Farm Management Survey In Enugu South Local Government Of Enugu State

Farm  Management Survey In Enugu South Local Government Of Enugu State

Farm  Management Survey In Enugu South Local Government Of Enugu State

Presently, in Nigeria there is improved standard of living resulting from medical and health services, which have increased life expectancy and reduced infact motility, the population of Nigeria is increasing at fantastic rate.

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This means increase demand for food. As was projected by (federal office of statistics Lagos 1984) that Nigeria would reach staggered population of six hundred and thirty million. This shows that population is growing geometrically while food production is crawling arithmetically (Uchendu 1999).

However, “agriculture continues to be the mainstay of the Nigerian economy. It provides the bulk (70%) of the employment, income and food for entire population, a source of raw material for our industries. It is an important foreign exchange earner a potential which increasingly being exploited. The crucial role of agriculture in over all development of the Nigerian economy is therefore not in doubt.

Hence, Agriculture education is thought in Nigeria’s schools, primary schools levels, and secondary school level and tertiary (colleges and Universities). That is why it is necessary for every school to have School farm According to Olaitan and mama (2001) school farm is the field laboratory specially designed for the purpose of imparting agricultural knowledge and managerial skills to students in the school through practice.

School farm is an area of land set aside by the school authority for agricultural purposes (Ogwueche 2000). Such area is provided for cultivation of crops and rearing of animals for practical; learning, consumption and for sales. These types of farm are usually carried out on a well-prepared area.

The National policy on education provided for the development of vocational agricultural programme at the secondary school level (Okorie 2001). Because of the important role of agriculture in the development of this country, the programme has been under going modification. Okorie (2001) pointed out that agricultural education as a course of study in primary school originated as rural education and letter modified as agricultural science. By this, more attempts was made to give the programme a function or practical application. Hence, system of farming and gardening devised which were considered suitable for practical school.

However, Okorie (2001) stated that record keeping and accounting was devised for checking the present state of the school farm and other necessary information. At the moment, many primary ad secondary schools in Nigeria especially those in rural areas have programmes for training primary school and secondary school/ pupils. The teaching of agriculture in primary school is aimed at achieving the objectives of the programme, which are:

(1) To help the children to develop positive attitude and interest value in agriculture activities.

(2) To provide early agriculture practices which will help the pupils in creativities and make them to appreciate agriculture as an occupation.

(3) Early practices in agriculture will enable the pupils to interpreter their environment in a scientific way (primary school syllabus, 1995).

(4) To enable pupils acquire basic knowledge in agriculture.

(5) To expose the pupils to occupation and opportunities to the field of agriculture.

For many years how, it was been observed that the nation’s rate of agriculture production couldn’t meet the demand of the feeding population. Abimbola (1986) stated that a nation that cannot produce enough for its people is not vulnerable and its claim of independence is questionable. Supporting this Uzo (1987) stated that the problems of self sufficient and increase of food in Nigeria remain static, farmers is fast deceasing as a result of old age, crude implement and frustration.

The reaction of parents towards agricultural studies in the universities contributes to student neglect on agriculture and feeling that the subject is meant for those who are only good at manual dexterity and that academically inclined student cannot go down to scratch the soil (Fafuwa 1995). Okorie (2001) stated that the last solution to our food problem would unavoidably involve the young ones (youths) who will be farmers of tomorrow.

Since teaching of practical agricultural science had been greatly emphasized, and it is observed that our secondary schools are devoid of practical work due to inadequate facilities needed for agricultural practices in school farm. Therefore, all knowledge do not come from more bookwork but practical application of materials learnt in real life situation hence, there is the need to have proper management of school farm to achieve the aims of agricultural science education. This makes it absolutely necessary for the researcher to survey the management of school farm in Enugu South Local Government of Enugu State.

Statement of the Problem

About (95%) of Nigerian has decline in farming activities hence, decrease food production. The primary aim of vocation education according to Phipps (1981) is to train present and prospective farmers for proficiency in farming.

Teacher neglect the period for farming activities in secondary schools. There is need for a well-planned and comprehensive practical training in agriculture. The realizations of the national objective vocational oriented agriculture will depends on how school farm is manage by agricultural teachers and students. Other problems are:

a) Low agricultural background from primary school to secondary school level.

b) Inadequate facilities for practical studies.

c) Poor funding of the programme

d) School authority related problems, such as not given support to agricultural practical studies.

Purpose of the Study

School farm is one of the essential facilities established in the secondary schools but little is known of the extent to which this teaching strategy has been utilized. Therefore purpose of this study is

1) To find out the types and extent of the school farm activities provided in the secondary schools.

2) To ascertain the objectives of the school farm activities as held by agricultural science teachers in the secondary schools.

3) To find out to what extent the necessary facilities required for successful school farm management are adequately provided in the secondary schools.

4) To investigate the problems militating against effective school farm management in the secondary schools.

Significance of the Study

The study will be of paramount important to all those who are in charge with the responsibility of planning agricultural education programme for secondary schools, particularly in the area of farm management.

