FEEDING YOUR COMPUTER: DISKS, FILES, AND OTHER MUNCHIES
Computers eat bite-sized, cracker-shaped things called disks. Well, they don’t actually eat the disks. They just read information off the disks and write information on the disks. Your job is to disks in the computer’s mouth-the disk drive-without getting bit.To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to
GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183
Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.
WHAT’S A DISK
A disk is a circular piece of plastic that’s covered with microscopic magnetic particles (A floppy disk is circular on the inside, but is covered with a square plastic case). A disk drive inside the computer can “read” the charges of the magnetic particles and convert them to electrical charges that are stored in the computer’s memory. The drive can also write information from memory (RAM) to the disk the same way a cassette recorder can record sounds on a tape.
DISK DRIVES: EASY As A-B-C
Most computers have three disk drives, as shown here. DOS refers to the drives as A,C, and D. if you’re wonder what happened to B, it’s used only if the computer has second floppy drive.
THE FLOPPY DISK DRIVES: A (and Sometimes B)
Your computer’s system unit has one or more slots or openings on the front, into which you can shove a floppy disk, a CD, or a tape, depending on the type of drive it is. For now, look for a narrow slot that might be horizontal or vertical. This is your computer’s floppy disk drive. The drive’s not floppy, the disk is; even the disk isn’t very floppy, as you will soon learn.
When feeding your computer, make sure you feed it only floppy disks, use the disk identification guide.
THE HARD DISK DRIVE: C
The drive shown inside the computer is the internal hard disk drive, usually called drive C. Some computers have an external hard drive, which sits outside of the computer and is connected to the system unit by a cable (it’s still drive C) with hard drives, you don’t handle the disk; it’s hermetically sealed inside the drive.
TWO, TWO, TWO DISKS IN ONE
A hard disk can be portioned (or divided) into one or more drives, which your computer refers to as drive C, drive E and son. (don’t be fooled; it’s still one disk drive). The actual hard disk drive is called the physical drive; each partition is called a logical drive.
THE CD-ROM DRIVE: D
If you’re lucky, your computer has a CD-ROM drive. If it’s an internal CD-ROM drive, it will be near the floppy drives, although the CD-ROM drive is larger and is never vertical. If it’s an external drive, it will stand alone, connected with a cable to your system unit. Either way, the CD-ROM drive is usually drive D. these drives are very similar to audio CD players; most can even play audio CDs.
You may have seen people place the system unit on its side. Hey, it saves space and looks cool. However, if your system unit has a CD-ROM drive, don’t ever set the system unit on its side. In addition to making it nearly impossible to insert a disc in the drive, setting the system unit on its side would damage the CD-ROM drive.
SERVING INFORMATION TO THE COMPUTER ON FLOPPY DISKS
Think a floppy disk as a serving tray. Whenever you want to get information into the computer, you must deliver the information on a floppy disk. Likewise, if there is sometime in your computer that you want to store for safekeeping or share with another user, you can copy the information from the computer to a floppy disk.
Two characteristics describe floppy disks: size and capacity size you can measure with a ruler. The sizes tells you which floppy drive the disk will fit in. you can get 3 ½” disks or 5 ½ ‘ disks.
CAN MY DRIVE READ THIS DISK?
In general, a disk drive can read disk that are equal to or less equal to or less than its capacity. A high-capacity disk drive can read low-capacity disk, but the reverse will not work; a low-capacity disk cannot read high-capacity disks. Fortunately, manufacturers have stopped making and using low-capacity drives.
CAPACITY: refers to the amount of information the disk can hold; it’s sort of like pints, quarts and gallons. Capacity is measured in kilobytes (K) and megabytes (MB). Each byte consists of eight bits and is used to store a single character – A,B,C1,2,3 and so on (for example 01000001 is a byte represents an uppercase A; each 1 or 0 is a bit). A kilobyte is 1,024 bytes – 1,024 character. A megabyte is a little over a million bytes. A gigabytes is a little over 1,000 megabytes. Grababyte means to go get lunch.
