EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION AND ITS IMPACT ON PRODUCTIVITY IN BREWERY ORGANIZATIONS

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION AND ITS IMPACT ON PRODUCTIVITY IN BREWERY ORGANIZATIONS

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION AND ITS IMPACT ON PRODUCTIVITY IN BREWERY ORGANIZATIONS

Communication no doubt is a very vital tool in carrying out our day to day activities. Every one needs communication with people around to share experience, jobs, frustration, hopes and fears from childhood.

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We all learn how to communicate as children, we are able to recognize and identify happiness and annoyance in our parents faces or words. And at school, we learn how to write and interpret numbers and diagram, we also came to understand the salient language of communication expressed in faces, gestures and body movement that is the body language of non verbal communication. This arrays of skills has helped us to be active members of the family school and work group. It is only when people have come to know others through work, play or study that they are prepared to open up and to trust other with a share of themselves, their inner thought share of themselves, their inner thought reactions and feelings.

Udeze (2000:167), defined communication as the act of imparting a common idea or understanding to another person. This opines the fact that in every organization, goals are set an the procedures or ways through which the organization intends to achieve this, the goals are spelt out with the and of communication models.

Every organization is established to achieve a set objectives, for example certain business organization are set up for profit making by the provision of goods and services. While others are set up mainly for the provision of service by training high level of manpower for both in the public and private sector of the economy. However, the defined objective through the instrumentality of individual person who form the basic unit of the organization. The people’s readiness to perform for the attainment of goals and objectives of an organization.

Nwachukwu (1988:216) contends that communication is at the root of personnel administration. It is the transaction and interpretation of information for the efficient operation of an enterprise. Therefore, management must recognize the importance of effective communication to its productivity. He went further to state that effective communication requires that there climate that promote the exchange of ideas as well as one that permits every member of the organization to actualize his view without fear.

Drucker, (1995:14) Management is concerned with the direction and control of an enterprise and involves planning and the direction of the work of other, these managerial functions cannot be successfully carried out in the absence of effective communication. Brown defined communication as the process of transmitting ideas and thought from one person to another for the purpose of creating understanding in the thinking of the person receiving the massage. Drucker (1955:61) made the following statements which is in line with; how effective communication supports organizational productivity. He said that the manager has a specific tool-information. He does not “handle” people he motivates, guides, and organizes people to do their own work. His duty is to this is the spoken or written words, no matter whether the manager’s job is an engineering, accounting or marketing kind. Every manager needs skills in getting his thinking across to other people as well as skill in finding out what other people are after.

In recent years communication has been tipped as a management function because of its growing importance in large organization and also because it has been realized that communication is not forced but has to be learnt to enhance the productivity of every organization.

1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY PLC ENUGU PLANT

The Nigerian Bottling company plc, is the largest producer of soft drinks in West Africa today. It was incorporated into Nigeria on the 22nd day of November, 1951 and currently it has numerous plants in Enugu, Benin, Lagos, Kaduna, Onitsha.

Nigerian bottling company plc is one of the few multination organisation that had its beginnings in Nigeria to become predominant bottle of alcohol free beverages in Nigeria responsible for the manufacture and sale of over 33 different coca-cola brands.

In 1984, the company became stock company and the name was changes. The new president was D.D.. doe while Ed Holland became the new vice president. Pemberton stayed on the superintendent.

On October 1988, the company received a charter with an authorized capital of $50,000. The charter became official on January 15, 1989. by this time, the company had expanded their offerings to include Pemberton’s Orange and Lemon Elixir.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Effective communication is of high priority to the management of the Nigerian bottling company Plc.

It will be seen that in trying to increase productivity through effective communication, barriers occur which reduces productivity. These barriers are problems and they include: communication overloading which bogs down the entire system, lack of planning to communicate fear, failure to communication, and distrust of the communicator, mechanical inefficiency which includes lack of public facilities like telex, telephone.

1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The research objective are itemized as follows:

1. To examined the concept of effective communication and productivity.

2. To ascertain the impact of effective communication on productivity in Nigeria bottling company Plc

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION

1. Can effective communication and productivity be strictly used in Nigeria bottling company Plc

2. Can effective communication help to increase productivity of workers in Nigeria bottling company Plc.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The importance and need for effective communication in an organization cannot be over emphasized. This research work will be of good help both to the researchers and to the Nigerian Bottling Company Plc.

To the researcher, it is a requirement for the award of bachelor degree in Business Administration.

While to the Nigerian Bottling Company Plc, it will provide its findings and recommendations, and showing its lapses and proffer solutions to these lapses.

