Low Enrolment In Various Science Education Options In Tertiary Institutions In Ebonyi State – The Cause

Low Enrolment In Various Science Education Options In Tertiary Institutions In Ebonyi State – The Cause

Low Enrolment In Various Science Education Options In Tertiary Institutions In Ebonyi State – The Cause

Science could be seen as a means of extending man’s knowledge of himself and his environment, making use of data collecting and theorizing processes. A good knowledge of science is a “sinequanon for technological advancement of any country.

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Commenting on the importance of science education to the nation, Ogundim (1972) was of the option that “just as the arts have their elites who maintain already attained standards of excellence and enrich the culture through excellence and creation and pushing of new ideals. Technology cannot hope for much advancement and repaid progress without a leader who by talent and training are in a position to improve existing facilities and equipment and to create and invent new products and process of scientific and technological practices.

Hence, science should recognized and taught as a major human activity which expresses the realm of human experience, maps it methodologically but also imaginatively. Speculation creates a coherent system of knowledge.

Today’s world has been rightly described as that of science and technology, literacy in science is therefore, seen as a need for every man and woman. The federal government of Nigeria spells. This out in it’s national policy of education (1977) by stating that practicing or arian of education should be inculcating in the child, the spirit of inquiring and creatively through exploration of nature and local environment, it goes further to say that secondary education should equip students to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology.

Modern science was introduced in our schools in the early 1920 as general science which was taught as a simple subject to schools certificate level or in the lower forms. Later no general science was diversified to include physics, chemistry and biology. Enrolment in science subjects generally is decreasing at a time schools enrolment is increasing. Recent research on the patterns of enrolment in science education in Nigeria by Makide (1982) show that the rate of decrease in the past decaded is between 3-5% at a time when school enrolment is increasing by 10%.

Contribution in the field of science in Nigeria, in justifying competition Fasina (1986) explained that there is need to resuscitate the recognition of merit. He also noted the systematic down-word trend in the interest of our youths in science.

Hence, it must be clearly noted that any nation which does not have a good scientific and technological base normally cannot develop its natural resources and so may become permanently impoverished.

It is obvious that in Nigeria the development of science and technology is given the greatest priority in the overall educational structure. The federal government of Nigeria (1981) substantiates the point. A great proportion of education expenditure will be devoted to science and technology and universities and other levels of the system will be required to pay attention to the development of scientific talent, more colleges of technology and polytechnics will be opened and the ratio of science liberal Art student in the universities has been fixed at 60:40 during the plan period.

The foundation of a scientifically oriented career is laid in the classroom. Moreover, the professional bent of a scientist whether a pharmacist, Agriculturist, medical doctor, engineer or computer analyst is determined by the amount of skill and completeness he has been able to acquire in the physical, biological and applied science including physics, biology, chemistry, integrated science, mathematics and to some extent Agricultural science.

Okeke (1988) contends that it is only through science education that man can become aware of the benefits of science and technology as a prerequisite for solving the problem of modern life such as hunger, disease, natural and man made disasters. Anyamwu (1989) summarized the objectives and philosophy of science and science education as follow.

Knowing the fundamental facts and principles of science, understanding the investigative nature of science, possessing the abilities and skills needed to engage in the processes of science and including attitudes about science its consequence should be impacted on science in human life and wonder of nature.

The four options offered in science education (physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology and computer) have been said to be basic science and full development of technology would virtually be impossible without them. Unfortunately, Nigerian student are era ding them, for this reason, this research is therefore carried out to investigate the causes of fall in enrolment of students in various science education options in Ebonyi State University.


In spite of all four options offered in science education (physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology and computer) it is felt that the low enrolment in various science education option in Nigeria today is something we should worry about. Thus, school certificate results in sciences education indicate that the average performances are not too bad, it seem the students are not fully aware of the value of science education. If not, how can one explain the fact that in spite of the seemingly good results in science based courses in our tertiary institution? There is still a fall in enrolment of student in various science education options in the science education department of Ebonyi State University (EBSU) the enrolment of students in various science educations options has greatly dwindled in recent time. This posses great threat to teachers education in Nigeria and subsequent lack of science teachers in our secondary schools.