A disk’s capacity depends on whether it stores information on one side of the disk (single-sided) or both sides (double-sided) and on how much information it lets you cram into a given amount of space (the disk’s density).
To understand density, think of a disk covered with magnetic dust. Each particle of dust stores one piece of data. No matter how large or small the particle, it still stores only one piece of data. With low-density disks, the particles are large, so the disk can hold fewer particles (less data). With high-density disks, the particles are small, so more particles can be packed into less space and the disk can store more data.
The following table shows the four basic types of floppy disks and how much information each type can hold.
Four Basic Types of Floppy Disk
Disk Size Disk Type Disk Capacity
5 ¼ Double-sized double density (DS/DD) 360k
5 ½ Double-sided high density (DS/HD) 1.2MB
3 ½ Double-sided double density (DS/DD) 720K
3 ½ Double-sided High density (DS/HD) 1.44mb
FLOPPY DISK HANDLING DOS AND DON’TS
Every beginning computer book contains a list of precautions telling you what not to do to a disk. Don’t touch it here, don’t get it near any magnets, blah blah blah…Although these are good warnings, by the time you get done reading them, you’re too afraid to even pick up a disk.
My recommendations is to chill out when it comes to disk. They’re pretty sturdy, especially the 3 ½ variety. Throw a disk across the room; it’ll survive. Touch the exposed part (God forbid), and your data will probably remain intact. The best advice I can give you is to treat a disk as if is your favourite CD or cassette tape. However, if you really want to ruin a disk, perform the following acts of destruction.
– Chew on it like a pen cap
– Use a disk as a coaster to keep those ugly rings off your desk
– Take a refrigerator magnet and rub it all over the disk in tiny circles. (usually, if you just rest the magnet on the disk it won’t do anything)
– Walk on the disk with spike heels
STICKING IT IN, PULLING IT OUT
A disk will fit into a floppy drive in any number of ways; upside-down, sideways even backward. But a disk drive is like one of those dollar changer machines; if you don’t insert the disk the right way, the drive won’t be able to read it. To insert the disk properly,
1. Hold the disk by its label, with the label facing up
2. Insert the disk into the drive, as shown in the following figures. (If the disk slot is vertical, hold the disk so the label faces away from the eject button)
3. If the floppy drive has a lever or a door, close the door or flip the lever so it covers the slot.
Now, that you have the disk in the drive, how do you get it out? Here’s what you do:
1. Make sure the drive light is off.
2. If the drive has an eject button, press the button, and the disk will pop out like a piece of toast. If the drive has a lever or door, flip the lever or open the door, and the disk will partially pop out.
3. Gently pull the disk from the drive. Insert the disk into its pouch so the label faces out.
MAKING A FLOPPY DISK USEFUL
You get a brand new box of disks. Can you use them to store information? Maybe if the disk came preformatted, you’ll have to format them yourself, with the help of DOS or windows.
Formatting divides a disk into small storage areas and create a file allocation table (FAT) on the disk. Whenever you save a file to disk, the parts of the file are saved in one, or more of these storage areas. The FAT functions as in inventory chart, telling your computer the location of information in all of its storage areas.
FORMAT NEW DISK ONLY
You normally format a disk only once: when it is brand new, if you format a disk that contains data, that data is erased during the formatting process. Before you format a disk, make sure the disk is blank or that it contains data you will never again need.
LOADING AND UNLOADING CDS
You can’t just slid a CD into your computer like a nickel in a slot machine. You have to serve it to your computer on a tray, just as if you were placing an audio CD in your CD player. And you have to be just as careful handling these CD-ROMs. Hold the CD only by its edge, so you don’t get any gooey fingerprints on the surface that the CD-ROM player has to read.
