Gender Preference – Effects On Employment Decision

Gender Preference – Effects On Employment Decision: A Study Of Selected Banks In Ebonyi State Nigeria

Gender Preference – Effects On Employment Decision: A Study Of Selected Banks In Ebonyi State Nigeria

The issue of gender is a phenomenon which has extended a serious debate in relating to assigning social roles to human societies.

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Gender is concerned with the psychological, social and cultural differences between males and female. In addition to different psychological characteristics, male and females have distinctive physical traits characteristics and personalities.

However, researchers recognizes that the contents behaviour of individuals is a consequences of both socially enforced rules and values and individual disposition, whether genetic, unconscious or conscious. Some researchers emphasizes the objective social system and others emphasizes subjective orientations and dispositions.

Creativity may cause the rules and values changes over time, cultures and societies are dynamic and ever changing but there has been extensive debate as to how, and how fast, they may change. Such debates are especially contentions when they involve the gender/ sex system as people have widely differing views about how much gender depends on biological sex.

Early in life, a person acquires a gender identity, and once a child has gender identity, he or she begins to assemble gender roles in masculine and feminine tracts not only are different but are valued, differently and masculine traits usually rates higher the normality of femininity stresses delicacy dependency, emotionality nurturance and verbal skill, and that of masculinity borders on toughness, aggressiveness independence rationality strength competitiveness a desire for achievement and skill at mathematics.

Due to this type of inferred differences between the male and the female gender, society tends as to assign the more challenging tasks (also more rewarding) to men and more suitable or less demanding task to women. According to (komarousky 1946) culture norms intelligent men make their marks in the society while intelligent women make good wives through traditional attitude that women’s place is in the kitchen or home means that most sectors of national life are exclusively for men and there is a serious in balance in the development of manpower until recently paid work outside the home has been done mostly by men, but the in-balance is changing as more women entered the job market still more is not the same as more equal.” According to (Sectrick 1991) view that women have more than their expected to do house work.

Most women and men work at different kinds of establishment and in different industries men out number women are more numerous in clerical and paid domestic work.

During the nineteen and early twentieth century banking was a male occupation and all bank tellers were men as the banking sector expands more responsible position were created and the state of the tellers which men occupied declined women filled the position vacated by men and today many bank tellers are women.

With particular reference to banking industries in Ebonyi State, the researcher intends to find out the role of sex/gender in employing staff in banks. This in the course of this research, attempts will be made to ascertain whether employment in banking industries in Ebonyi State is based strictly on merit or by gender preferences.

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

The problem of this study therefore is that the prevailing cause of gender preferences and employment opportunity in most of our banking industries had been rooted from biological make up of sex educational training, experience and skill acquisition in the banking affair but today, the situation has changed that banks are not only employing university graduates on a full-time, but also engage greater number of women as senior and management staff.

However, a new trend appears to be taking place in all the banks especially the new generation bank, it appeared as if preference is given to men in particular banks and in a particular section of the bank while women are also given preference in other sections.

A recent survey by united Nation Development programme (UNSP), showed that 472 financial establishment in 48 local government area in Nigeria with over 40% female employees are less than a quarter.

According to (Yinka 2001) emphasized that only one in five financial institution had ever been headed by a female.

This ugly situation or stigmatization has brought us with a lot of bias in area of gender equality among the banking section when it comes to employment opportunity or job promotion. It is on such phenomenon that this work intends to explore the problem of gender bias employment policies in some selected banking industries in Ebonyi State.

1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY

This research is based on gender preference and employment opportunities in the banking industries in Ebonyi State. This work centers on the employment policy of the banking industries in Ebonyi State whether it is gender based or not the issue is that both male and female staff should vary in age and position held in the bank

1.4 AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

This research has both general and specific objectives. Especially items at finding out the following:

1. To what extent are vacancies in banking industries in Ebonyi State filled up on the basis of the sex of the applicant.

2. At understanding why men are more preferred in certain jobs than women.

3. At understanding the policies that uniform recruitment in the banks in Ebonyi State.

4. To find out the factors that influences the employment of a given employee to a sector of the bank in Ebonyi State.

5. To find out if certain jobs in the banks in Ebonyi State suited women more than men. .

6. To understand if there are jobs that are specifically reserved for men.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This study has two (2) importance which respectively it focus on:

i. Theoretical perspective

ii. Practical perspective

Theoretically, the study is significant in the sense that it will serve as reference. It will expose its effect on gender discrimination.

Its practical significance is based on the fact that since the growth of any organization lies to a large extent on the efficiency of its personnel. The study will assist employers in making appropriate choice in employing staffs. This study will also help parents and guidance to counsel their children’s on the appropriate course of study so as not to be face with the problem of unemployment.

1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In carrying out this research work, the following questions are put forward to guide the study.

1. What are the policies that uniforms recruitment in the banking industries in Nigeria.

2. What are the factor that influences the employment of a given employee to a section of the bank in Ebonyi State.

3. Are there certain sections in the banks that suite women?

4. Are there sections that are specifically reserved for men in banks?

5. Why are men preferred in certain sections than woman in banking industries?

6. What can be done to ensure gender balance in employment not only in banking industries but in other sections of the economy?

1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

The vagueness of concept constitution obstacles to clearly identify and observe problems under investigation in a research work. This fact will help the researcher to clearly present the clear definition of the relevant concepts in the way of study that findings, inter-proportions, and conclusion that comes from the study would be clearly understood in their correct context.

THE CONCEPTS

1. GENDER:

This refers to an individual’s psychological type, it is acquired through experience. It refers to whether an individual is masculine or feminine.

2. GENDER ROLE:

Refers to the attitudes and behaviour that class a person in stereotypical identify e.g women cook and clean, men fix cars.

3. GENDER IDENTIFY:

Is how one perceives themselves as either masculine or feminine.

4. CULTURAL NORMS:

This means the total body of tradition borne by a society and transmitted from generation to generation. It thus refers to the norms, value, standards by which people act and it includes the ways distinctive in each society of ordering the world and rending it intelligible.