It will also provide all the vital information about the management of school farms to educational planners, curriculum planners, school administrators, agricultural science teachers, colleges of agriculture and universities.

Conclusively, it will help the society in general to know the reason why students are not competent in school farm operation. It will also serve as a guide to West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) for registering of schools as having qualifies to present candidate for agricultural science in Senior Certificate Examination (SSCE).

Research Questions

(1) What are the types and to what extent of the school farm activities are provided in the secondary schools?

(2) What are the objectives of the school farm as held by agricultural science teacher in the secondary schools?

(3) What are the facilities provided for adequate operation of the school farm in the secondary schools?

(4) What are the problems militating against effective school farm management in the secondary schools.

Scope of the Study

This study is to investigate the management of school farm in secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Of Enugu State. The study will cover five secondary schools in Each Zone that made up the Local government.

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

For the purpose of this study, the selected literature was reviewed and presented under the following sub-heading:

(1) The meaning of school farm

(2) School farm philosophy and policy.

(3) The types and extent of the school farm activities provided to students.

(4) The objectives of the school farm as held by Agricultural science teachers in secondary schools.

(5) The facilities provided for adequate operation of the school farm in the secondary schools.

(6) The problem militating against effective school farm management.

(7) Importance of school farm

(8) Empirical of the Study

To find out the Types And Extent Of School Farm Activities provided in the secondary schools.

Olaitan and Mama (2000) said that agricultural activities provided to the students in the school farm would be interesting relevant and effective on the part of the student, if there is relationship between the content of the agriculture syllabus and the practical in the school farm. The acquired knowledge in the classroom will help them to develop faster in the school farm basic entry-level skills.

Ezedinma (1986) said that success in crops production is determined by:

(1) Adaptation of different cultural practices.

(2) Control of pests and diseases

(3) Regular service of water and irrigation in dry season

(4) Suitability of soil/soil management

(5) Good site selection/ vocational factors etc.

The manager of school farm activities should consider the above factors for successful operation of school farm. He will try as mush as possible to impact these knowledge into the students.

Olaitan and Mama (2000) said that students get many learning experiences in agricultural activities provided in the school farm and home. These experience may include growing of crops, such as yams, cassava, rice, maize, guinea corn and so on, or rearing of animals such as goat, sheep, chicken, turkey, cattle, pigeons and pets.

They said that students might not see the relevance of their experience from the home to the agricultural activities of the school until they get involved in farming activities in the school farm. While in the school farm, they learn more about improved ways of carrying out agricultural activities, which they usually transfer to their family farms. Through this process, may farmers (Parents) in the community can learn and adopt modern technology, which in turn would improve their agricultural productivity.

Adenji (1986) said that irrigation of crops, especially during the dry season as essential. Vegetable crops need water in order to do well, as water constitutes up to 70% of their cell composition. Mulching the vegetable farm is another good farming operation. Mulch is a protective covering of soil surface indented to minimize evaporation looses. Examples of mulch are grasses, saw dusts, and tree leaves. Mulching enhance infiltration in that it reduces raindrop impact on the soil. It also reduces run-off and thereby reducing water logs. The mulch materials are spread on the bed leaving small areas through which the seedling will germinate. These left out areas are space though which air water penetrate into the soil. It also lesson and avoid any difficulty in sprouting up to the seedlings.

Anyanwu (1999) recommended crop rotation as a very important crop production. The advantage of this, is that shallow rooted crops enjoy the benefits of being rotated with the deep rooted crops and vice versa. Normally, legumes are included and they help to fix nitrogen into soil.

To ascertain of the Objectives of the various School Farm activities in secondary schools:

(1) To stimulate students interest in agriculture

(2) To enable students integrate knowledge with skill in agriculture

(3) To prepare students for further studies in agriculture science

(4) To prepare students for occupation in Agriculture.

National policy of education (2004) recognized Agricultural Science as one of the core subjects through which the objectives of Agricultural education in the secondary school could be realized. Right from the primary school level, Junior and senior secondary school level the policy pledges government commitment in providing agricultural science facilities for effective operation of the programme. Such facilities include farm implements, fertilizers, seeds, demonstration farms and the services of the extension staff of the various state ministries of agriculture and qualified teachers of agriculture.

For realization of these objectives the policy stipulated guideline for permitting secondary schools and colleges to register for agriculture, The West African Examination Council through its syllabus and regulations, outlined the following about practical agriculture science.

i. Practical work is the basic for preparing students in agriculture and candidates should present practical notebook for evaluation.

ii. That secondary schools presenting candidates must operate a school farm or a well planned garden for student practical activities experiences, and two species of livestock from each of the following two groups (1) Pigs Poultry, and Rabbit, (2) Cattle, Sheep and goat. Candidates must keep practical notebooks in which are recorded individual activities base in the laboratory activities, farm activities, observations carried out on the school farm or garden field trips and specimen collected.

iii. Candidates offering Agriculture in General certificate of education, must show proof of having carried out appropriate farm activities.

iv. It is recommended that candidates who did attend schools recognized from Agriculture in the past, should attach themselves to recognized schools for a minimum of two years. Candidates so attached are required to obtain signed records of their farming activities from the principles of those schools at the end of the period.

v. There is provision for candidates wishing to improve on their previous grades such candidates should be attached to schools recognized for Agriculture for not less than one year after which period they should obtain certificate, records of their farming activities from the co-operating principal.

vi. A practical paper to be taken in either a laboratory or an ordinary classroom should be set to test skill in observation and recognition of agricultural material and things of agriculture importance.