This is the problem of this study.


This study is necessary in obtaining the useful information concerning the low enrolment in science education and in making appropriate recommendations, if the recommendations are seriously dealt with, would help to improve student’s enrolment in that department, thereby increasing the number of teachers to teach in our secondary schools.

Moreover, it would serve as a means of generating further information for further research work.


This research is focused on the department of science education of the tertiary institutions in Ebonyi State University which contribute the subject of the study.


This research work is aimed at discovering the cause of low enrolment in the tertiary institution in Ebonyi State specially the students wants.

1. To determine the factor responsible for low enrolment in science education in Ebonyi State University.

2. To determine the consequence of low enrolment in science education in Ebonyi State University.

3. To determine why students enrolled more often to other filled of discipline in preference to science education.

4. To determine the ratio of student enrolment in Ebonyi State University.

5. To ascertain the characteristics of students in Ebonyi State University.


In order to guide the study, the following research questions were drawn to the study.

1. Do students in tertiary institution have interest in science subjects?

2. What are the effect of the performance of students in basic sciences at secondary schools on their choice of higher institutions?

3. What is the perception of science education by students?

4. Do most student in tertiary institutions meet the admission requirements of science education departments?

5. What role should authorities of science education department play to increase enrolment in science eduation?


The main objectives of this chapter is to review related literature, as they relate to the study. The review is carried out under the following headings.

i. Definition of science

ii. Nature of science education in Nigeria.

iii. Importance of science education in Nigeria

iv. Problems of teaching science in Nigeria.

v. Factors which accounts for low enrolment in science education.

vi. Summary of review of related literature.


The concept of science has seen defined by various eminent scientists. Emoven (1985) defined science as a body of knowledge which is acquired through observations and systematic experimentation. Conants (1977) defined science as “inter connected series of concepts and conceptual skills that have developed as a result of experimentational observation”. The science man power project (1960) defined science as a “cumulative endless series of emphenical observation which result in the formulation of concepts, law and theories being subjected to further empirical observation”. Gbamaya (1991) defined science as an organized and systematic knowledge dealing with man’s understanding of the rational powers.

My own definition is that science can be defined as the man’s style of exploration of his environment a long side with national resource.


Before the late 1950’s and the early 1960’s science curriculum is most African states was the form of syllabuses of the different subjects act up primarily examination purposes. The curriculum was left to grom by itself a process skin to the evolutionary mechanism of natural selection. In terms of the curriculum, it was taught that obsolete aim eleventh materials would die a nature dealth while the new idea will gain prominence Ogunniyi (1986) the end result of this false assumption was the clustering of the curriculum with materials that presented an inadequate new of science and technology. Revolution is science teaching activity began in the west. The drafting, about of science teaching interms of objectives and practice after the second world war had begun to take a new turn in the early 1950’s. The factors responsible for this shift of emphasis were born out of the need for Nigeria children to be exposed to science teaching relevant to their environment and experiences. But event the echoes of the revolution in science administrations in Nigeria were already searching for ways and means by which science could be made corn paid with the postulate of our newly won independence politically.

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According to Chaytor (1980), several ministerial conferences eg Loyas (1964) gradually evolved a pair Nigeria policy on science education which place a great premium on equipping and pupil with desirable scientific knowledge, skills and attitudes.

By the late 1960’s may countries has been to feel their way towards a “concerted science an technology policy”. Cessac (1963) contends that the need to expand the base for scientific manpower as well as the need to expand the base of science literally in the emergent countries of Africa promot. U.N E.S Co’s decision to organize a meeting of science and technology education experts at Abia in 1960. After that meeting Cessac under the auspies of UNESC carried out a survey of secondary school science teaching. The report reveated a number of short coming such as:

1. Poor equipped laboratories

2. Shortage of funds

3. Inadequate auscilliary facilities and basic services

4. Lack of well trained laboratories assistants.

Kalamananthan (1970) come to a similar conclusion about the status of school science in the Northern states of Nigeria, seven years after wearer’s study, Asenny (1971) examined the conclusions of science teaching in the western region of Nigeria and reached the conclusion that on laboratories are full of mess. At the managerial conference of science education in Africa in 1980, most of the participants complined about the poor state of science teaching in their countries.