5. SEX:

This is a state of being either male or female.

6. GENDER PREFERENCE:

It is a kind of treatment which is given to a person or group of people because they are categorized as male or female.

7. NEW GENERATION BANKS:

These are new established banks that came up in the last seven eight years, offering competitive banking services without the security and reliability of long standing banks example are Zenith Bank, Diamond Bank PLC etc.

1.8 HYPOTHESIS

Hi. One’s educational qualification is more considered in employment in the banking sector rather than one’s gender.

Ho. One’s educational qualification is not considered in employment in the banking sector rather than one’s gender.

Hi. Some sections in the bank require a particular gender than the others.

Ho. Some sections in the bank do not require a particular gender than the others.

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

It is no secret that male and female have different physical characteristics they often have different ways of doing things and playing different roles in the society. Some of these differences are linked to biology, many are as the result of socialization. Sociology and the society at large has been able to make an important distinction between sex and gender. Because sex refers to the biological distinctiveness between men and women while gender refers to social and cultural definitions of masculinity and feminity based on biological distinctions. Genders involves socially learning patterns of behaviour and psychological or emotional expressions of attitudes that distinguishes male from female, this ideas about masculinity and feminity are culturally derived and female are treated from birth and the differences in self-images and social duties adopt as a result. (Uscher, written and hunter 1983:344).

2.2 GENDER ROLES SOCIALIZATION

According to Maccoby (1974) stated that gender roles are the socially defined right and responsibilities that are assigned to males and females. He argued that gender roles gives information on how to dress and behave. How to walk and talk, what to do, where to go, and with whom there are many ways in which children learn these gender roles. First, they are rewarded for gender appropriate behaviours by their parents, teachers and peers and they are punished for actions which are gender inappropriate (Langios and Downs: 1980).

Gender role socialization is a life long process where by people learn the value attitude, motivation and behaviours considered appropriate for each sex by their culture. In all societies, males and females are socialized differently. In addition, each culture defined gender role differently. This process is limited to childhood. But continous through adolescence adulthood and old age. Parents have an early notion of how their male and female child should behave and what they should be in later life parent respond differently to their males and female children right from the beginning (Tischler written and hunter: 1988) After studying the behaviour of parents and their infants Lavies (1972) reported that there are significant differences in the very early socialization of males and females. Mother talks more to daughters and father interact more with their son.

Maccoby and Lackin (1975) reveal that there are persistent differences in parental gender role socialization of their children these differences are reinforced by their educational systems and mass media. Still commenting on gender role socialization, Block (1983) Stressed that the result of this socialization is that boys and girls grow up in difference psychological environment that shape their views of the world and to the unstated socialization goal for men are to be bold to seek freedom and to dare to be great. While for women goals are to contend with achieving security and conflict free life. It is in this sense that she and her families give their son wings to soar to new adventures.

2.3 GENDER AS A CULTURAL REALITY

Socialization deals with human behaviour in the sense it is largely directed and determined by culture. That is the learned recipes for behaviour shared by members of a society. The norms, valves and roles are culturally determined and socially transmitted from this respective gender roles are products of culture rather than biology individuals learn their respective male and female roles

Harttey (1971) argues that men socialized into being women, that is not being passives, or expressive or famine that is Andrade (1966) argues further that “maleness and femaleness” are institutionalized as status in all cultures. To her such status become psychological entities for most individuals.

Therefore, one can deduce from this argument that society determines the roles of men and women the society as it stands. Forcibly coerce its members into roles which it determines as appropriate through the reward it offers for conformity and punishment.

2.4 SEXUAL DIVISION OF LABOUR

Peito (1979) pointed out that some people have argued that the genetic differences especially differences in hormones are responsible for supposed difference between male and female in temperament interest and skill. He further stated that anthropologist. Psychologist, and others have argued that males and females are basically similar in their psychological, behaviour qualities at birth, but that the heavy hands of social learning and cultural expectations trains the sexes differently so that pervasive differences are present by the time adulthood is researched money and Exhalt (1988) added to the above view by arguing that males and females may have some biological differences in behavioral tendencies at birth. But the major differences arises from social learning.

Since a human child at birth without any form of socialization if labour Rase: and this forms his socialization process. It suffices to any one other than the ability of a given sex to perform a particular job which lies to a greater extent on the cultural assignment of such role. By this extension, then, many of the differences between males and females can be seen from the results of social learning.

Therefore, we have account for the fact that the division of labour by sex is a factor in most if not all societies, it place a role in the procedure process although the line of demarcation show almost infinite variation and some societies will have more strictly defined of “Female male” activity than others. Gender is together with age achieving means by which societies makes division of labour a process of socialization which is an important factor in any production system. Meal (1962) did pioneering work in revealing the wide range of psychological and famimine gender roles. She found out important characteristics of women in one culture were often those of men in another patterns attempt to qualify the incident of division of labour by gender.

Murdock (1967) surveyed available date for 224 pre-literate societies such activities as mental work having and trapping, building houses were task performed by men. To him male activities involves vigorous physically strenuous and more sedentary.