It also highlights the benefits of effective communication and how it influences productivity.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Due to the economic situation prevailing in our nation today, the research has the following constraints:

1. Respondents: The attitude of most worker may have affected the quality of the work, examples are cases of “Not on seat” and come again syndrome.

Some respondents even returned their questionnaires unanswered due to the fear of divulging management information.

2. Time: The inability of the researcher to meet uo with academic work could have affected the quality of time in carrying out the research.

3. Finance: Money as we all know is the bedrock of every research work. The researcher may be faced with financial difficulties and this could have affected data collection and the research work in its entirety.

1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Communication as a topic is a vast one, no consensus has being reached about this concept but it is a known fact that every human activity involves a good amount of effective communication.

The scope of this research will therefore be limited to the evaluation of effectiveness of communication and its in pact on productivity in the Nigerian Bottling company plc Enugu plant.

It will also focus on the factors that aid effective communication in the organization in addition to highlighting its influence on productivity.

1.9 DEFINITION OF SPECIAL TERMS

1. Effective: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. This is simply producing result as intended or wanted. An organization is said to be effective when it accomplishes all that it sets out to achieve.

2. Communication: According to Udeze (2000: 167). This is the act of impacting a common idea or understanding to another person with the purpose of implementing an action that is coordinated towards a common end.

3. Productivity: According to Anugwo M. (2007: 141) is the Measure of How Well Resources are brought Together in Organizations and Utilized for Accomplishing a set of Results

4. Impact: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. To have an effect. The effects of effective communication on productivity. This effects could be a negative or positive one.

A negative effect arises when effective communication does increase productivity of the organization.

A positive effect arises when effective communication does increase productivity of the organization.

5. Brewing: http//www.goggle.com: Is the fastest growing branches of Nigerian Manufacturing it contributes and provides direct employed for many people.

6. Organisation: According to Umoh (2006:6) is coming together of Group of People that Specialise in different fields, Co-ordinate their effort towards the set goal, supervise through some Herarchy of Authority so that Objectives of Organisation will be achieved.

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED MATERIALS

2.1 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK FOR THE STUDY COMMUNICATION.

2.1.1 COMMUNICATION

Udeze (2000.167) quoting Flippo/Munsinge

(1978:421) stated that the word communication come from the word “communis” which means “common”, communication is therefore, defined as the act of importing a common idea or under standing to another person.

In the words of Akpala (1990:193) communication relates to the exchange of facts opinions or emotions by which two or more persons shares meaning and understanding with another. In an organization it could be by work letter, symbols or message.

However, Drucker (1955:388) pointed out that a manager can only make his objectives effective by communicating them to his subordinates whose performance is required to attain them. Communication is therefore a necessary tool for the achievement of the organization objectives.

Shilt (1979:346) said that communication is the sharing of information which results in a higher degree of understanding between the sender and the receiver of the message. Hence, communication can be said to be a process which involves a sender and receiver.

More so, Bratton and Gold (1999:307) viewed communication simply as the process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver.

Communication has also been defined by Byars and Rue (1984:498) as the transfer of information that is meaningful to those involved.

According to Ile (1999:304) communication is the transfer of information from the sender to the receiver with information being understood by the receiver and feed back received by the sender.

Nwachukwu (2000:107) also stated that communication is at the root of personnel administration. It is the efficient operation of any enterprise, management must recognize the importance of effective communication requires that there exit in the organization a favourable climate that promotes the exchange of ideas as well as one that permits every member of the organization to actualize has views without fears.

2.1.2 PRODUCTIVITY:

Productivity according to Iwu (1998:165) came from the French word “Produre” which means production, abundance, richness and fertility. It also means begetting. He further stated that the word productivity is understood differently to many, to some increased productivity is increased production and to others, it is a ratio of what is brought forth either, quantity produced to what is used to produce it.

According to koontz and Weihrich (1984:540) productivity is defined as the input-out put ratio within a time period with due considerations for quality.

2.2.1 BASICS OF COMMUNICATION

According to Byars and Rue (1984:499) the two basic forms of communication are:

1. Interpersonal communication

2. Organizational communication

these two basic forms are interdependent in that, interpersonal communication is almost always a part of organizational communication.

1. Interpersonal communication occurs between individuals with the basic purpose of transmitting ideas, thoughts or information so that the sender of the message both is understood and understands the receiver.

2. Organizational communication occurs within the formal organization structure. It could be upward, downward or horizontal (lateral) overlapping these three formal system is the informal communication system called the grapevine.

2.2.2 COMMUNICATION FLOW IN AN ORGANIZATION.

A. The downward communication process transmits information from higher level to lower levels of the organization. Examples includes policy, manuals, bulletins, order, directives etc.