One of the seven goals of traditional African Education is to acquire skill specific vocational training and intellectual skill. And the school farm will help the students to acquire specific vocational agricultural education training and intellectual skill (Fafuwa 1995). He also said that curriculum should base on what help the people identify their problems and the source of solving them. It should impact to students the spirit of patriotism, help them to acquire some manual skills and motivate them to appreciate value as production workers. This is what the newly introduced 6-3-3-4 systems have in mind.

Uchendu (1993) reported that the system 6-3-3-4 aims at exposing the child right from the early age, to both technical and vocational education, of which agricultural science is one of them. The new curriculum for the primary school embraces rudimentary principles of science and technology (Uchendu 1993). It is general and scientific and the child is expected to learn much before he leaves primary school. The workshops, school term and laboratory should be equipped and efficient instructors employed. If the facilities are provided and qualified teachers, employed, the system should produce products that will be self-reliant as their education is job-oriented system. The 6-3-3-4 systems possess a capacity to correct the flows in the old education.

Oliatan (1980) said that the school farm is of vital importance to say school or college with agricultural programmes. The school farm he said is established in the school or colleges to meet the following objectives:

(1) To earn money for the school.

(2) To provide farming practice.

(3) To put theory into practice in agriculture.

(4) To improve background knowledge in agriculture.

(5) To solve individual farming problems in agriculture.

He further enumerated the characteristics of the school farm that will help to actualize the above stated objectives, it includes:

1. Classroom Instruction, which is complement on the school farm.

2. Supervised study

3. Possibilities for crop rotation

4. Reality

5. Individual Practice.

6. Planning development and management in a unique situation.

Anyichi (1987) said that school farm in Oyo State jointly operated by ministry of education, Agriculture and the central school Board. The ministry of Education has the responsibility of providing the land while the central school Board and the staff of the schools played the personnel management role in the scheme. The principal provide all the necessary input needed for the success of school farm project and realization of the objectives. The farm manager, a staff of ministry was directly responsible for the day-to-day operation of the farm activities. The Oyo state government provided the initial fund and later the administration took over the funding for the programme. The organisational structure depicted the participants in the school farm project in their order of authority and responsibility:

(1) The principal,

(2) The farm manager,

(3) The agricultural science teachers,

(4) The gardener, and

(5) The students.

He however, said that the principal and the agricultural science teachers are in most cases not involved in day-to-day management of the school farm.

Okoye (1985) stated that in Anambra State, the ministry of Agriculture in promoting twin project and the young farm’s club stipulated the following objectives. The objectives of the two projects were outlined as follows:

(1) To provide for interaction and co-operation among youths.

(2) To inculcate in the youth a love for farming.

(3) To provide training in Scientific Agriculture.

(4) To restore the dignity of farming.

(5) To help produce more food

(6) To provide leadership and citizenship training.

(7) To provide the necessary facilities who make rural living enjoyable.

Olaitan and Mama (2000) reported that it is expected that all students should be interested and participate in the practice of agriculture. But even were most of the students come from rural communities, not all of them may be interested in agriculture, because of their personal characteristics and experience. Many of the students who come from farming families will not like to pursue further the agricultural experience acquired from their parents under peasantry. Also, some parents who are peasant farmers may not like their children to pursue any agricultural calling study in the school, because of their hard experienced in undeveloped agriculture.

Because of the above fact they stated that basic principle that will be a guide to teachers and students of agriculture. These basic principles will help to realize the goals and for the selection of students and teachers. It will also help the teacher to know the specific learning experience in the farm.

The basic principles of school farms as stated by Olaitan and Mama (2000) are:

(1) Agricultural production activities in the school farm should be intensified for student who want them, need them and can profit by them after graduation from school.

(2) The teacher must be well trained in the knowledge and skills of the school farm, which he wants to use for training students.

(3) Specific learning experience in the school farm should enable students to form right habits and thinking necessary for success in any relevant agricultural occupation.

(4) School farm should train students directly and specifically in the thinking habits and manipulative skills required in farm production operation out side the school.

(5) Farm production activities through the school should develop in the student’s minimum awareness and Entry-level skill required for entering into any profitable agricultural occupation.

(6) The school farm and its management practice should be a replica of farm production management practices out side the school.

(7) School farm environment should be where operations are carried out with the same fools, equipment and procedures as in typical farming operations in the field.

(8) School farm should make students capitalized on their interest, aptitudes and intrinsic intelligence with reference to their chosen Agricultural operations.