The concluded that division of labour by sex occurs in all societies Oakely (1974) stated that human cultures are diverse and endlessly variable. She maintained that Murdock’s interpretation of his date. That this date is based using evidence from Murdock’s date she argues against the assumption that biology largely determines the sexual division of labour. She maintains that there are fourteen societies in Murdock’s sample in which plumbing is done each exclusively by women or should both sexes, thirty sex societies in which women are solely responsible for land clearing and eight in which cooking is a shared activity . She examines a number of societies in which biology appears to move little or no influence on women’s role the Mbuti pygmies hunting and gathering society located in the cargo rain forest have no specific rules for division of labour by sex their men and women hunt together and both sexes share responsibility of child care among the Australian aborignes of Tasmania women were responsible for seal hunting. Fishing and catching opossums (tree dwelling manmail). Turning to present day societies Oakly (1974) notes that women from an important part of many armed forces. Particularly those of Cuba, China Rassia and Isreal. In media, some 12% of Labours on building sites are women, and some Asia and Latin American countries a quarter of the labour force in mines are females (Russell 1990)

From the above examples one can say that there are no exclusively female roles and that biological characteristics do not stop women from particular jobs. Adding to the observation of Russell about women in Latin America and India observation have shown that in present day Nigeria. Over 70% labourers at building sites are women one will observe them carrying blocks sands and even gravel (Adevomi 2002) Thus it is pertinent to point out that Murdock’s (1976) view that “man with his superior physical strength can better under take the more strenuous tasks. While women engage in less strenuous tasks which can be near the home because of the handicap of pregnancy task and nursing” this view explains why women are employed mostly in easier and less challenging sections in most industries because of the belief that they may not have the dexterity or skill to handle to job and that even where she tends to measure up; that the home and child care will not give her room to concentrate.

However, when a typical uneducated African woman is brought into the picture one would be left without doubt that these are stereotyped notions held about each genders in most African societies women engage in strenuous from activities in order to maintained the up keep of the family. But so far not much has been done for them because the men who believe they are in control have

chosen to be “gender blind”. This situation has turned women into un-appreciated pieces of art without any consideration what so ever for the Comfort (Kalu: 1992)

2.5 WOMEN AND INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

Oakely (1974) has traced the changing status of women in British society from the eve of the industrial revolution to the 1970’s she claims that the most important and ending consequences of industrialization for women has been the emergence of the modern role of house wife as the dominant nature femine role. She claimed that in pre-industrial Britain the family was the basic unit of production marriage and the family were essential individuals for economic reason since all member of the family were involved in production. Agriculture textiles indispensable in the production of (10th one husband did the weaving while his wife spun and dyed the arn.

Then during the early stages of industrialization, which she dated from 1841 to 1950. The factory replaced the family as a unit of production. Women were employed in factories they continued their traditional work in textiles. The first major change, which affected their status as wage earners, was the factory act of 1819 which restricted child labour. Children become dependent on their parent and his necessitated care and supervision, a role which fell on women. From 1814 to the beginning of the first was in 1914, pressure from male workers and philanthropic reformers restricted female employment industry. As early as 1814, committees of male industry workers called for gradual with drawal of all female labour from one industry (Oackey 1974).

Hacker (1972) states that women employment of women as wage earners men were quick to perceive them as rival group and made use of economic legal and ideological weapons to eliminate their competition. They excluded women from the trade unions made contracts with employers to prevent them hiring women passed laws restricting the employment of married women, caricatured the working women and carried on ease less propaganda to return women to the home, and keep them there.

2.6 WOMEN AND THE LABOUR MARKET

Statistics have show that women are entering the labour market in an ever-increasing number despite their increasing employed evenly through out the occupational structure. They are concentrated in law paid, law status jobs in Britain, in 1976 87% of female labours force was employed on unskilled and semi skilled manual jobs and in intermediate and low grade white-cover occupations compared to them 38% or their male counterparts (Baron & Narris, 1976) Oackely (1974) went on to argues that as in the family, there is sexual division of labour in the job market women are concentrated in particular types of job, which are typically seen as female occupation they include nursing secretarial and lower level clerical jobs, retail sales occupation such as cashiers and shop assistants etc the went on to argue that the position of women in the family is reflected in the employment sector.

This point was further elaborated with the view that the office work is the business equivalent of house keeping since both jobs are custodial concerned with studying up, putting away and restoring order, rather than producing anything (Mary & Benet; 1972)

2.7 EDUCATION AND WORK ORIENTATION

The position of women in labour market can be said to be party mirrored by their performance in the educational system. The Robbins report published in Britain in 1963 showed that three time as many girls as boys left school at fifteen only a third of “A level students were girls and only quarter of university students. In higher education however, there is still market difference between the sexes statistic for school learners for 1974/75 indicated that girls accounted for only 36% university entrants and 33% polytechnic entrances (Olu-Wale: 1977).

The constraints of women’s market situation are not likely to be significantly changed by equality between the sages in education attainment.

Kelsail, Poole and Kuhn (1983) observed that married women graduates were much less likely man than women as a whole to be in employment.

Through the African women have benefited from Western education Olu Wole (1994) stated that the paretic fact still remains that the African women had actually lost much are than she had gained. In a research conducted by Sharpe (1976) her ample was made up girls in secondary school in the London Borougn of eagling she discovered that the girls priorities were love marriage children. Children and job. She noted that the secondary school curriculum is still party gender biased. Girls were stared towards art subjects like typing and commerce, home economics etc. while boys were encouraged to take up scientific and technical subjects. The girls attitude to work reflected their school experience and the general culture definition of women’s roles. She also observed that the occupation they chosen were all safely within the realm of “women’s work rejecting jobs such as mechanic, electricians, e.t.c because it is define as men’s work (Sharpe: 1976). However, this argument has been dispelled by time and modernization. In recent times girls now done to take up these technical and more challenging studies, but the fact still remains that they are most often without employment.

On further research, it was discovered that Harvard University did not admit women to its MBA programme until 1963, other leading business schools admitted women earlier, but there were quotas on their number (Goode: 1977) following this Goode (1977) stated that during the early 1976’s women were busy acquiring credentials for management jobs. To illustrate the Columbia university graduates school of business student body was only 76 female in 1970, but 42:2% in 1974. Madine (1979) concluded that the low level of educational attainment of women in Nigeria results in their level involvement in employment in public sector. In support of this Adeyemo (1984) asserted that education is necessary to women of all ages not only to produce personnel’s with the technical and administrative background to improve their skill and living standards but also to produce an any enlightened women who can withstand the test of time and get equal with men in public sector management.

2.8 JOB DISCRIMINATION

Statistical abstraction of the United States (1980) has show that working class women are highly paid that working class men. From 1970 to 1979, working class women as a group earned only 60% as working men.