At the first international forum of African science educators (F.A.S.E) held in Harare (1982), the poor state of science teaching in Africa was a topic of major concern.


The importance of science education cannot be over emphasized, it is the foundation upon which the bulk of present technological breaks through is built. A recognition of the importance of science in national development has began to manifest itself in many noticeable word.

The objectives of the national policy has on education 1981 in Nigeria emphasizes a need for the nation to become scientifically and technological oriented. This is to ensure accelerated development. Emejulu (1991), said that it has long been appareled that with the study of science a nation develop manpower in the fields of agriculture, medicine, pharmacy. Fasina (1986) explained that there is need to resciate the interest of our youths in science and law in technology.

Thus, resestablishing the recognition of merit. He also noted the systematic down ward trend in the interest of our youths in science. Okpala (1980) was of the view that turning the nations third development plan (1975-1985) that the universities and college of education students enrolment was titled in favour of the basic sciences. The stipuled ratio of 60% for science and 40% for Arts was agreed upon.

Maduabum (1985) said “for technological development and advancement, it is absolutely necessary for the younger generation of pupils to be adequately expose to the knowledge of the science, so as to follow the development of science and technology and participate effectively is its progress.

In view of all these support and importance attached to science education and lacking cognizance all the role which science education plays, people are now in search of better ways of teaching and learning of science.


Evidence from available literature so far reviewed in a pointing to the fact that facilities for science education are in very short supply, writing on this, Olioke (1978) said we look around we shall discover that there not enough text books on most science subjects including mathematics. Mbakwe (1989) blamed this situation on educational planners who because of what is called the ray nature of their training and orientation could not see why the running of science education should cost more than those of other disciplines. He ascribed another reason to this short fall. The provision of facilities could not keep pace with the astronomical rise of students populations. Thirdly, given the huge financial envolvment of financing science education programme the various governments of the federation are not finding it very easy especially at this austerc period when they are strapped of cash. Ogunniyi (1978) ascribed the inadequacy of laboratory facilities to four reason:

Lack of funds, teachers, in ability to improvide apparatus, careless attitude of students to laboratory facilities which they termed “government property” and the tendency to use laboratories as classrooms. He also identified the factors limiting the offecturness of practical work. Lack of laboratory assistants topped the list. Others include large practical classes, and teacher’s preference for verbal instructions and black biard notes.

This is to say that the facilities necessary for effective teaching of science and science related subjects are not adequately available in most Nigeria schools due to the state of the economy of the nation. The problem is aggravated by the high cost of these equipment about which Ifejika (1990) started, “the recurrent expenditure involve in the running and maintaining their in outrageous”.

This has resulted to loss of interest in science with more student subscribing the art and humanities, with resultant low manpower development in the right direction and students poor performance in examinations on science and allied covers. Highlighting this, Awokoya (1980) stated that “if the apparent problem of science education in the country as lack of funds, the apparent effect of the problem is the poor performance in academic achievement of students in examination”. Offiah (1985) indicates that a large number of students hate subjects and mathematics they show a negative attitude towards the study of chemistry.

Still on adequate training and general academic qualification of science teachers, Omolewa, (1977) has this to say: Appropriate academic qualification and professional training are desirable for teachers of all subjects but particularly for science teachers who not only have to teach these subjects effectively but also have responsibilities, for safe conduct of practical work.

Fafunwa (1976) also emphasizing on it said that no significant change in education an take place in any country unless it’s teaching staff were well trained.

Unfortunately the nations economy does not allow for adequate provision of the necessary training facilities to enhance adequate training would be science teaching.

To highlighten the problem, the relatively few trained science teachers often take to other more lucrative jobs due to lack of motivation. The withdrawal or total absence of incentives for them in the science teaching job, irregular payment of salaries, poor working environment all related to depressed economy have contributed towards this.


Factors which account of low enrolment in science education are identified as follows: Aminu (1979) said that “poor enrolment into science subjects do not dervesolely from the paucity of qualified candidates, after all, some of the professional disciplines are hold only moderate attraction for candidates and the reason is not far to seek”.