Some CD-ROM drives come with a removable carriage. You remove the CD from its jewel case, place the CD into the carriage, and then insert the carriage into the drive. Other drives have a built in carriage tat’s sort of like a dresser drawer. You press the button to open the carriage, and then you place the CD in the carriage and push it closed (or press the load/Eject button, which automatically closes the carriage)
If you ever have trouble “playing” a CD in your CD-ROM drive, it might be because the CD is dirty. To clean the CD, wipe it off with a soft, lint-free cloth from the center of the CD out to its edge. Don’t wipe in little circle, no matter what your mother says, if something sticky gets on it, spray a little window cleaner on it, and then wipe, let the CD dry thoroughly before inserting it in the drive.
INSIDE THE BELLY OF YOUR COMPUTER: THE HARD DRIVE
Like I said earlier, floppy disks are bite-sized morsels – mere finger-food for a computer. Any computer worth its salt can gobble up a handful of floppy disks in a matter of seconds and still be grumbling for more. To prevent the computer from always asking for more disks, computer engineers have given modern computers the equivalent of stomachs. The stomachs are called hard disk drives, and these hard disks can store lots of information.
The hard disk drive is like a big floppy disk drive complete with disk (you don’t take the disk out, it stays in the drive forever) a medium- sized hard disk drive can store over 500 megabytes, the equivalent of about 350 ½ inch, high density floppy disks. Many new computers come with a hard drive can store over gigabyte – 1,000 megabytes! Sound excessive? When you consider that Microsoft Windows 95 consumes about 80 megabytes, a gigbytes doesn’t look all that big.
To get information to the hard disk, you copy information to it from floppy disks or CDs, or you save the files you create directly to the hard disk. The information stays on the hard disk until you choose to erase the information. When the computer needs information, it goes directly to the hard disk, reads the information into memory, and continues working.
DON’T FEED THE ANIMALS: DISKLESS WORKSTATIONS
If your computer is part of the a network, it may not have any floppy disk drives or a hard disk drive. If that’s the case, forget all this babble about floppy disks and hard disks. Your network probably has a server with a disk drive as big as an elephant that stores all the information and programs everyone in the company needs. A person called the network administrator acts as the zookeeper, feeding the server, making sure all the information you need is on hand, and keeping the serve happy.
You may have heard the buzz about IBM’s new computers that come without a hard disk drive. Supposedly, before the year 2000, we’ll all be using remote storage facilities on the internet, so we won’t need hard disk space (IBM is betting on it, anyway). IBM and a couple other companies are creating inexpensive computers that basically connect to the internet and use its resources instead of the resources of the computer itself. These computers are supposed to sell for about 500 bucks.
THE FOOD ON THE DISKS: FILES
Information doesn’t just slosh around on a disk like slop in a bucket. Each packet of information is stored as a separate file that has its own name.
Your computer uses two types of files, data files and program files. Data files are the files you create and save – your business letter, report, the pictures you draw, the result of any game you save. Program files are the files you get when you purchase a program. These files contain the instructions that tell your computer how to perform a task. A program may consist of a hundred or more interrelated files.
GETTING YOUR ACT TOGETHER WITH DIRECTORIES
Because hard disks can store thousands of files, you need to create directories and subdirectories (called folders in Windows 95) to help organize your files. To understand directories, think of your disk as a city. All your files are like little houses inside the city. Directories are like postal zones, grouping the files to make them easier to locate. In this analogy, a directory name is like a ZIP code. Whenever you are looking for a file, you can use the directory name to help you determine the file’s general location.
Whenever you install a program, the installation utility (which places the program on your hard disk) automatically creates a directory for the program. For your own files, the easiest way to creates directories is to use File Manager (in Windows 3.1) or Windows Explorer (in Windows 95). You can also use DOS to create directors see Chapter 20, “Making and Deleting Directories (or Folders),” for more information.