Job discrimination against women is a pervasive but complicated phenomenon. A study of business firm in United States in 1970’s identified three ways in which women experience discrimination in business world.

1. During hiring process, when women are given job with local occupational prestige than men

2. Through unequal wage policies, by which women receive less pay than men for equivalent work.

3. In awarding promotion women find it hard to advance up to the carrier ladder more than their male counterparts (States, Quirn and Shepard, 1976/women’s participation at the levels of all high ranking occupation has been minuscule. As of 1957 for example women constitute only about 10% or management personnel in banking industries even though the term “management” is used loosely in banking to include supervisory jobs (Mertain et al 1957). The case is not different in Nigeria is Ukwu (2000) states that according to the ministry of women affairs and youth development that out of every 100 Nigeria men in paid labour. There are 25 women. Also, a recent survey by United Nations development programme (UNDP) showed that of 472 financial establishment in 48 Local Government Area in Nigeria those with over 40% female employees are less than a quarter. The survey also shows that only 7% of the financial institutions have over 40% of management staff care female. It also shows that any one in five financial institutions had ever been handed by a female (Yinka 2001). Therefore women who constitutes 49:9 of that Nigeria population, according to the 1991 population census still cry of marginalization in both private and public sector.

2.9 EMPLOYMENT PROCEDURE

Reinecke an school (1980) examined some procedures, which forms followed in recruiting or employing the right kind of personnel to the right jobs. They pointed out that every job carriers a job analysis which helps in specify its human resources needs to them jobs analysis involves defining the job met must be done if the firm is to reach its objective, each job analysis, the skills experience etc they believe that management inventories, job description and job specification help make a firms human resources needs more concrete. They give the personnel manager a clearer idea of the right kind of employees needed and permit more effective education of people who apply for jobs. They help in matching specific workers with specify jobs (Reinecke School, 1980).

Thus far, effort has been made to review what other author’s had study. No relevant theories that explained the student will be considered.

2.10 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

In adopting the theory that would serve as the theoretical frame work on which this study is based, some existing theories in sociology will be use to examined this work.

THE FUNCTIONALIST THEORY: This has its roots in the nineteen century positivistic theories of comet, Spencer and Durkheim. This theory is the oldest and until recently, the dominant perspective in sociology. It based on the analogy with biological organic system and social systems. This theory assumes that the importance of parts of a social system or social whole is seen in terms of their contribution to the survival and maintenance of the whole system.

THE CONFLICT THEORY: This theory owns much to the work karl Mary and George Simmel. Both writers saw conflict as ubiquitous and an ever present and inevitable facture social system. Mary located the source of conflict in the distribution of resources available to members of the social system. He state that part of the social system fight to ensure that in the distribution of resources their interest is taken care of.

THE INTEGRATION THEORY: The theory is sometimes described as the phenomenological theories. The theory is seen as micro sociology, it is an American view of sociology, which developed out of the work John Deskey end George Herbet Head symbolic inter-actionsim place emphasis on the creator’s (Igun, U: 1994). These theories mentioned many sub-divisions.

In this study, the research adopt the contemporary feminist theory by Particia Lengermann and Jiil Neiebrugge. This theory can be said to be that system of general ideas designed to described and explain human social experience from a women-centered vantage pint (Ritter: 1996)

There are verities of contemporary feminist theory they can be classified under the following sub-heading.

1. Gender Difference: Which in the context means that women’s location in and experience of most situation is different from that of men in those situation.

2. Gender inequality: Here women are located in most situation not only different, but also less privileged than or unequal to that of men.

3. Gender Oppression: There, women’s has to be understood in term of a direct power relationship between men and women. Women oppressed that are restrained, subordinated, molded, and used and abused by men.

4. Third-Wave Feminism: That women’s experience of difference, inequality and oppressions various according to their social location. Ethnicity, age, affectional, preference, marital status, and global location.

Each of the various type of feminist theory can be classified as a theory of difference or of inequality, or of third-wave feminism.

Under this various type of feminist theory two of the theories will be expended on as a guide to this work.

GENDER INEQUALITY

According to Ritzer (1996), four themes characterize the theories of gender inequality; first that men and women are situated in specifically not only differently, but also unequally, specifically, women get less of the material resources, social status, power, and opportunities for self-actualization than do men who share their social location. Secondly that the inequality is because of the way the society is organized, not from any significant biological or personality difference between the saxes: Third though human beings may very in their profile of potential and traits, no significant pattern of natural variation distinguishes the saxes. In stead, they are characterized by a need for freedom to seek self-capitalization and by a fundamental malleability that enable them adopt to any situation they find themselves in forum, all inequality theories assume that both men and women will respond fairly easily and naturally to more egalitarian social structure and situation:

They affirm in other words, that it is possible to change the situation. Also as regards to the third theme to say there is gender inequality, than is to claim that women are situationally less empowered that men to realize the need they with men for self-actualization (Lengermann and Nicbrugge: 1995)

THIRD-WAVE FEMINIST: The term “third-wave feminism” is used to identify what is seen as a new stage in the history of feminist theorizing, this theory focused on the practical and theoretical imprecation of differences among women, which result from an unequal distribution of society produced goods and services on the basis of position in the global system. Class, race, ethnicity, age and affectional preference as these factors interact with theory on third-wave feminism can be viewed from the three areas.

A. DIVERSITY: This is based on the belief that truth about social relations is discovered best from the vantage point of oppressed people (both women and men). In this context, it is pointed out that most women who are disadvantaged mostly fall under the categories of the less privileged. A good example are the women of colour of the north Atlantic who are normally found as domestic helps engaged in poorly paid service work, and constantly dominated by those who are more privileged than them, be it man or women (Collina 1990).