Madubuike etal (1985) has also investigated the causes of low enrolment in science subject by students in higher institutions. He believed that our development in science and technology “will depend open our ability to supply and maintain a large number of highly trained scientists and engineers. He therefore sought the opinion of science teachers and students and give the enrolment in science subjects in our institutions of higher learning some of these include:

i. The relative difficulty of the physical science

ii. Inadequate career services

iii. Parental pressures on career decisions.

iv. Inadequacy of jobs opportunities.

v. Inadequacy of laboratory facilities, couples wit inefficiency of laboratory facilities.

vi. Shortage of qualified science teachers.

vii. Pre-management on the part of school administrators.

Most secondary schools in Nigeria do not have enough science equipments and facilities needed for the achievement of the set goal. This view was expressed by Aturu (1977) who found out that equipments used in physical science were not adequate and not given adequate utilization by the students.

According to Cessac (1954) “the empowerment and education of teachers especially the science teachers in presently a serious one in the developing countries.

Chemistry is a science that changes every fact and our authors seem to meet up with the rate of change. For instance, the W.A.E.C has recommended the use of I.U.P.A.C. System of nomenclature. In our educational system, the major causes of teachers shortage, both qualitatively and qantitively in science subject, very important that every educational system should posses a maximum number of qualified teachers.

Onwuka (1970) observed that the most acute shortage of well qualified teachers has cropped in science, mathematics and various technical fields.

Furthermore, Muadubuike et al (1985) said that the poor students enrolment in our higher institution of learning in the paucity of science based industrial to provide job opportunities and attractive nomuerations to our science graduates consequently prospective science candidates are discouraged by stories of unemployment for science graduates who are not prepared to teach.

Teacher factor is another important point to be examined with respect to science education in Nigeria.

There are not enough qualified science teachers in our schools for instance, some teachers of chemistry, physics, economics, geography, accountancy, biology, computer etc teach mathematics because they have little knowledge of it. On the other hand, a chemistry teacher may be required to teach physics and rise-versa. According to Abdulahman (1989) in Obodo (1993) the teacher students ratio in mathematics and physics in some selected schools in Lagos are 1:798 and 1:3297 respectively. This means that teacher student ration is very low in science and mathematics. Thus, teaching staff in science are in adequate both inquality and quantity.

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Fakuade (1975) stated A shortage of suitably qualified teaching staff will result in poor teaching which invariably will result in the production of another generation of poor students. This exposed the fact that foundation is the societal progress. Onwuka (1981) has it this way “good atmosphere and better relationship between the teacher and the pupils gives room for better understanding. He continued by saying that much of what the pupils turn to be depends upon the school atmosphere, which is largely the creation of the teach, pupils put in much positive effort when they realize that their teachers have genuine consideration for them.

Madubuike etal (1985) maintained that the inadequacy of laboratory facilities to ensure good quality science teaching has also dealt it’s blow on the poor student’s enrolment in the basic science in our institution of learning. The inadequacy duties the students ample opportunity to learn by doing.

Bojuwoye (1985) was of the opinion that “one serious implication of the poor enrolment in science subject by secondary school students in shortage of personnel in science related jobs and professions. For instance his investigations have shown that there is increasing shortage of science teaching in secondary schools has continued to increase”, Williams (1973) quoted by madubuike etal (1985) remarks that “learning without interest in slevile, but learning based on sound motivation often cannot be stopped”. Iubrillo has this to say: “the effects of poor attainment in science at lower level institutions still over into the higher institution, this bears a subat if essential, burden of pre-degree raindial course, especially in science. My experience during the industrial training showed that as a result of lack of science teachers, many non science or science education graduates teach various science subjects.

Then the question now is how will, are they exposed to perform in teaching those students performances in science subjects, since to improve the students’ performance in science subject. Since they the teachers were not trained in the methodology and the subject matter of the science.


In conclusion, the knowledge of science is also applied to political strategies through creativity and analysis. Infact, the extent to which people discuss science in power has much for it. Hence scientific knowledge is to life as water is to fishes. The more we integrate science into our life patterns the more we learn how to adjust to change conditions.