Directories and subdirectories form a structure, shown in the picture, that looks like a family tree. The directory at the top of the tree is called the root directory (every disk has one). Why the root is at the top of the tree is beyond me, but that’s the way it is. This tree structure is standard to many file management programs, including DOS, so you will soon get tired of seeing it.
To understand how your computer locates files, it’s helpful to look at the directory tree in terms of a path. Whenever you tell your computer where a files is located, you’re essentially telling it to follow a specific path through the directory tree. For example, you may need to tell your computer to get the CUB file that’s in subdirectory LION, which is in the directory ZOO, on drive C. The path would be C:ZOOLION/CUB.
Once you get accustomed to using directories, they’re pretty straightforward; just weave through your directory tree to your destination.
THE LEAST YOU NEED TO KNOW
In this chapter, I’ve given you a lot to chew on. Make sure the following stuff sticks to your ribs:
– Most computers have three disk drives: A (the floppy drive), C (the hard disk) and D (the CD-Rom drive)
– There are four types of floppy disks: 5 ½ double-density (360K), 5 ¼ high density(1.2MB) 3 ½ double-density (720K), and 3 ½ high density (1.44MB)
– A high-density floppy disk drive can read high-density and low-density disks, but a low-density disk drive can read only low-density disks.
– Do not pull a floppy disk out of a drive when the drive light is lit.
– Never turn off the computer when the hard disk drive is lit (Okay, this wasn’t covered in this chapter, but it’s an important reminder)
– Whenever you create something on the computer, you should save it in a file on disk.
WINDOWS 95: BARE BONE BASICS
If you look Mick Jagger’s advice to “Start up” (or if the manufacture of your new computer installed Windows 95 on your hard disk), you’re now facing the opening Window 95 screen, a Spartan Screen with a lowly Start button that lets you run all your programs. But how do you start? And how do you navigate this brave, new operating system? In this chapter, you’ll find the answers you need and specific instructions on how to perform the most basic Windows 95 tasks.
WE NOW HAVE CONTROL OF YOUR TV
There’s no starting Windows 95: there’s no stopping it, either once it’s installed, it comes up whenever you turn on your computer. You won’t even see a DOS prompt. What you will see is the simplified Windows desktop, shown in the following figure.
TAKING OFF WITH THE START BUTTON
Granted, the Windows 95 screen looks about as barren as the Bonneville Salt Flats. It does, however, contain the one item you need to start working; a Start button. You click the big Start button, and menu with seven option appears. Slide the mouse pointer up to the word Programs (you don’t have to click on it), and another menu appears listing all the programs you can run. Move the mouse pointer so that it rest on the program you want to run, and then click the icon to run the desired program.
Although the Start menu is designed to make your computer easier to use, it can be a bit difficult to navigate at first. Here are a few tips to help you through your first encounter.
– If you rest the mouse pointer on an option that’s followed by a right arrow, a submenu appears, listing additional options. You might have to go through several layers of submenus before you see the name of a program you want to run
– Option that are followed by three dots (…) open a dialog box, which allows you to carry out an operation. For example, the Shut Down…option displays a dialog box that lets you shut down Windows.
– If you select an option that has no dots or arrow after it, you run a program. For example, if your open the Start menu and click Help, Windows opens the Help window, offering a list of help topics
USE OF PROGRAMS THAT COME WITH WINDOWS 95
Chances are that your computer came loaded with all sorts of software. If you purchased a family PC, it probably came with Microsoft Works, maybe fine Artist, maybe Fine Arts, and couple other top-of-the line programs. But even if your computer wasn’t garnished with additional programs, Windows 95 has several you can use to write letters, draw pictures, and perform other tasks.
To run any of these programs, click the Start button, point to Programs, point to Accessories, and then click the program you want to run.