B. CRITIQUE: It was noted that women of colour lesbians and working class women were questioning not only sexual ideology and the unequal status of women, but all system of domination sexist, racist classiest etc and the category of women who oppose male domination, while ignoring their own acts of domination towards women who do not share their class race and affectional preference (Hewirt, 1992)

C. VECTORS OF OPPRESSION AND PRIVILEGED: No amount of academic questioning was removed from the heart of third-wave feminism the deep conviction that “not all suffering is equal that thee is a calculus pain” (Argueues 1993): The calculus is determined by the inter section in one’s individual affectional preference, and other dimension of stratification.

In summary, this theories helps to understand that the inability of a particular sex. (especially the female) to perform a task, is not really because he or she is incapacitated, but probably because of the social structure of the social he or she find himself in or probably, he or she will not be given an opportunity to prove himself because of his age, class, race or simply gender preference.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 STUDY DESIGN

The basic principle involved in research design demand that a study like this must have an approach to be used in conducting it’s scientific entry. In this case the researcher used survey where by the sample of the population represents the whole population. The information gathered would be generalized on the whole population since the sample selected possesses certain characteristics which are the feature or the study population.

3.2 STUDY AREA

The study concentrates on selected banks in Ebonyi state Abakaliki is known as a great trading center and urban area. The town is a commercial nerve center of Ebonyi state. The famous Abakaliki main market (known as Abakpa market ) started as a small town market it was at this time that people who had business interest commercial forms and banking house. Establishments were the aftermath of an renovation which took place at the market in 1999 when Hon Adolawan took up the chairmanship position of Ebonyi L.G.A.

3.3 STUDY POPULATION

The total population of this study is 286 being the total number of staff of the selected banks in Ebonyi state

First bank plc: 68 staff

Diamond bank: 58 staff

Union bank plc: 60staff

Inter continental bank 65 staff

Guaranty Trust bank plc: 35: staff

3.4 SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLE FRAME

This study is to be based on a sample of 286 respondents. This sample is considered adequate in view of time and financial constraints facing the research. These 286 respondents will be made up of both male and female staff of this five selected banks all these banks are located along ogoga road in Abakaliki Ebonyi State.

3:5 SAMPLE TECHNIQUE

The researcher used the simple random sampling technique to select various categories on worker in the banks both male and female workers total 286 will be selected randomly from the various selection and this sections are the account department, marketing department, foreign exchange section, informational customer relation operations, legal department, chief executive officers section, cash office, tellers secretarial and clearing sections fifty questionnaires will be distributed to fifty respondents selected from each of these five banks.

These fifty respondents will comprise of both male and female staff in various selections of each five banks selected. These after six personnel and supervision will be randomly selected from these five bank to be interview with the help of the interviewed schedule

3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

The questionnaires will be used in collecting data for this research work these questionnaires will be divided into two sections. The first section will comprise of questions that relates to the personal data of respondents, while the second section contains question on the substantive issues of the study the question will be used to supplement the questionnaires, subsectuenthy six personnel mangers and supervisor of the five banks selected will be interviewed.

3.7 METHOD DATA ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING

Data gathered from primary source by the use of questionnaires will be presented in tabular form which enable the research to calculate, percentage using a scientific calculator, variables were cross tabulated in order to see how the independent variable influence the dependent variable. This enabled the research to discuss the finding of the study.

PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS

This chapter handles the analysis of the data generated in this study. The study used two hundred and eight six sample populations. In this light, questionnaires were distributed to all the sample population.

Out of the two hundred and eighty six questionnaires distributed to the selected banks, only two hundred questionnaires (sixty five percentage) were properly complete and returned. The other eighty –six questionnaires (forty-three percentage) were misplaced, lost and some where returned, unfilled, thus such questionnaires were not utilized in this analysis.

The analysis therefore is dependent on the two hundred returned questionnaires.

This analysis is structured in sections. Section one treats analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, section two handles analysis of the major theme, while section three deals with the testing of hypothesis

4.1 ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC OF RESPONDENTS

GENDER: The distribution of gender the respondents are showed in table 1

Distribution of gender respondents

Gender Number of respondents Percent (%)

Male 80 40%

Female 120 60%

Total 200 100%

Table one show that total number of male respondent is 40%, while that female respondents are 60% from table 1. it can be observed that female respondents are in majority. Responders about the gender were generated through question 1 table one contained information generated.

2. AGE: The distribution of age respondent are showed in table 2

TABLE 2

Distribution of age respondents

Age Number of respondents Percent (%)

18- 24 yrs 15 7.5%

25-31 yrs 120 60%

32-38 yrs 55 25.5%

39-45 yrs 10 5%

47 yrs and above 0 0%

Total 200 100%

Table 2 show that the highest percentage is that of those respondents between the age of 25-31yrs, which is 60%, followed by 27:5% respondents those within the age 18-24 yrs are 7. 5% responses about generated through question 2 table 2 contained information generated.

We also sought to discover the marital status of respondents information generated on this are contained in table three (3)

3. MARITAL STATUS: – The distribution of marital status the respondents are showed in table 3

TABLE 3

DISTRIBUTION OF MARITAL STATUS RESPONDENTS

Martial status Number of respondents Percent (%)

Single 130 65%

Married 65 32.5%

Divorced – –

Widowed 5 2.5%

Total 200 100%

Table 3 show that the percentage of single respondents is 65. while that of married respondent is 32: 5 the table also should that there are only 2.5 of widows respondents and non divorces from table 3, it can be observe that single respondent are in majority. Respondents about the marital status of the respondents were generated through question 3.

4 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS:- The distribution of educational qualification the respondent are showed in table 4

TABLE 4

Distributional Of Educational Qualification Respondent

Educational qualification Number of respondents Percent (%)

Non- formal education 0 0%

FSLC 0 0%

SSCE / IT EQUIVALENT 5 2.5%

NCE/ONG 20 10%

HND/DEGREE 115 57.5%

MSC/MBA 60 30%

TOTAL 200 100%

Table 4 show that the respondents are all educated, first degree and HND holders are in majority with the percentage of 57.5% followed by TNSC/TNBA at 30% while those with OND/NCE holders are 10%.