The study of science education in our schools is to provide for continuous human development. Science as a part of life because all life activities involves science. The role of science education in the field discovery is indispensable. Individuals and this nation as a whole cannot proper or advance in technological pursuit without the good knowledge of science.

Science education is the backbone of any nation, business, and human activities. Poor foundation is science education limit societal progress. Therefore, we should not succumb trends.

Hence, there is need to investigate the cause of low enrolment in science education in various higher institution of learning especially Ebonyi State University and colleges of education in Ebonyi State.


This chapter describes the design, the area of study the population sample and sampling techniques, the instrument for data collection, the administration and method of data analysis.


This study is a survey which was designed to find out the low enrolment of student in science education programmes in tertiary institution in Ebonyi state.

According to Nwankwo (1983) survey is comparisons and evaluations to determine what others are doing with similar problems and situations, and outline benefits from their experience in making future plans and decisions. The present study in this survey was aimed because it obtain in appropriate data for the analysis of the factors enrolment in science education programmes in tertiary institution in Ebonyi state.


The population of the study consisted of all the science education students of the three tertiary institutions in Ebonyi state. The first year (100 level) to the final year of each institution including the Diploma students in sciences education department of the institutions, which their name appear on the register of the institution.


Sample was taken from the three (3) tertiary institution in Ebonyi state, the random sampling method was used to select the students and teachers of each department of science education of the various institutions.

However since the research was not able to use all the students and teachers, a selection was made to get the number of respondents which include the lectures in each institution, a total of 270 students and 30 lecturers was used in the department of science education in the school, each making a total of (300) three hundred respondent from each of the tertiary institution in Ebonyi state.


This study was carried out in the tertiary institution in Ebonyi state. Ebonyi state is a new state, in his shortly existence has been able to develop out three tertiary institution which include college of education Ikwo polytechnic of Akanibia Afikpo and in general Ebonyi state university, all in Ebonyi state.


The instrument that was used to collect data for the study was structured questionnaire. The instrument consists of two section namely:

Section A which is concerned with personal data of the respondents and section B which is the main body of the questionnaire, consist of 20 items formulated and organized based on the research questions that guided the study.

In designing the questionnaire, efforts were made to avoid embarrassment and irrelevant questions, opportunity was given to the respondents to give their opinions or suggestions with bias.

The questionnaire were 20 items and were drawn in line with the research question, and question were designed for sciences education students and lecturers of the three (3) institution stated above in the department of science education.


The questionnaire, after constructing were sent to the experts in evaluation for face and content validation who critically examined the valid for collection of information needed for the research.


The questionnaire were administered by hand to the respondents. The researcher administered the questionnaire by himself, the visit was necessary as the researcher used the opportunity to make necessary correction as the need arises while ambiguity was reduced to the barest minimum.

A total of one hundred and ninety two questionnaire were distributed and a total of one hundred and ninety two were returned and this enhance the return rate of 100%.


This information collected was analysed using frequency distribution means (x).

However the researcher assigned numerical values and their weightily point to different scaling items as follows.

Strongly agree (SA) -4

Agree (A) -3

Disagree (2A) -2

Strongly disagree (SD) -1

Therefore the mean (x) = 4+3+2+1=10


The data collected as response from science education students and teachers of science education department were analysed and presented in tables below to provide easy and clear interpretation, the four responses opinions were divided into five.

Thus “strongly agreed”, and agreed were as “popular opinion, disagreed and strongly disagreed” were divided to unpopular opinion, it was possible to see how question was answered. A mean of 2.5 was used any mean that is above 2.5 is considered to represent populate opinion (p) where as any one that is below 2.5 is considered to represent unpopular opinion (u).


This chapter consist of conclusion, educational implication of the study, recommendations of the study, limitation, suggestion for farther research and summary of finds.


The finding in this study were quite revealing, the responses in the questionnaire were used to test each research question this is in order to ensure valid


Therefore from the comprehensive presentation of results obtained from the data collected and discuss in above chapter the following major conclusion can be made the low enrolment of science education students, their parent interest for science subjects positively hence, lack of parents interest in science subjects is not a major low enrolment in science education department.