JUGGLING PROGRAMS WITH THE TASKBAR
Program juggling: There are other ways to switch from one program to another. Try this: Hold down the Alt key and press the Tab key once, twice, three times, each time you press Tab, the name of another running program appears. When you release the Alt key, Windows switches to that program. You can also press Ctrl+Esc to open the start menu
Multitasking (working with several programs at once) in previous versions of Windows was like taking a Zen lesson in resignation: if you clicked on the wrong spot, the window you were working in disappeared under an avalanche of other windows. If you were lucky, you might see an edge of the window that you could click to get it to jump in front of the other windows.
Windows 95 makes it much easier to switch from one program to another. Window 95 displays a taskbar at the button of the screen, giving you a button for each program that’s running. If you happen to lose a window at the button of a stack, just click on its name in the taskbar to get it back.
Keep in mind that each program you have open (the program button appears on the taskbar) uses part of your computer’s memory. As you use more memory, the program you’re using runs slower. If you’re not using a program, exist it.
STUPID TASKBAR TRICKS
Normally, the taskbar just lurks at the bottom of the screen until you need it. If you’re bored, however, the taskbar offers some mild entertainment. Try the following:
– Drag the taskbar to the top of the screen or to the left right side of the screen to move it.
– Move the mouse pointer over one edge of the taskbar until the pointer turns into a double-headed arrow. Then, drag the edge up or down to resize the taskbar
– Double-click the time in the taskbar. This display a dialog box that let you set the time and date
– Right-click on a blank area of the taskbar, and click Properties. A dialog box appears, allowing you to change the way the taskbar behaves.
If your taskbar “disappear,” you may have turned on the Auto Hide option in the Taskbar Properties dialog box. If Auto Hide is on, you can bring the taskbar into view by resting the mouse pointer at the edge of the screen where the bar typically appears (the bottom of the screen, unless you moved the taskbar) and the taskbar into view. To turn off Auto Hide, right-click on a blank area of the taskbar, select Properties, click Auto Hide, and click Ok.
The taskbar might also disappear if you shrink. In this case, rest the mouse pointer at the edge of the screen where the taskbar usually appears; the mouse pointer should turn into a double-headed arrow. Hold down the mouse button, and drag away from the edge of the screen. This makes the taskbar bigger, so you can see it.
DEALING WITH WINDOWS
Working in Windows is like being the dealer in a card game. Whatever you start a program or maximize an icon, a new window appears on-screen in front of the other windows. Open enough windows, and pretty soon, your screen looks like you’ve just dealt a hand of 52 card pickup. To switch to a window or reorganize the windows on the desktop, use any of the following tricks:
– If you can see any of the window, click on it to move it to the front of the stack
– To quickly arrange the windows, right-click on a blank area of the taskbar, and from the shortcut menu that appears, choose one of the following option: Tile, Horizontally, Tile Vertically, or Cascade. With Cascade, you can see the title bar (at the top) of each window. Click inside a title bar to move the window to the front.
– To close a window (and exist the program), click the close button (the one with the X on it,) located in the upper right corner f the window
– To make a window take up the whole screen, click the Maximize button (just to the left of the close button). The Maximize button then turns into a Restore button, which allows you to return the window to its previous size.
– To shrink a window, click the minimize button (two buttons on the left of the close button). The minimized window appears as a button on the taskbar. Click the button on the taskbar to reopen the window.
– To resize or reshape a window, place your mouse pointer in the lower right corner of the window, and when the printer turns to a double-headed arrow, drag the corner of the window.
– To move a window, drag its title bar (you can’t move a maximized window, because it takes up the whole screen)
SEEING MORE WITH SCROLL BARS
Think of a window as…well, a window. When you look through a window, you don’t see everything that’s on the other side of the window. You see only a portion of it.
A windows window is the same. If a window cannot display everything it contains, a scroll bar appears along the right side or bottom of the window. You can use the scroll bar to bring the hidden contents of the window into view, as follows:
– Scroll box: Move the mouse pointer over the scroll box, hold down the muse button, and then drag the box to the area of the window you want to view. For example, to move to the middle of the window’s contents, drag the scroll box to the middle of the bar.