(9) The content of school farm management practices should emphasize knowledge. Skills and attitude occupation outside the school.

To find out whether this necessary facilities required for successful schools farm management are provided in the secondary schools

Aneke (1983) stated that for effective school farm management in agriculture, farm tools, production unit, enough land for practical agriculture etc ,should be provided in the secondary school.

Ehiemere (1987) revealed that in 1981/82 sessions that Gongola state government as part of personnel management role in operation of farm built poultry houses and made cash donation to many schools offering agriculture in the secondary school. He added that erring student should not be used to weed college’s farm, Agricultural Science teachers are not to be made labour masters needed for closer supervision of students in agricultural practical to teach the correct practical to the students.

Oleese (2003) indicated that lack of adequate and modern facilities and technologies is one of the reasons why management and introduction of vocational education in agriculture has failed to produce prospective farmers. There is need therefore, to create a stimulatory environment in the school farm, which is capable of improving, developing and sustaining the student’s interest in agriculture, which may culminate into occupational choice.

Ogbudu (1995), observed that land was provided for farm practical but that land was not enough. He further said that there were about 3 acres for 413 students on the average in schools. This has some relationship with the research conducted by Adigo (1985) in which he stated that schools in Nsukka local government area were provided with land for farm practical, but the land is not enough.

Spending (1981) was of the opinion that site and other factors are importance in good crop production hence he said that land and topography must be considered in our assessment for high quality crop production because the land, which slopes steeply, is difficult to cultivate and erosion of top soil can become a service problem in sloppy area.

Anyanwu (2002) said that inspection of soil is essential before any land is considered good for crop production. Uzo (1991) was of the opinion that dry season making of bed should be lower than that of rainy season. The bed being high in the rainy season is to raise the crop plants above the ground to reduce the effects of diseases and harmful microorganism in the soil.

Basic facilities required for agricultural development in the words of Anyanwu (2002) are:

Provision and use of insecticides, herbicides and protective chemicals;

Provision of fertilizer for maintenance of soil using organic or inorganic matters;

Provision of improved varieties of crops;

Establishment of research stations and good agricultural education for farmers and sending of extension agents to the farmers.

Obidinma (1981), discovered that most of the secondary schools offering agriculture in the west African school certificate Examination do not keep live stock and that the teaching of livestock keeping and management as an aspect of Agriculture in the secondary school was theoretically based. Teachers of agriculture he said had adequate interest in livestock rearing. But unavailability of funds and facilities were the factors militating against the establishment of livestock units in the schools. Most teachers, principals and students had genuine interest towards the establishment of livestock units. He revealed that only poultry farm was present in the schools, there is no interest in goat keeping. Supporting the above view, Egonu (1986), revealed that the students were well exposed to practical activities in crop husbandry, soil and water conservation and general agriculture, but not in live stock husbandry etc. In another related view, Chukwu (1984) found out that student have a lot of interest in harvesting fruits, and vegetable and enjoy eaten some. He added that students like pet animals, poultry and livestock. He hinted the students like gardens of tomatoes, pepper, garden eggs, African Spinach and Pineapple orchard.

Nwokoye (2002) noted that there were lack of sizeable farm and adequate equipments for the study of Agricultural science in the secondary schools. Supporting the above view, Aneke (1983) highlighted also that farm tools and equipment animal production units, enough land should be provided for practical agriculture. Also Okoroude (1983) was of the same view that the major constraints in the implementation of effective of agricultural programme were equipment and other infrastructures needed in the farm.

Ebenu (1984), reported that naturally students do not have disregard for farm practical and that farming is generally done with traditional hand tools as schools do not practice machination. The students provide the planting material, and tools but the farm produce are not given to them, rather the teachers share it among themselves. Supporting the above view Kareem (1984) revealed that both urban and rural schools are adequate equipped with simple tools for farm practice and that the majority of the tools commonly used are those usually brought by the students.

Mozie (1984) reiterated that in his report that the government do not provide sufficient funds for the agricultural programme, the tools and equipment used for farm practical has a negative effect in the secondary schools. The technique used by teachers in teaching agriculture is not appropriate. The general attitude of students towards Agriculture is not encouraging.

It is therefore, believed that school farm being an essential educational facility will only be valued when good management is the watchward of its existence in the secondary schools.

Obidinma (1981), discovered that most of the secondary schools offering agriculture in the west African school certificate Examination do not keep live stock and that the teaching of livestock keeping and management as an aspect of Agriculture in the secondary school was theoretically based. Teachers of agriculture he said had adequate interest in livestock rearing. But unavailability of funds and facilities were the factors militating against the establishment of livestock units in the schools. Most teachers, principals and students had genuine interest towards the establishment of livestock units. He revealed that only poultry farm was present in the schools, there is no interest in goat keeping. Supporting the above view, Egonu (1986), revealed that the students were well exposed to practical activities in crop husbandry, soil and water conservation and general agriculture, but not in live stock husbandry etc. In another related view, Chukwu (1984) found out that student have a lot of interest in harvesting fruits, and vegetable and enjoy eaten some. He added that students like pet animals, poultry and livestock. He hinted the students like gardens of tomatoes, pepper, garden eggs, African Spinach and Pineapple orchard.