The low enrolment in the department were fund out to be that peers pressurize their fellow in order to achieve peer group goal and objective also their pick their peer towards their art related than science related group, no enough science text book in our library, many in our society generally have lesser regards for science subjects, greater number of people in our society dirt want to be science in-cline some believed that science text books are costly which their parents can’t afford it.


Results of the present study have far reaching implications for the various science education options in tertiary institutions. There is an inter-relationship between the secondary and tertiary institutions especially with respect to enrolment in the later. Unless a sound foundation is laid on the teaching of science subjects in secondary school. It will not be possible to have enough students in tertiary institutions. Also since our country Nigeria is now looking forward to her technological advancement or upliftment. The fewness in number of science students in tertiary institutions will result to shortage of supply of scientists in our industries who will ensure this advancement.

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To show and maintain their interest in science education, equip themselves with the available materials coupled with hardworking, so that with little assistance given by their lectures they shall perform very well.

Student should learn how to go to laboratories and makes use of the apparatus.


From the findings of study, the writer therefore recommends the following: students wrong notion that science are have should be discussed by the prospective teacher involving more familiar concrete materials during teaching of practical than obstructs, student should be made to understand that science is not a difficult subject and those offering it stands a better chances of securing jobs after graduation. To provide more jobs opportunities for science education graduation, the governments should invest more in the areas of scientific research, development and production, the use of local raw materials should be encouraged especially where scientific research has shown that such materials could be economically good substitutes for imported ones that cost of laboratory equipment could be reduced through improvisation and innovation and local development of some science equipment.

The science laboratories of our institution urgently need laboratory instrument technicians to relieve most teachers of the burden of acting in a dual capacity as teacher and library assistants. Science workshops seminar should be organized on regular basis by science teachers association of Nigeria (STAN) and other bodies. say during the long vocational/acquaint science teachers and laboratory staff with modern trend in science education and way of repair and maintaining school science equipment.

As a promising input toward that that pursuit of the basic science schools should annually map out activities diving students week to get more students interested in science.


The generalization of this study is limited by certain factors as a result of the nature of the researcher’s academic programme, more observation concerning environment, staff strength and administration could not be made. Another factor is finance which militate against wide population.


A research of this nature should be carried to cover more higher institutions in Nigeria that this study has covered. It will also be necessary to carry out a study on this low enrolment in other technology oriented courses.


Social and economic well being of any nation depends on effective development and use of it’s natural research. But this depend on the availability of the needed manpower which include men and women with good background in science and technology which must be developed by first laying adequate foundation in the basic sciences right from the secondary school to tertiary institution. This study has focused mainly on the low enrolment of various science education options in tertiary institution in Ebonyi State. The method used for the study was survey method type. Three schools were used, they are Ebonyi State University, college of Education Ikwo, and Akanibiam Polytechnic Afikpo.

Instrument used for data collection was questionnaire and data obtained were analyzed using weighted mean rating scale the result of the study show that there are peer group influence and science textbook been not enough.

It was also found out that despite the fact that science is expensive many students are very interested in science.



Adbualarahanan M.S (1989) “problems of producing qualified science candidates to achieve 70% students enrolment in technology based programmes in technological and vocational institution in Nigeria”. A paper presented at the national board for technical foundation (NBTE), 5-8 engineering effective solutions to science and mathematics education in Nigerian, a previce by Godwin C. Obodo, ph. D.

Aminu, J. (1979) science and National development Journal STAN Vol. 17, No. 3.pp 14-17.

Anyanou, N.A. (1989) Science teaching and ethical consideration seminar paper presented at the University of Nigeria Nsukka.

Asenugu, J.J M. (1971) our laboratories are full of mess. Ibadan, Journal of Science Teachers Association of Nigeria 12,11,61-62.

Aturu, M.A. (1977) Utilization of equipment in teaching of physics in secondary schools in Anambra State. Unpublished Undergraduate thesis University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN).

Bojuwoze. O (1985) Crisis in science classroom poor enrolment of secondary school students in science subjects and its implications for science students in science subjects and its implications for science Teachers. Journal of Science teachers Association of Nigeria Vol. 23, 1, (21 December 1985).