B. Upward communication start at the lower level of the organization and flow ward the top. This system should help management to judge the effectiveness of its downward communication and to learn about organization problems. Examples includes counseling, grievance procedure, union representatives, grapevine, discussion with employees, formal meeting with employee etc.

C. Horizontal (Lateral) communication is the communication the occurs across organizational units that are at the same approximate level in the organizational hierarchy. Department that depend one another for achieving their respective goals uses the horizontal communication e.g. interdepartmental committee meetings, distribution of reports etc.

D. Organizational Grapevine are formal channels of communication resulting from casual contacts between friends or acquaintances in various organization units. It has the following features:-

a. It is fast

b. Most of the time it is false

c. It comes in incomplete forms

2.2.3 PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION

The purpose of communication according to Kontz and Weihrich (1988:461) include:-

1. To establish and disseminate of the most goals of an enterprise.

2. To Develop plans for the achievement of the goal of an enterprise.

3. To organize human and other resources in the most effective and efficient way

4. To select, develop and appraise members of the organization.

5. To lead, direct, motivate and create a climate which people want to contribute.

6. To control performance.

2.2.4 IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION

Hybel (1995:26) describes the importance of communication as a basic to the existence of human organisation. It has been the primary concern of administration in all human institution be it military, government, church, family and school or business organisation.

In the performance of an organisation, communication plays an important role which is to effect change to influence section towards the welfare to the enterprises or to create awareness of a product to the world. Business for instance requires information about such organisation cycle. Communication is an essential ingredient of almost every thing a manager does, of their levels must communicate. In this way they circulate information to different sections and department in the organization.

2.2.5 TYPES AND METHOD OF COMMUNICATION

According to Rogers (1999:7) communication helps to orientate workers to their jobs as well as helping the supervisor to monitor the activities of the workers. Within the organisation there are two basic system of communication the formal and informal are referred as the semi-formal channel, and so they are the conduit pipe for channeling task related messages or information.

Informal communication, there is three principle flow of information:

 Downward flow

 Upward flow

 Horizontal flow

 

2.3.1 THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

2.3.1 COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL

The communication model is a process through which message is transmitted from the send to the receiver and feedback is sent to sender.

The sender generates an ideal through to be sent, encodes and sends it through a channel which could be written, Oral, telephone etc. the receiver gets the message, decodes and it creates an understanding to him. He sent a feedback and carries out the instruction. Noise constitutes a barrier in communication.

2.3.2 COMMUNICATION CHANNEL

In the words of Shilt, (1979:353) communication channel is a device or means delivering a message from a sender to a receiver. A business letter, telephone call, meetings are examples of channels others includes reports and telegrams.

3.3.3 BARRIERS AND BREAKDOWN IN COMMUNICATION

The following leads ineffective communication in any organization as started in Koontz and Weihrich (1984:470) lack of planning of communication, messages, poorly expressed messages, distractions, use of incorrect words, distrust, fear and threat, insufficient period for adjustment to change, selective perception communication over load.

Noises we have consider Noise as an element in the communication process. We have seen that it can present in one form or another in each process. The technical term for communication barrier is noise, a term derived from the world of technology and electronics. The concept can be applied to virtually any situation which either distorts the flow the communication between sender and receiver or distorts the message or blocks it altogether causing communication break down. Noise reduces the amount of information flow, it distorts it or blocks it altogether. No organization can be efficient with inefficient communication system. Every good manager can be aware of this. Noise can be Physical, Psychological, Linguistic or cross-cultural in form.

According to Eze (2001:31) In organizational setting, the components of noise which constitute communication barriers are:

a. Rationalization: This is a habit of mind which takes a belief that is based on emotional grounds, while seeking to find logical reasons for it. We see this development for instance, in the case of a non-indigene of a place on the ostensible ground that he is not qualified. We can also see it in the situation where a manager turns down the request from work force for performance evaluation on the ground that valid criterion for performance evaluation is not available. We see in each case, that the real reasons, which are the sentiments, are not the ones communicated. Usually, arguments, which take their root for rationalization, are not tenable when subjected to logic and sound reasoning rationalization is a barrier to effective communication.

b. Prejudice: In a way prejudice is stops the search for valid reasons and produces answer that resemble rationalization. The important point here is that interpretation of message is coloured by the receiver’s bases and emotions.

c. Selective listening: When new idea and information are in believe, we tend to block new information. In this regard, a management directive can be mis-interpreted and distorted to suit preconceived ideas and notions. People tend to hear only what they want to hear.

d. Sources of credibility: Subordinates in organization tend to attach levels of credibility to their managers. How they view communication from their manager is therefore a factor a their evaluation of the trust, confidence and faith with the receiver has in the words and actions, of the sender who he knows. Previous experience with the manager or knowledge is all important factors here. Obviously an officer known to be less than honest or manipulative will not communicate as effectively as another officer know for his integrity and firmness of purpose.