Respondents about the educational qualification of the respondents were generated through question 4. Table 4 contained information generated.

SECTION TWO

4.2 ANALYSIS OF THE MAJOR THEME

Section B of the study was devoted to gathering data to help the various research question in this study, the interviewed schedule was also structured to help answer the research questions. The responses obtained from the interview schedule were used in filling the table of questionnaires.

5. How long have you been employed in the bank?

TABLE 5

Responses of year of services

Years of services Number of respondents Percentage (%)

1-2year 40 20%

3-4years 140 70%

5-6years 10 5%

6years and above 10 5%

Total 200 100%

Table five show that the highest percentage of respondents is between 3-4years which (70 %) followed by 1-2years which is also (20 %) and 5-6years is (5%) while 6years and above is also (5%)

6. What is your position in the bank?

Table 6

Responses on occupational status

Position Number of respondent Percent (%)

Manager 0 0%

Auditor 0 0%

Accountant 20 10%

Marketer 10 5%

Cashier 150 75%

Customer Care Attendant 20 10%

Total 200 100%

Table 6 show that the highest respondent from this question are the cashiers which is (75%) followed by the accountant (10%) and customer care attendant which is also (10%) and marketer which is (5%) they were no responses from the manager and auditor.

7. What was the main basis for your employment?

Table 7

Responses on the basis of employment

Basis of Employment Number of respondent Percent (%)

Gender 40 20%

Educational qualification 160 80%

Total 200 100%

Table 7 show that (80%) of the respondent were employed because of educational qualification while (20%) of the respondent said they were employed based on their gender

8. Is there an official policy on employment in the bank based on gender?

Table 8

Responses on official policy on employment in bank based on gender

Official Policy Number of respondent Percent (%)

Yes 20 10%

No 180 90%

Total 200 100%

Table 8 show that (98%) of respondent said that there are no official policy of employment in the bank based on gender while only (10%) agreed that there is an official policy in the bank based on gender.

In answering question (9) the analysis in table (8) shows that majority of the respondents said that there is no official policy of employment in the bank based on gender.

This implies that banks in Ebonyi State based their employment more on educational qualification rather than one’s gender.

10. Are there sections specifically reserved for men in the bank?

Table 10

Responses on job specifically reserve for men

Job reserve for men Number of respondent Percent (%)

Yes 160 80%

No 40 20%

Total 200 100%

Table 10 show that (80%) of the respondent said that there are sections in the bank specifically reserved for men while (20%) said no.

This generally implies that majority of the respondent agreed that there are sections in the bank that are reserved for men.

11. Why are they preferred in certain section of the bank than women?

Table 11

Responses on reasons why men are preferred in certain section of the bank

Reasons why men are preferred Number of respondent Percent (%)

Men are more competent 5 2.5%

Men are more suitable 160 80%

Men are more qualified 0 0%

There is no preference between men women 35 17.5%

Total 200 100%

Table 11show that (80%) of respondent said that men are more suitable in certain jobs than women (17.5%) of the respondent said that there is no preference between men and women employees while (2.5%) of the respondent said that men are more competent than women.

12. Why are women preferred in certain section of the bank?

Table 12

Response on reason why women are preferred in certain section in the bank

Reasons why women are preferred Number of respondent Percent (%)

There are more competent 20 10%

There are more qualified 30 15%

The relate well to customers 150 75%

Total 200 100%

Table 12 show that (75%) of the respondent agreed that women relate well with customers and (10%) also agreed that they are more competent while only (15%) of the respondent disagree. This show that majority of the

respondents agreed that women are more preferred in certain sections of the bank.

13. Have been promoted?

Table 13

Responses on opinion on promotion

Opinion or promotion Number of respondent Percent (%)

Yes 5 2.5%

No 195 97.5%

Total 200 100%

Table 13 show that only (2.5%) of the respondent said that they been promoted, while (97.5%) said they’ve not been promoted.

So in answering question (14) promotion is not based on gender.

15. What are the factors that influence the employment of a given employee to section of your bank in Ebonyi State?

Responses on factors that influence employment

Factors that influence employment Number of respondent Percent (%)

Gender 20 10%

Age 10 5%

Educational qualification 170 85%

Total 200 100%

Table 15 show that majority of the respondents constitute (85%) of the 200 respondents which said that educational qualification influence the employment of an employee to a certain section of the bank , while (10%)of the respondents says that gender also determine the section were he or she will be employed and only (5%)agreed with age determination of employment.

16. What can be done to ensure gender balance in employment, not only in banking industries but in other section of the economy?

TABLE 16

Responses on measure to ensure gender balance in employment

Balance in employment Number of respondent Percent (%)

Quota system 25 12.5%

Employment bases on Educational qualification 160 80%

Both gender should be represented in the recruiting management 15 7.5%

Total 200 100%

Table 16 show that (80%) of the respondents agreed on employment based on educational qualification, base on educational qualification, (12.5%) of the respondents agreed on quota system, while (7.5%) agreed on having both male and female as representatives on the recruiting management. Analysis of table 16 generally implies that employing staff based on their educational qualification can ensure gender balance in employment in banking industries and in every other section of the economy.

4.3 TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS

Chi-square statistical model is used in testing the two hypothesis formicated in chapter one (1)

DEFINITION OF STATISTICAL NOTATION USED

H1—substantive Hypothesis

Ho—Null Hypothesis

O—Observed frequently

E—Expected of frequently

X2—Computed chi- square

DF—Degree of freedom

> — Greeter than

< — less than

 

TV – table valve

FORMULAS

1=1

Hypothesis I

STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

Hi One’s educational qualification is more considered in employment in the banking sector rather than one gender

Ho One’s educational qualification is not considered in employment in the banking sector rather than one gender

TEST STATISTICS CHI-SQUARE (X2)

1=1

Responses in table 15 are used in testing hypothesis I

CHI—SQUARE TABLE

20 667 -46.7 218.89 32.7

10 66.7 -56.7 3214.89 48.2

170 66.7 103.3 10676.89 160.0

200

SOURCE: Field work 2008

X2 = 640.9

Significant level = 0.05

df= k- 1=3-1=2

Table value = 5.991

DECISION: Since X2 (640.9) >TV (5.991), the null hypothesis is rejected. End the substantive hypothesis accepted conclusion: This means that one educational qualification is more considered in banking industries rather than gender.