Nwokoye (2002) noted that there were lack of sizeable farm and adequate equipments for the study of Agricultural science in the secondary schools. Supporting the above view, Aneke (1983) highlighted also that farm tools and equipment animal production units, enough land should be provided for practical agriculture. Also Okoroude (1983) was of the same view that the major constraints in the implementation of effective of agricultural programme were equipment and other infrastructures needed in the farm.

Ebenu (1984), reported that naturally students do not have disregard for farm practical and that farming is generally done with traditional hand tools as schools do not practice machination. The students provide the planting material, and tools but the farm produce are not given to them, rather the teachers share it among themselves. Supporting the above view Kareem (1984) revealed that both urban and rural schools are adequate equipped with simple tools for farm practice and that the majority of the tools commonly used are those usually brought by the students.

Mozie (1984) reiterated that in his report that the government do not provide sufficient funds for the agricultural programme, the tools and equipment used for farm practical has a negative effect in the secondary schools. The technique used by teachers in teaching agriculture is not appropriate. The general attitude of students towards Agriculture is not encouraging.

It is therefore, believed that school farm being an essential educational facility will only be valued when good management is the watchward of its existence in the secondary schools.

Obidinma (1981), discovered that most of the secondary schools offering agriculture in the west African school certificate Examination do not keep live stock and that the teaching of livestock keeping and management as an aspect of Agriculture in the secondary school was theoretically based. Teachers of agriculture he said had adequate interest in livestock rearing. But unavailability of funds and facilities were the factors militating against the establishment of livestock units in the schools. Most teachers, principals and students had genuine interest towards the establishment of livestock units. He revealed that only poultry farm was present in the schools, there is no interest in goat keeping. Supporting the above view, Egonu (1986), revealed that the students were well exposed to practical activities in crop husbandry, soil and water conservation and general agriculture, but not in live stock husbandry etc. In another related view, Chukwu (1984) found out that student have a lot of interest in harvesting fruits, and vegetable and enjoy eaten some. He added that students like pet animals, poultry and livestock. He hinted the students like gardens of tomatoes, pepper, garden eggs, African Spinach and Pineapple orchard.

Nwokoye (2002) noted that there were lack of sizeable farm and adequate equipments for the study of Agricultural science in the secondary schools. Supporting the above view, Aneke (1983) highlighted also that farm tools and equipment animal production units, enough land should be provided for practical agriculture. Also Okoroude (1983) was of the same view that the major constraints in the implementation of effective of agricultural programme were equipment and other infrastructures needed in the farm.

Ebenu (1984), reported that naturally students do not have disregard for farm practical and that farming is generally done with traditional hand tools as schools do not practice machination. The students provide the planting material, and tools but the farm produce are not given to them, rather the teachers share it among themselves. Supporting the above view Kareem (1984) revealed that both urban and rural schools are adequate equipped with simple tools for farm practice and that the majority of the tools commonly used are those usually brought by the students.

Mozie (1984) reiterated that in his report that the government do not provide sufficient funds for the agricultural programme, the tools and equipment used for farm practical has a negative effect in the secondary schools. The technique used by teachers in teaching agriculture is not appropriate. The general attitude of students towards Agriculture is not encouraging.

It is therefore, believed that school farm being an essential educational facility will only be valued when good management is the watchward of its existence in the secondary schools.

To ascertain the Problems Militating Against Effective School Farm Management and to include some strategies for improving management of school farm:

(2) Lack of necessary facilities and equipment: According to Ani (1987) students ineffective performance in Agricultural science is because they do not participate in practical work and this practice widen the students horizon on agricultural equipment and it uses. From the above statement, it is clear that problem of students in Agricultural science is related both lack of instructional materials and equipment which contributes to the student poor performance in practicals.

Balagun (1997) emphasized that equipments are very important in science teaching, without which there will be no effective science education programme. In most cases, students internalized what they saw and touches more than what they heard.

(2) Lack of suitable land for crop production: Ogbudu (1995), observed that land are provided for farm practical but it not enough. He further said that, about 3 acres of land for 413 students on the average is given for farm practices in school farm. This report proved that some secondary schools are not provided with enough land for practical experience.

McMillan (2004) in his Agricultural Education Magazine article, “The school farm 2004”, stated that the school farm is the best home for training agricultural students. He emphasized both individual homework and group ownership project should be given to students, and plots shared among the students in the school farm in order to achieve agricultural objectives.

Puckett (1999) noted that the school farm is a practical facility for teaching agricultural science students and suggested that development of school farm of any size should involve adequate consideration of all the relevant factors carefully.

Olaitan (1984) contended that the school farm is a vital facility to any school or college with agricultural programmes. Swan and Tucken (1981) emphasized that the school based agricultural experience programme is in the school farm. They observed in Sierra Leone and Illinois, that school farms are used as effective means of providing practical training and agricultural production to students, to acquire experiences in operating and adjusting farm equipment, over handling and repairing machinery, and planting cultivating and harvesting crops.