e. Distraction: This refers to be the biking of the communication channel by some extraneous nuisance. Think of an effort to explain something to someone in a machine shop or weaving industry.

f. Time pressure: Time pressure is great barrier t communication. Most managers lack enough time to read, digest and fully understand a piece of communication that is in writing. They also lack enough time to communicate adequately to their subordinates. The outcome is that subordinates are left in the dark even in matters affecting them. Again some managers insist on the use of formal channels of communication, for all cases. This can bleus particularly in issues that are time sensitive. Related to this problem of time-pressure, is the problem of over-load where the manager gets crushed by sheer weight of verbiage and irrelevant reports which come from too many subordinates under long spans of control.

2.3.4 SKILLS OF COMMUNICATION:

The skills needed in communication as stated in Udeze (2000:182) includes:-

a. Use of words that have meaning to both himself and his subordinates. Clear, specific and short words are ideal.

b. Using action to back up the direction of subordinates.

c. Listening skill or ability

d. Ability to observe.

2.3.5 GUIDES TO IMPROVING COMMUNICATION

The following guides as stated in Byars and Rue (1984:500) should be used be to improve communication.

Plan the message, keep the message receiver in mind and use the communication which includes correctness completeness, conciseness. Clearness and courtesy.

2.3.6 TOWARDS EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Some communication scholars have emphasized that for communication to be effective, it has to be done regularly. It involves a two-way process so as to enable the participation of the employees, it also should involve all members of the management team.

Others include that the communication system should be monitored and evaluated, information should be perceived to be relevant to the employees, messages should be in a form which can be easily understood, and it should also be consistent consistently

2.3.7 ON-PRODUCTIVITY

Historically, the productivity theory was developed in French by quesnay who was a noble French physician to Louis XV in the middle of the 18th century. This theory was formed out of the quest for knowledge to reduce the sufferings of the masses by increasing the national income.

2.3.8 FACTORS THAT INCREASES PRODUCTIVITY

To increase productivity one has to work better and more sensibly, the efficiency of a worker in a very strong factor in increasing productivity. Also, a good working climate and congenial working relations with fellow workers increases productivity.

Most of all effective communications motivation, good welfare package, sate working environment increases productivity.

2.3.9 FACTORS THAT LIMIT PRODUCTIVITY

Factors that limit productivity include attitude of workers, trade unions, machinery and equipment break down, epileptic power supply, unavailability of raw- materials.

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

From the responses of the respondents in the questionnaire distributed and personal interviews conducted in the Nigerian Bottling company plc, the following were deduced from the tables in chapter four of this research work.

i. Majority of the respondents believe that effective communication helps to increase their productivity.

ii. That barrier exist which hinder effective communication. Such barriers as wrong timing period, late release of the working schedule, unclarified assumptions resulting from ineffective communication.

iii. Most of the respondents are of the opinion that delays in communication affect productivity.

iv. Majority of the respondents are also of the opinion that a combination of oral and written method of communication is the most effective means of communication in the Nigerian bottling company (NBC) PLC Enugu.

v. Finally, it was found that the support of management is needed for communication in the Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) PLC Enugu to be effective

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings of the researcher, the following recommendations are proffered

Effective communication should be done in a language that is commonly understood, written communication should be simple and instructions drafted in such a way that every one in the organization understands them.

Management of the Nigerian Bottling company (NBC) Plc should maintain the principles of the use of informal communication. It should be used as a channel of communication to supplement the existing formal channel of communication.

A clear route of communication should be established to reduce barriers that inhibit effective communication; also sufficient adjustment period should be given for workers to adapt to changes made in the production process. Early release of the working schedule is also recommended and most of all should plan to communicate so as to make communication effective with a view to increasing productivity.

Further more, management should make available gadgets that such as computers, telephone will, make communication effective. Also messages should be consistent with actions and information which is relevant to the employees.

Manager should be trained in communication skill as it increases the effectiveness of communication.

Finally, management should adopt the use of oral and written channels of communication because it is the best means of communicating. Also, the communication should be monitored and evaluated.

5.3 CONCLUSIONS

Based on the findings of the researcher the following conclusions were reached.

Communication have be effective so as to increase productivity through the provision of communication gadgets like computers, telephone, intercom, should be provided.

Finally, regular review of the entire communication system helps to make communication effective and stimulate so as to increase in productivity.

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION AND ITS IMPACT ON PRODUCTIVITY IN BREWERY ORGANIZATIONS

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to

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Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183

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  1. may i get sample questionnaire for this article?

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