced, staffs are sent to acquire such skill to be able to meet up with the technological development of the country, again, negative attitude on the part of staff could mark the image and overall goal of the Commission. The Commission is therefore sensitive of this and whenever this is observed the concerned persons are sent for improved knowledge thus giving them sense to belonging.

It was possible to identify through his research study that in-service training programmes so far instituted by the Njikoka Local Government was in-service training institutes Located in Abagana, the Local Government headquarter. However, the in-service training programmes available are not adequate to meet the demands and aspiration of the needy staff.

The empirical study also revealed that actually, adequate in-service training programmes of the workforce causes productivity to be high.

Productivity we known is a function of excellence. When workers can perform effectively, the tendency is high productivity at all levels. This equality result in the total achievement of the Njikoka Local Government target the for the year. Poor knolwdege of workers results on low productivity. The few categories that cannot benefit from the in-service training programmes cannot work without proper supervision and guidance.

It was not possible to identifying through this research study that the Njikoka Local Government trained and develops their staff internally and externally, utilizing on the job training and rotation methods of training. Externally, the Local Government do grant in-service training through office of the head of service of the state with or without pay for her staff. They also allows workers to attend share courses, seminars and workshops especially when much fund is not involved. At the end, on-the-job training was found to be the most effective, efficient and popular among the various method used by the Commission.

It was possible to identify thracph this empirical study that the problems encountered by the Commission on its in-service training effort included lack fund to execute good in-service training programmes, coupled with unwillingness on the part of other relevance authority to release the fund allocated to in-service training programmes.

Ethnicity and dialect differences also ass the wrong candidates are selected because of their connection with higher authority, thus, finding it difficult to cope with the in-service training activities in the training institutes.

The effect of political influence on the appointment has a chin reaction as it continuous to effect all the working of the Commission both in the nomination of staff or training and also in the approval of fund for such staff.


From this research work on effect of human resource training on workers productivity, using Njikoka Local Government as a case study, it is obvious that in service training is an investment.

This investment simply means the commitment of resources to the acquisition of assets that in turn allows a stream of resources to be generated in the future. Know ledge an adage says is power and human resources passes the accumulated knowledge from one generation to another the fund of know ledge therefore has the property of growing and increasing over time as long and the society maintains itself.

In-service training should be taken seriously in all ramifications since the training of the staff is the more of other resources and therefore from a critical factor for the social, political and economic growth and development on the Local Government and the nation as a whole.


Going through the findings of the this research work, the researcher made following recommendation:

1. That in-service training programmes of any form are necessary and should be taken serious for survival, growth and prosperity of any organization whether private or public.

2. That-in-service training are not the only means of increasing productivity and therefore other adequate motivation should also be given to the workers to ensure higher productivity.

3. Government should legislate to ensure that all the courses selected for the government should be implemented to the later and to guarantee training manpower of the work ahead.

4. Each ministry should have a separate manpower —- department who should create awareness and ensure that all staff of the ministry must enjoy in-service training programmes biannually. Change is inevitable in order to meet up with challenges ahead, the manpower that should ensure that staff training is implemented.

5. Adequate financial allocation should be allocated to training as such fund should actually be released for the execution of training and development programmes for a particular year.

6. The ministry should also fund the in-service training institutions and maintain all the structures to ensure conducive atmosphere for purposeful acquisition of knowledge.

7. The issue of sentiment should be discourage for in-service nomination of and dates for in-service training purpose of officials of the commission should not be bias in dealing with issues especially that of staff training programmes.

8. On-the-job training as the most popular type of training should be encouraged in the Commission as it remains the best way and greatest way of learning.


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Human Resources Training And Development – Impact On Workers Productivity




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