Osita (1995) expressed the view that practical agriculture will help in addition to achieve our objectives. Their need for training, because it will help to wipe out unnecessary pride and arrogance in our people and alleviate the problem of unemployment of human resources, which has been causing many social problems.

Agusiobu (1981) reported that demonstration in the farm is important teaching method that will help to actualize the objectives. He stated that it enhance vocational agriculture. Teacher besides having a sound theoretical knowledge of agriculture should be very skilled in various agricultural operation in order to make success of his job, commenting further on this, Ofor (1982) asserted that agricultural education is more effective when the teaching and learning experiences are real and practical as this will enable students give first hand information and experience.

Tillman (2002), clearly stated that out-door agricultural programmes are used as a teaching aid, for adult classes, young farmer classes and day classes. Learning is enhanced in out-door setting and the students become directly involved in school farm experiences. Out-door experiences, he reiterated enrich and prepare students for taking good decision about out-door agriculture activities.

Klastorin (2000) contended that the primary purpose of farm work placement in the school farm situation is to enable students acquire practical skills, understandings and attitudes to prepare for entrance to colleges and technical institutes of agriculture and possibility of a career in farming.

Lamar (2004) stated that combination of classroom instruction and supervision of student’s experiences in the school farm is essential experiences, which makes students learn effectively in agriculture. He said that instructions in vocational agriculture should be applied in school laboratory experience programmes utilizing the school farm.

Baeyens (2000) contributed much in his work on “Agricultural training in Lesotho” which has it that creation of personal interest in the students for agriculture and creation of facilities at the school, such as keeping of few animals and doing some agricultural project is inevitable.

Muller (1980) commenting on the use of school farm in the use of school farm in the secondary schools stated that it may be used to teach self reliance to school children as it has been successfully done in Tanzania. School children are likely to spend part of their school period in a maize field behind their desks.

Nyerere (1998) stress that the school farm apart from serving as a mechanism through which students interest are stimulated for occupational choice in agriculture, can also contribute directly to solving the food dilemma.

Mejabi (2000) stressed that what can be achieved at secondary school level can only be indirect. He observed that any direct attempt to make farmer of pupils at this level may lead to the fail of the children.

 

RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter describes the procedure used in conduction of the study and analyzing the data collected. These procedures were grouped under the following sub-headings: the design of the study, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrument for data collection, validation of instrument, reliability of the instrument, method of data collection and method of data analysis.

Research Design

This study is carried out using a survey research design. It involved soliciting from a population of teachers and students of agriculture on the management of school farm.

Area of the Study

The study was carried out in Enugu South Local government of Enugu state. The researcher used the five secondary school in different zones that made up the local government, which are: Uwani, Idam River, Akwunanow, Gariki and Ugwuaji.

Population of the Study

The target population for this study comprised all the twenty Agricultural teachers in five (5) secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government, and three hundred (300) J. S. S. and S. S. S.) Students. The names of the secondary schools are: Idaw River Girls Secondary School, Army Day Secondary School, Awkwunanow Girls Secondary School, Awkwunanow Boys Secondary School and Uwani Secondary School.

Sample and Sampling Techniques

All the twenty agricultural science teacher were used. The final selection was made randomly by chosen 60 J.S.S. and S.S.S. students in each of these five schools. This gave rise to sample population of twenty agricultural Science teacher and three hundred (300) students, making up population of three hundred and twenty (320)

Instrument for data Collection

Questionnaire was the major research instrument used in the study which comprises of sections, A to D. the four sections of the questionnaire contain twenty items which are scored with likert scale as followed Strongly Agreed (SA) = 4, Agreed (A) = 3, Disagree (D) = 2, Strongly Disagree (SD) = 1.

Method of data Collection

The questionnaire, which consists of twenty items, was distributed to various respondents in the sampled school. The questionnaires were collected immediately after the respondents have completed the data.

A total of three hundred (300) questionnaires were used for the collection of data, comprising one hundred and twenty percent (120%) of the sample. The sample was made of three hundred and twenty persons (320) persons including teachers and students.

Validation of Instrument

The questionnaire was face validated by my supervisor. The language, contents and structure of the items were all critically examined and possible corrections and suggestions were made.

Reliability of Instrument

The reliability of the instrument was determined from the result of a pilot test adopting from test re-test method. The test re-test was conducted with three hundred (300) agricultural science students from Enugu South. The response was recorded for the first time. A gap of one week was given to repeat the test again from the respondents. This shows that the instrument was reliable. Also the questionnaire was used to Evaluate 20 agricultural teacher. After two weeks, the same test was administered.

Method of data Analysis

The data collected for the study was organized and analysed statistically using frequency count and mean for each item. The mean counts of all the respondents were also used to determine the extent of their perceptions. Using the four point likert scales, the following real limits of numbers were used to analyse the research questions.