HYPOTHESIS II

STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

Hi. Some section in the bank requires a particular gender than the others

Ho. Some sections in the bank does not requires a particular gender that the other’s

TEST STATISTICS: CHI- SQUARE (X2 )

1=1

Responses in table 10 are used in testing hypothesis II

CHI-SQUARE TABLE

160 100 60 3600 36

40 100 -60 3600 36

200 72

SOURCE: Field work 2008

significant level =0.05

df=K-1=2-1=1

table value =3=841

DECISION: Since X2 (72)> TV (3.841)

The null hypothesis is rejected and the substantive hypothesis accepted.

CONCLUSION: This means that some sections in the bank require a particular gender than others

DISCUSSION

This chapter is primarily concerned with the discussion of finding. Summary of findings, limitations of study, recommendation and the conclusion of the study on the effect of gender preference on employment decision a study of selected banks in Ebonyi State Nigeria

5.1 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

The study on the effect on gender preference on employment decision which was carried out in some selected banks in Ebonyi State Nigeria has shown that female are not discriminated against in Ebonyi State. Women actually out number men based on the sample size used. Out of (200) two hundred respondents. Women constitute sixty percentages the sample size, while men are fourty percentage of the two hundred sampled

However, it was discovered from the study that the employment in the banking industries in Ebonyi State qualification is both from male and female candidates with good educational qualifications, both gender stand equal chances of employment in to the bank irrespective of one gender this is proved by hypothesis tested.

Reineke and school (1980) opined that each job is studied to determine what work it involved and qualification needed by the persons who will be fill for it

Furthermore the finding of the study also show that although there are no preferences in employment into the banking industries in Ebonyi State Nigeria, there are preference in the employment of staff in certain sections of the bank from the responses in the questionnaires. There are certain sections in the bank most suited for women, and also those reserved for men and example’s of jobs that are most suited for women are as follows marketing department, customer services unit, foreign exchange unit cleaning section etc.

Reinecke (1980) examined some produces, which follows in the recruiting or employing the right kind of personnel to the right jobs, the researcher showed that male gender is preference in certain sections of the bank such as operations foreign exchange. Legal department, chief executive offers (CEO) because they are more stable and have less disturbance on their work, unlike their female counterparts who get distracted by things like taking care of their homes and children, going on maternity leaves or taking some days off for some other physiological problems

Reito (1979) pointed out that some people have agreed that the genetic differences, especially differences in hormones are responsible for supposed difference between men and female in temperament interest and skill. He further stated that anthropologist, psychologist and others have argued that males and females are basically similar in their psychological behaviour qualities at birth but that the heavy hands of social learning and cultural expectations trains the sexes differently, so that pervasive differences are present by the time adulthood is researched. Money and Exhait (1988) added to the above view by arguing that males and females may have some biological differences in behavioural tendencies at birth. But the major differences arise from social learning. Nevertheless, the finding of the study show that the majority of the staff are single especially the female staff, this according to one of the supervisors interviewed is because banking is a very demanding and time concerning job only single female staff can be fully dedicated to their work, unlike married women who can easily be distracted by family responsibilities. Findings of the study also show that some of the branch manager interviewed maintained that due to motherhool house wife role, which tie wives to their husbands, women are less geographically mobile than men in most sections in the bank. This required geographical mobility which women are likely to engage in but because the husband disapproved or because she just can not leave her family (husband and children) and so off on an assignment or transfer as the case may be in the case of male worker’s he is in control of his movement and the family is much likely to move house in order to follow the man’s career than that of the women.

5.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

Concerning the phenomenon of the effects on gender preference on employment decision the entire research work is summarized starting from chapter one to chapter five. I shall present the summary one after the other. Chapter one (1) dwell on the background of the study, statement of research problem, scope of the study, aims and objectives of the study were presented, research questions were formulated, some technical terms were defined and the statement of hypothesis formulated were presented.

In continuation, chapter two focused on the review of related literatures on the effects of gender preference on employment decision the theories of functionalist theory of comet, Spencer and Durkhiem the conflict. The conflict theory of karl-marx and George Simmel and the integrations theory of john Dewey and George Herbert were well chosen and carefully examined as theoretical framework from the study.

Further more, chapter three concerned with the research methodology which includes the research design, the description of the study which were selected banks in Ebonyi State Nigeria. Study population was base on two hundred and eight six (286) being the total number of staff of the selected banks in Ebonyi State the sample size of two hundred (200) was well chosen and sample frame constructed through sampling technique. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were utilized and with questionnaires as the main instrument of data collection, method of data analysis and processing were given.

This brings us to chapter four which deals with data presentation and analysis. Data collected during field work were carefully and critically analyzes starting from the demographic characteristics of the respondents, analysis of the major theme as well as the test of the formulated hypothesis.

Finally in chapter five, the researcher made conclusion and recommendations based on the findings of the study

5.3 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

The study is not without some limitations, the limitations of this study are as follows.

1. Material constraint: There was shortage of materials to build literature review. The research has to move from one library to other in search of materials since materials were not readly available in one library. It has been laborious

2. Financial constraint: Researching on the effect of gender preference on employment decision was a high money consuming venture and very cumbersome task for the researcher. Money was required in shutting between Ebonyi State University. The researcher institution of learning and her study area which is selected banks in Ebonyi State. There was shortage of money to carry out other research related activities.

3. Time constraint:- The researcher also encountered time constraint, since the time required for his study was short the researcher has no option than to work more harder without adequate rest in other to hasten up and provide findings of the study.