– Scroll Bar: Click once inside the scroll bar, on either side of the scroll box, to move the view one screenful at a time. For example, if you click once below the scroll box, you will see the next windowful of information.
– Scroll arrows: Click once on an arrow to scroll incrementally (typically one line at a time) in the direction of the arrow. Hold down the mouse button to scroll continuously in that direction.
BARKING OUT ORDERS IN WINDOWS 95
Until the programming wizards work out the bugs in voice-activated computing, we have to settle for selecting menu commands and clicking on little on screen pictures. The following will help you survive this transitional period.
TAKE YOUR PICK: USING A PULL-DOWN MENU
Pull-down menus are lists of commands and option that hid inside a bar just below a program’s title bar. You click on the menu’s name to open it, and then you click on the command you want to use. When you open a pull-down menu, you get a list of commands that may vary in appearance.
– Dimmed commands are not accessible. For example, if you try to select the copy command but have nothing selected, the copy command appears dim.
– A command followed by an arrow opens a submenu that contains additional commands
– A command followed by an ellipsis (…) opens a dialog box that requests additional information. Skip ahead to the next section to figure out what to do.
– A command preceded by a check mark is an option that you can turn on or off. The check mark indicates that the option is on. Selecting the option removes the check mark and turns it off.
CONVERSING WITH WINDOWS THROUGH DIALOG BOXES
If you pick a command that’s followed by an ellipsis (…) Windows shoves a dialog box at you, asking for more information. You have to fill out the form and then give your ok before windows will proceed.
Each dialog box contains one or more of the following elements:
Tabs allows you to flip through the “pages” of options. Click a tab to view a set of related options
List boxes provide available choices. To select an item in the list, click it.
Drop-down lists are similar to list boxes, but only one item in the list is shown. To see the rest of the items, click the down arrow to the right of the list box.
Text boxes allow you to type an entry. To activate a text box, click inside it. To edit text that’s already in the box, use the arrow keys to move the insertion point, and then use the Del or backspace key to delete exiting character. Then type your entry.
Check boxes allow you to select one or more items in a group of options for example, if you are styling text, you may select Bold and Italic to have the text appear in both bold and italic type. To select an item, click on it.
Option buttons are like check boxes, but you can select only one option button in a group. Clicking on one button deselects any option that is already selected.
Spin boxes usually have a numerical entry with an up and down arrow button to the right of it. You increase the number by clicking the up arrow, or decrease it by clicking the down arrow.
Command buttons allow you to enter or cancel your selections. Once you have responded to the dialog box by entering your choices, you click a command button to finalize the entry. Most dialog boxes have at least three command buttons: one to give your final ok, another to cancel your selections, and one to get help.
Many windows 95 dialog boxes offer an additional features that lets you get help. If you see a dialog box has a question mark button in the upper right corner, you can click the button for help. A question mark then appears next to the mouse printer. You can click on option in the dialog box, and Windows will display will display a box describing the option. Click outside the Help box to turn it off.
RIGHT-CLICKING FOR QUICK COMMANDS
Financially searching for a use for the right mouse button, programmers have recently developed context-sensitive menus. Here’s how they work. Move the mouse pointer over an object (say a window’s title bar, an icon, a file, or some text you selected), and then click the right mouse button. Up pops a small shortcut menu that lists all the options available for that object.
For example, say you right-click the My computer icon. The menu you get offers options for opening the window, exploring its contents (with Windows Explorer), finding an items, creating a shortcut (sort of a copy of the icon) or changing the icon’s properties. In short, you don’t really have to know what you’re doing; just right-click and pick an option. Try right-clicking on a blank area of the Windows desktop or on the time of day (right side of the taskbar) to see more examples of shortcut menus.