Chaytor D.E. (1980) Shaping Science Education in the Universities, Ibadan, Longmans publishing Company.

Casea, J. (1963) Science Teaching in Secondary Schools of Tropical Africa, Paris: Fim-Didotmesi Isur L. Egre UNESCO.

Connant, J.B (1978) Science and common sense pp 25 quoted by Abinola in science Teachers Association of Nigeria.

Emejulu, C.A. (1991) the influence of poor performance of students in Pre-Nill Biology Unpublished NCE thesis Department of Science Education.

Fafunwa, A. B. (1976), New perspective in African Education, Macmillian Education, Limited London.

Fakuade, R.A (1975), The preparation of the primary modern Mathematics Teachers West Africa Journal of Education Vol. 6 No. 1 February 1975.

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Kalamanthan, K. (1971), An Investigation into problems involved science teaching in secondary schools in the six Northern states of Nigeria. Kana Journal of Science Teachers Association of Nigeria 10:3, 60-62.

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Mbakwe, R.I. (1989) Problem of teaching mathematics in secondary schools, in Obodo G.C (1983) Science and mathematics in Nigeria Enugu.

Offiah, (1985), the problems of teaching science to show learners in secondary schools in Enugu local government area. Research carried out at school of T.T.E. institute of management and technology Enugu.

Ogunniyi, O. (1987), Determinants of successful implementation of the integrated science programme in Nigeria. Journal of science Teachers Association of Nigeria, 16 (2) 109-111.

Ogunniyi, M.B. (1986), Teaching Science in Africa Sale Media Ltd, Ibadan.

Okeke, E. A. C (1986), Teacher Education and low enrolment in Science in Nigeria Onitsha, Kawuriu and Mailos, Publishers Ltd, (1987).

Oloke, L.O. (1978), The problems of teaching Biology in Nigeria Secondary Schools Science teachers Association of Nigeria, vol. 14 No. 30 Ibadan press.

Omokwa, M. (1977), Some earliest problems of science education in Nigeria (1859-1932) STAB, 15 (3)

Onwuka, U. (1974), Curriculum development of African educational published Ltd, Onitsha.

Onwuka, U. (1974), Curriculum development of African Education Publishers. Science manpower projects (1960) National policy on education.





Please tick in the boxes for the under listed statement as they supply to you.

Name of school/college ————————–

Name of department —————————-

Staff: or student

Sex: male female

Age: 18-25


33-40 and above



Please tick (√) in the space provided below according to the degree of your agreement or disagreement regarding the underlisted statements.

Response required from respondents include

Strongly agreed (SA)

Agreed (A)

Disagreed (DA)

Strongly disagreed (SA)




1 Students textbooks are not enough, current textbooks are not available.

2 Some schools don’t have science text-book in their library.

3 High cost of textbooks, make it difficult for student to purchase with which to improve their performance.

4 Some parents do not buy text-books for their children.

5 Textbooks are non-availability in science



6 Lack of parental science exposure to children and science-related courses.

7 Lack of parental care and assistance in science to children who are good in science.

8 Lack of incentives or encouragement to children who are interested in science.

9 Some parents pressurize their children to their own benefit.

10 Most parents dislike science education programme and force their children not to incline with science courses.



11 Student pick their peers towards their art related than science-related group.

12 Belonging to group that make one have low interest, attitude and value to science.

13 Student desire to compute with their counterparts.

14 Peer pressurize their fellow inorder to achieve peer group goal and objective.

15 Inclusive interest and desire to acquire virtue different from other group members.



16 Lack of students’ awareness towards science subject and of difficulties.

17 Some students lack the ability to understand the nature of science and its concepts.

18 Student awareness of importance to technology concepts.

19 Student been not orientated towards science courses and it concept.

20 Students lack the knowledge of ideal nature to science subject and its difficulties.

Low Enrolment In Various Science Education Options In Tertiary Institutions In Ebonyi State – The Cause



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  1. This is an innovative research with originality. It has really helped me in designing my own research proposal. Thanks so much!

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