4. Lack of co-operation/apathy:- The researcher has encountered lack or co-operation from some staff in the bank, who viewed the study with suspicion, thinking that their honest expression through granting interview could cost them their jobs. She also encountered apathetic behaviour from some respondent who were pessimistic that the study will not alleviate the problem (of Gender preference).

Finally the researcher did not find it easy combining the research with her other academic activities

5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS

Having carried out an in-depth study on the effect of gender preference on employment decision, the researchers wish to summit the following recommendations which he believed will go a long way in alleviating gender preference in employment decision. This study can not be said to be complete without some meaningful recommendation based on the findings, they are as follows.

1. That scholars and government agencies should carryout a similar studies so that problem of gender role as certainment will not be allowed to cripple employment policies in Nigeria industries.

2. That through seminars and workshop, the general public is educated that both genders have equal chance of being employed into any section of our industries.

3. Employers and personnel managers should give all gender who have potentials required a particulate job, the opportunity and chance to purse such potentials

4. These should be rationale interdepartment transfers, which will expose both genders to different aspect of the job.

5. Men should be enlighted on the importance of encouraging their wives on any career she has choose as long as it has not affected the family.

6. Employers and the general society should avoid the stereotype belief which goes with perceived ability of each gender.

7. Employment into Nigeria industries especially banking industries should be strictly based on educational qualification for enhance productivity.

5.5 CONCLUSION

To begin with it could right be posited that general result/finding of this study does not differ from the acceptable degree of general compliance of similar studies carried out else where in Nigeria. Is should be re-stated that this research was executed in Ebonyi State (Abakaliki) with the hope that its result would be used for generalizing on the entire Nigeria society. For certain things. The study is unique, accurate, practical, objective, and unbiased.

It should be concluded that effects of gender preference on employment decision is a perturbing problem in our contemporary society that requires constant alertness of all individuals on the insidious effect of the incidence. Since this is the case every body need proper orientation in other not to be a victim to gender discrimination

To avoid this mishap careful planning, proper security and adequate safety precaution can immensely reduce the risk involved but they cannot be completely eliminated. Protection against the risk caused by many of them can however be obtained by taking an insurance policy.

REFERENCES

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Barron R.D and Norris G.M (1996): Sexual Division and the Dual Labour Market London: Baker and Allen Press.

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Danrode, R. (1966): Sexual Differences and Cultural Institution: New York Random House

Gilddens (1997): Introduction to Sociology, New York, Macemillan

Goode (1977): Women Development and Survival in Third Work; Longman: London

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Hacker, H. (1972): Women as a Minority Group. New York: Mabin Press

Igum, U. (1994): Sociological Theories: Theory and Applied, Edited by Otite Nigeria: Maithouse Press.

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Lynn and Maccoby (1975): The Development of Sex Differences. Standford USA: Standford University Press

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Mary, Sand Benet, M.K. (1972): Secretary an Enquiry into the Female Ghetto. London: Allen and Lane Press

Money and Earhart (1988): Psyciatrists. New York: Macmillian Press.

Mead, G.H. (1962): Mind Self and Society. Edited by C. Morris Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Murdock. (1967): Social Structure. New York: Macmillian Press.

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Oluwole, S. (1994): The Gender Conflict Discrimination Against Women, Daily Champion Newspaper, No9 Vol 12: Page 4 (October)

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Reinecke, J and Shoel W. (1980): Introduction to business contemporary view 3rd edition: Boston Bacon Inc.

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Sharpe (1976): Just Like a Girl, How Girls Learn to be Women. Hormonsworth: Penguim books.

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QUESTIONNAIRE

INSTRUCTION

Please tick (x) against the options you choose for your answers. Also, fill the corresponding spaces provided.

SECTION A

1. What is your Gender? (a) Male (b) Female

2. What is your age? (s) 18-24yrs (b) 25-31yrs

(c) 32-38yrs (d) 39-45yrs (e) 46year and above

3. What is your marital status? (a) Single (b) Married

(c) Divorced (d) Widowed

4. What is the level of your educational qualification?

(a) Non-formal education (b) FSLC

(c) SSCE/ its equivalent (d) NCE/OND

(e) HND/degree (f) Others please specify…………………..

SECTION B

5. How long have you been employed in the bank?

(a) 1-2years (b) 3-4years (c) 5-6years

(D) Years and above

6. What is your position in the bank

(A) Manager (B) Auditor (C) Accountant

(D) Marketer (E) cashier (F) Other please specify …………………………………………………………………………………………..

7. What was the main basis for your employment?

(A) Gender (B) Educational qualification (C) Others please specify ……………………………………………………………………

8. Is there an official policy of employment in the bank based on gender

(A) Yes (B) No

9. If yes to item2: which gender us usually favoured by this policy?

(A) Male (B) Female

10. Are there sections specifically reserved for men in the bank

(A) Yes (B) No

11. Why are they preferred in certain sections of the bank than women?

(A) They are more competent

(B) They are more stable

(C) They are more qualified than female

D) There is no reference between male and female

12. Are there certain sections in the banks most suited for women?

(A) Yes (B) No

13. Why are female preferred in certain sections of the bank?

(A) They are more competent

(B) They are more qualified

(C) They relate well to customers

14. Have you ever been promoted?

(A) Yes (B) NO

15. If the answer is no to item 15 is it because of the gender?

(A) Yes (B) No

16. What are the factors that influence the employment of a given employee to a section of the bank in Ebonyi State?

(A) Gender (B) Age (C) Educational qualification

(D) Others please specify ……………………………………………….

17. Do you think the employment policies in the bank is based on gender

(A) Yes (B) No

18. What can be done to ensure gender balance in employment not only in banking industries but in other sections of the economy?

(A) Quata system

(B) Employment based on educational qualification

(C) Both gender should be represented in the recruiting management

Gender Preference – Effects On Employment Decision: A Study Of Selected Banks In Ebonyi State Nigeria

 

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