TAKING SHORTCUTS WITH TOOLBARS
Most windows 95 programs display one or more toolbars just below the menu bar. Each toolbar contains buttons that allow you to enter commands quickly by bypassing the menus. For examples, instead of opening the File menu, selecting Print, and then entering options in the Print dialog box, you can simply click the Print button to start printing.
Each tiny button usually has an even tinier picture that supposedly represents what the button does. However, deciphering the meanings of these pictures can be slightly difficult. To help, many programs offer tool tips. You rest the mouse pointer on the button, and a little box appears, displaying the name of the button.
WHAT ABOUT MY KEYBOARD?
In Windows 95, the mouse definitely rules. However, Windows 95 does offer some keystrokes you can use to bypass the normal Windows mouse moves. Here’s a list of common keystroke shortcuts:
F1 Get help in a program or dialog box
Alt + F4 Exit the current program
Shift + F10 View a shortcut menu for a selected item
Ctrl +Esc Open the Start Menu
Alt+Tab Switch to the previous window
Ctrl+C Copy the selected object
Ctrl+X Cut the selected object
Ctrl+V Paste the copied or cut object
Ctrl+Z Undo the previous action
Del Delete the selected item
HELP IS ON ITS WAY
If you get stuck in Windows 95, you don’t have to flip through a book looking for help. Instead, open the Start menu and click Help, The Help Window appears, offering a table of contents and an index. Click the Contents tab if you’re searching for general information about how to perform a task or use Windows. Double-click Tour: Ten minutes to using Windows for an animated, interactive lesson on the basics of using Windows 95. For help with specific tasks, such as running programs or working with files, double-click How to.
For specific help, click the Index tab. This tab proves an alphabetical listing of help topics that would make the most ambitious librarian cringe. The easiest way to find a topic is this lists is to click inside the text box at the top, and then start typing the name of the topic. As you type, the list scrolls to show the name of the topic that matches your entry.
The find tab offers a more extensive search tool. Instead of searching only through the index of topics, find searches the contents of the Help system. If you’re having trouble tacking down the information you need, click the Find tab and start searching.
HAD ENOUGH? SHUT IT DOWN
As with any operating system or applications, you can’t just flip the power switch on your computer when you’re done. If you try that, the computer gets revenge by deleting your work and possibly refusing to start the next time. To Shut down Windows 95, first exit any applications you were running (remember, they’re in the taskbar). Then, open the Start menu and select Shut Down.
A dialog box appears asking if you want to shut down the computer or reboot it. Click the desire option, and then click the Yes button. Wait until Windows tells you that it is now safe to shut down your computer. Okay, not flip the power switch (or press the button);
THE LEAST YOU NEED TO KNOW
All hyps aside, you want Windows 95. When you get it, keep the following in mind:
– Windows 95 starts automatically when you turn on your computer
– To run a program, click the start button and follow the menu system to your program
– To get help, click the Start button and then click Help
– The taskbar displays buttons for all the programs you’re running
– To exist Windows 95, click the Start button and select Shut Down
WINDOW 95 TIPS, TRICKS, AND TRAPS
You’ve mastered the basics, you can run a program, rearrange program windows on the screen, and even jump around with the taskbar. But there’s more to Window 95 than just running programs. You have to be able to find programs and files on your screen, use the Recycle Bin to trash and recover files, change the look and sound of Windows, and much, much more.
FINDING FILES AND PROGRAMS ON YOUR COMPUTER
A gigabyte hard drive is standard on most new computers. That’s great, but it ends up turning your computer into a huge junkyard filled with thousands of files. If you misplace a file or your favourite program wasn’t added to the Start menu, finding it can be difficult. However, Windows 95 does offer some tools for tracking down lost files and folders.
Before you go snooping around on your disk, you should meet Window 95;s two new disk management tools: My Computer and Windows Explorer. My Computer appears as an icon in the upper-left corner of your screen whenever you start Windows. It’s intended to give you easy access to your disk and files, the windows Control Panel, and to your printer settings.