4 = Strongly agree

3 = Agree

2 = Disagree

1 = Strongly disagree

the mean responses X is = 10/4 = 2.5

Where X = FX

N

X = mean

 = Summation

X = Nominal Value

N = Total number of respondent

Determinant of cut-off point, a cut-off point was determined after finding the mean. The cut-off was obtained by dividing the sum of nominal value by the number of scales items.

4+3+2+1 = 10 = 2.5

4

the mean of each item was calculated by the values of each scale multiply by frequency that is. In table 1, item 1 and 5 were used to show working.

30 X 4 + 40 X 3 + 100 X 2 + 150 X 1 = 320

120 + 120 + 200 + 150 = 590 1.8

320

100 X 4 + 140 X 3 + 50 X 2 + 30 X 1 = 320

400 + 420 + 100 + 30 = 950 = 2.96

320

DECISION RULE

Strongly agree and agree responses were group as agree, while disagree and strongly disagree responses were group as disagree.

 

PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS

This chapter deals with the presentation and analysis of data. The presentation is done according to the order of the research questions given in chapter one. Each questionnaire and a brief interpretation follows after each table has been represented.

RESEARCH QUESTION 1

What are the types and extent of the school farm activities provided in the secondary school?

Information on the research question contained in the questionnaire items 1 to 5, which forms the section A of the questionnaire

TABLE 1: Response on the types and extent of the school farm activities provided in the schools

S/N X Decision

1 Animal production farm activities 1.8 Disagree

2 Crop production farm activities 3.15 Agree

3 Encourage individual practical work 2.0 Disagree

4 Directing students practical work 3.9 Agree

5 Organisation of farm activities 2.96 Agree

From the above table 1, we can see that the mean score 1.8 for questionnaire item 1, falls within the real limit of disagree. This indicates that the respondents disagree with the fact that animal production farm activities are not provided to the students. Item 3 also, falls within the real limit of disagree which indicates that teachers of Agricultural science and principal do not encourage individual practical work in the schools.

However, they agree with the items 2, 4 and 5 which has the mean score 3.15, 3.09 and 2,96 respectively showing that some part of the activities are being practiced and encouraged in the schools. Activities like crop production, directing student’s practical work and organizing farm work.

From the responses, it can be observed that the number of school farm activities provided in the school is not enough.

RESEARCH QUESTION 2:

What are the objectives of the school farm as held by Agricultural Science teachers in the secondary schools?

The information on this research question is contained in questionnaire items, 6 to 10.

TABLE II: Responses on the objectives of the school farm as held by Agricultural Science teachers in the schools.

S/N X Decision

6 To teach students practical skills in agriculture 3.15 Disagree

7 To stimulate student interest in agriculture 3.12 Disagree

8 To enable student integrate knowledge with skills in Agriculture 3.12 Disagree

9 To Prepare students for further studies 3.15 Disagree

10 To Prepare studies for occupation in agriculture 3.09 Disagree

The above table shows that the mean scores 3.09 which is item 10 had the least score yet, above the cut-off point. Therefore, concluding that preparing students for occupations in agriculture is one of the objectives of school farm as held by agricultural teacher.

The respondents also agreed that items 6, 7, 8 and 10, within the respective mean score of 3.15, 3.12, 3.12 and 3.15 cluster within the real limit of acceptance. This unveils that the respondent from the sampled schools, agreed that the objectives of the school farm as held by agricultural Science teachers are, to teach students practical skills in agriculture, to stimulate students interest in agriculture to enable students integrate knowledge with skill in agriculture and prepare students for further studies.

RESEARCH QUESTION III

What are the facilities provide for adequate operation of the school farm in the secondary school?

TABLE III: Responses on the facilities provided for adequate operation of the school farm in the school.

S/N X Decision

11 Suitable land for crop production 2.96 Agree

12 Livestock equipment and pens 1.84 Disagree

13 Livestock drugs and feeds 1.87 Disagree

14 Fertilizer, Herbicides, Fungicides, Nematicides and insecticides farm 1.5 Disagree

15 Provision of planting material 1.81 Disagree

The above table is questionnaire items. Questionnaires items 12, 13, 14, and 15 falls with in the real limit of rejection. This shows that respondent does not agree that livestock equipment; pens, drugs and feeds are being provided for practical work. They also disagreed that fertilizer. Herbicides fungicides, Nematicides and insecticides are also made available for farm activities. However, the items 12, 13, 14 and 15 has the mean scores of 1.84, 1.87, 1.5 and 1.81.

The item II has a mean score of 2.96. This falls within the real limit of acceptance. This revealed that the respondents accept that suitable lands for crop production are provided by the schools.

The response however, shows that as respect of inadequate in the provision material the students lack real practical experience in agriculture.

RESEARCH QUESTION IV

What are the problems militating against effective school farm management

S/N X Decision

16 Provision of fund by government 1.75 Agree

17 Teachers good attitudes and cooperation 1.9 Agree

18 Use of crude implements and equipment for far activities 1.93 Agree

19 Provision of pens and livestock equipment for practical studies 1.87 Agree

20 Particular time allocated for practical farm activities 2.96 Agree

 

The above table, 17, 18 and 19 which has the mean scores 1.75, 1.9 and 1.87 respectively. Shows that problems militating against effective farm management are provision of fund by government, teacher’s unco-operative attitude, use crude implement and equipment for practical studies.

Moreover, they also agree that item 20 which fall within the limit range of acceptance.

 

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

In this chapter, the summary, conclusion and recommendation of this study were presented.

Summary

This study surveyed the management of school farm in secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area. Four research questions were raised to guide the study and related literatures were reviewed with research questions. The procedure used in this study includes data collected by interviewing the teachers, head of department of Agricultural Science and the students. Instrument for data collection is questionnaire formulated by the researcher from research questions. It was constructed with four (4) likert point instrument. Respondents were (320) three hundred and twenty in number. It was administered by hand and the instrument got from the questionnaires was converted into data table for analysis.

Conclusion and recommendations was base and draw from the finding analysis and discussion.

Implication of the Study

It has been discovered that Agricultural science teachers do not participate in practical work in the school farm. These results, the non-chalant attitudes of some teachers kill student’s interest. It also result the poor performance of agricultural student in practical agricultural science. Teachers are not reinforced by school authorities by not supporting them where there is need for that.

Conclusively, the necessary equipments and practical facilities are not made available for teachers. This brings about decline in the performance of students in their examination.

Conclusion

The poor performance of students in agricultural science has been as a result of teachers poor attitudes towards practical studies, non availability of the necessary facilities needed for stimulating the interest of students. And development of skills knowledge and attitude needed for advancement in Agricultural Science. Effort should be made to provide all the necessary facilities needed for agricultural practical work.

Finally, teachers should change their behaviour and become honest towards their job.

Recommendation

The following recommendation was made base on the finding of the study.

(1) More trained agricultural science teachers who will be proud of their field and ready to display their responsibility are needed.

(2) The necessary facilities and equipment for practical work is needed for enhancement of practical studies.

(3) Government should give allocation for practical Agriculture to stimulate the interest of principal, teachers, and students.

(4) Workshop and seminar should be conducted for teachers once each term or annually

Suggestion For Further Study

Base on the finding of this study the researcher hereby suggests the following studies should be carried out:

(1) Techniques for improving practical programme should investigate and mapped out.

(2) Strategies for stimulating the students interest in agricultural science should also be surveyed and provided.

(3) Strategies for attracting fund from federal government for buying the facilities and materials need for agricultural practical should be developed.

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APPENDIX

INSTRUCTION

Please tick in the appropriate box as it relates to you. students Teachers Sex

SECTIONS A

RESEARCH QUESTION 1

To find out the types and extent of the school farm activities provided in the secondary school in Enugu South Local Government of Enugu State

 

TABLE I

The types of school farm activities provided in the secondary are

S/N ITEMS SA A D SD X

1 Animal production farm activities 30 40 100 150 1.8

2 Crop production farm activities 150 100 40 30 3.15

3 Encourage individual practical work 40 50 100 130 2.0

4 Directing students practical work 140 100 50 30 3.9

5 Organisation of farm activities 100 140 50 30 2.96

 

 

SECTION B

RESEARCH QUESTION II

To ascertain the objectives of the school farm as held by Agricultural Science teachers in secondary school.

TABLE II

The objectives of the school farm as held by agricultural science teachers in secondary school are

S/N ITEMS SA A D SD X

6 To teach students practical skills in agriculture 150 100 40 30 3.15

7 Stimulate student interest in agriculture 130 120 50 20 3.12

8 Enable student into grate knowledge with skills in Agriculture 140 110 40 30 3.12

9 Prepare students for further studies 150 100 40 30 3.15

10 Prepare studies for occupation in agriculture 140 100 50 30 3.09

 

SECTION C

RESEARCH QUESTION III

To determine to what extent, the necessary facilities required for successful school farm management are adequately provided in the secondary school

 

Table III

The necessary facilities required for successful school farm management are

S/N ITEMS SA A D SD X

11 Suitable land for crop production 100 140 50 30 2.96

12 Livestock equipment and pens 30 40 100 150 1.84

13 Livestock drugs and feeds 30 40 110 140 1.87

14 Fertilizer, Herbicides, Fungicides, Nematicides and insecticides farm 20 50 120 130 1.5

15 Provision of planting material 20 50 100 130 1.81

 

SECTION D

RESEARCH QUESTION IV

To ascertain the problems militating against effective school farm management in Secondary school

 

TABLE IV

The problems militating against effective school farm management in secondary school are

S/N ITEMS SA A D SD X

16 Provision of fund by government 40 50 100 150 1.75

17 Teachers good attitudes and cooperation 20 60 110 130 1.9

18 Use of crude implements and equipment for far activities 30 40 130 120 1.93

19 Provision of pens and livestock equipment for practical studies 30 40 110 140 1.87

20 Provision of pens and livestock equipment for practical studies 100 140 50 30 2.96

Farm  Management Survey In Enugu South Local Government Of Enugu State

 

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