Windows-Explorer (on the Start/Programs menu) is more of a full-featured files management tool for helping you keep your disks and files tidy. Both tools allow you to display the contents of your disks and folders (aka directories)
QUICKLY OPEN SAVED DOCUMENT
If you recently created or worked on a document, its name is added the Start/Document submenu. To open the document, click Start, point to Documents and click on the name of the desired document.
SEARCHING FOR FILES AND FOLDERS ON YOUR HARD DISK
If you have no idea where to look for a file or folders, have Windows 95 search for you. Open the Start menu, point to find, and click Files or Folders. This displays a dialog box, asking you to specify what you’re looking for.
In the named text box, type the name of the files or folder you’re looking for. If you can’t remember the entire name, type the first few letters of the name. open the Look in drop down list, and select the drive on which you think the file or folder is stored. Click the Find Now button. Windows searches the specified disk, and displays the names and locations of all the files and folders that matched your entry.
If you can’t remember the name of a file, but you do remember some unique text inside the files, you can use the Advanced tab in the field. All files dialog box. Click the tab, click insider the Containing ext box, and type the unique text (for example, a person’s name or address, or a topic title). Windows will search the contents of the files on your disk and display a list of files that contain the text.
LISTING FILES AND FOLDER IN MY COMPTUER
Windows 95 gives you two ways to poke around on your computer. You can double-click the My Computer icon (located on the desktop), or you can Windows Explorer. If you double-click the My Computer, icon, Windows displays icons for all the disk drives on your computer, plus two folder icons; control panel (which allows you to change system settings) and printers (for setting up a printer). You might also have a Dial-up Networking Icon, if you chose to install this features. To find out what’s on a disk or in a folder, double-click its icon.
POKING AROUND THE WINDOWS EXPLORER
Windows Explorer is My Computer’s superior twin. It allow s you to perform the same basic tasks as you can perform in my Computer, but provides better tools for managing disk, folders and files. To run Explorer, open the Start menu, point to Programs and Select Windows Explorer. You see a two-pane windows, with a directory tree on the left and a file list on the right. You can use the Explorer to copy, move and delete files and folders (directories), just as you could in the Windows 3.1 Files manager.
CUSTOMIZING MY COMPUTER AND WINDOWS EXPLORER
My computer and Windows Explorer can seem a little unwieldy at times. The files may not be listed in the best order, the icons may seem too big or small, and there must be a faster way to enter commands. To take control of My Computer or Windows Explorer, try the following
– To change the look at the icons in my Computer or Windows Explorer, open the View Menu, and select Large Icons, Small Icons (small icons with folders on the left) or Details (to display additional information such as the date and time files were created).
– To rearranged the icons, open the View menu, point to Arrange Icons, and select by Name (list alphabetically by the file names) by Type (list alphabetically by file extension) By Size, or by Date. You can also Choose Auto Arrange to have the icons rearranged automatically whenever you drag an icon. (Extension consist of three or fewer characters tacked on at the end of a file name). they indicate the file type – for example .DOC for document.
– You can have My Computer use a single windows (instead of opening a new Windows for each folder you select). Open the View menu and select Options. In the dialog box that appears, click Browse folders by using a single windows, and then click Ok.
– To display a toolbar that allows you to quickly enter commands, in either My Computer or Windows Explorer open the View menu and select toolbar.
TRASHING FILES IN THE RECYCLE BIN
Windows 95 has an on-screen trash can in which you can dump the files and icons you no longer need. Simple drag an icon from the Windows desktop or from my computer or Windows Explorer over the Recycle Bin Icon, and release the mouse button. The file is moved to the Recycle Bin. The file is not really deleted through, until you empty the Recycle Bin. Until you empty the Recycle bin, you can still recover a file that you deleted by mistake. There are other ways to send files to the Recycle Bin.
– Right Click on a file or folder, and select Delete from the shortcut menu
– Select the file or folders
GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183
Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.