Effect Of Motivation On Workers’ Performance: (A Case Study Of Nike Lake, Resort Enugu)
Effect Of Motivation On Workers’ Performance: (A Case Study Of Nike Lake, Resort Enugu)
Over some years ago, psychologists, managers and students of management have given increased concern to the need for human motivation at the work place. They found this concept useful to both explaining human behaviour, particularly in work situations to increase the productivity of workers. To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.
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Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.The purpose of motivation is to increase one’s performance and to attain a standard of excellence in any endeavour. Managers in all types of organization are continually faced with the problem of vast differences that exists in then performance or output of individual workers. Some employees often perform at high level and need little or no supervision and appear to enjoy what they are doing; other employees perform only at marginal levels and require constant attention and direction and are often absent from their duty posts. The reasons for these differences in performance area varied and complex involving the nature of job, the behaviour of the manager and the characteristics of the workers. The big question is, how can the manager maintain the high performance of the first group and also increase that of those producing marginally, when it comes to being highly highly productive on the job, to performing with little or no direction and to being a real contributor to the organization. What can one usually say is the cause? Does money count first i.e. –The desire to draw bigger pay pocket? or is it the sheer enjoyment of being part of a busy cooperative-professional team that makes some employees perform high?
It has been recently shown that this variation caused by the motives of workers, whether the employees or managers are high or low in achievement, motivation makes a real difference in the effectiveness of financial incentives. Several studies have shown that offering additional financial reward for doing a task does not make a strongly-achievement-oriented person to work hard or better. A group of aggressive-achievement-mudded salesmen would certainly be angry if their extra efforts were not recognized with much greater financial reward.
Yet offering them bonus is not what produces the extra effort. This may seen like a psychological distinction without a difference, but the genuinely affects performance.
People with relatively low achievement motivation, on the other hand, will work harder for increased financial rewards. However, does the money got by doing it interest them primarily as a measure of accomplishment? Rather, it has other value for them.
In contemporary times some organization in Enugu Urban have been enjoying a situation of high productivity, efficiency and effectiveness in their work performance while some have not been able to find their feet. The situation because more glaring when take a look at the private organization.
Motivation is about understanding the weds which prompts employee in organization to do things and providing of help. Also a person who is well motivated usually work hard and have self-directed behaviour towards important goals. Therefore this research work is designed to assess the effect of motivation on the performance of the workers in Nike Lake Resort (protean Hotel) Enugu.
The findings will help to evaluate the problems and prospects of the organization in the area of motivation and to suggest ways of improving the workers. It is only through the effective performance of the employees that returns from investment can be achieved. This is why it is necessary to know how they are being motivated to work and achieve their organization’s objectives.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
The phenomenon of productivity and inefficiency creates a lot of problem in business organization. No business organization can achieve its set objective in terms of profit, survival, growth, continuity and the ability to compete favorably with other organization when its workers are not performing as expected.
Nike lake Resort (Protea Hotel) Enugu will be faced with the above problems if better attention is not given to the employees and motivational strategies set towards organizational goals.
Surviving and competiting favorably with other organizations will be null and void if its employees are not motivated and this will result to the failure of the organization and also not maximizing its profit. Researchers have shown that major reason why workers in business organization perform below expectation is as a result of not being adequately motivated.
As a result of the above, the researcher is looking into various means through which business organization can motivate their workers towards performing well and the effect of motivational strategies to enhance the performance of the workers in Nike Lake Resort (Protea Hotel) Enugu.
1.3 PROBLEM THAT THE STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH
In order to carryout a successful work, the researcher has to be able to identify the problem concerned with the subject matter.
(1) Identify how motivation serves as a management tool for increasing the performance of workers.
(2) Examine the extent in which the worker’s of some organization benefits from the motivational tools adopted by their management.
(3) Find out the type of relationship existing between the management and their workers.
(4) Identify the ways or means through which the business organization motivates their workers.
1.4 IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING THE AREA
Since the effect of motivation cannot be emphasized. It becomes very necessary to date that those at the top of affairs in every organization should at all times motivate their workers.
This research therefore limits itself tom the effects of motivation on workers, performance. Some of the effect of motivation on workers, performance includes.
(1) Increased productivity-when a worker is adequately motivated, the result is a very positive one on the organization. It increases the productivity level of the organization.
(2) Increases participation of a worker towards the actualization of the organizational goals.
(3) Raising the morale of workers-motivation will raise the morale of a worker effectively and this lead to increased participation and high productivity.
(4) Foster industrial harmony-when workers are adequately motivated it fosters the peaceful relationship between the workers in the organization.
1.5 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS
There are some unique and difficult words used in this project. However, they are carefully explained for easy clarifications and comprehension of their meanings and the context in which they are applied.
(1) MOTIVATION-: This simple means ensuring appropriate behaviour of workers in an organization by providing an environment in which people can satisfy their human needs through both their work and work environment. Motivation can be inform of promotion, bonus, performance appraisal, salary increment, provision of fringe benefits etc.
Huczynski and Buchaman (1985) defined motivation as “a decision-making process through which the individual chooses desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to acquiring them.
(2) MANAGEMENT-: This is the co-ordination of human and material resources in an organization to achieve management goals. Umoh (1996) defined management as a process by which people (managers) create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organization through
(3) SYSTEMATIC CO-OPERATIVE HUMAN EFFORT:It is also the process of getting things done by using other people to achieve a set of objective.
(4) EMPLOYEE: Is a person that is being employed by an employer in a business.
(5) EMPLOYER-: Is a person who has the right to employ an employee in a business organization.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
First of all, we have to know that literature review is al about. Literature review, simply defined is an important step in solving a research problem. It is a step which we cannot ship. The researcher must undertake literature review and should do it by himself/herself so that he/she will be able to formulate hypothesis or ask research questions because of its importance.
It is also a systematic examination of available books, journal, periodicals, newspaper and al sorts of material with the intention of obtaining and recording information from them which are relevant and useful to the research topic or problem under investigation.
The exercise of literature review involves identifying, locating, selecting and recording of information obtained from primary and secondary sources which the researcher finds useful and related to his/her research studies.
2.1 THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBJECT AREA
Motivation means different things to different people. However, motivation is a kind of incentive which its aim is geared towards getting the best out of an organization or individual. It is the process of influencing
subordinates or followers to work for a cause desired by the motivators or leaders. That is ensuring appropriate behaviour of workers in an organization. It is concerned with inducing people to work to the best of their ability.
This simple means that motivation denotes moving people and this will take us back to the origin of the word motivation. The word motivation was derived from a latin word “movere” which means more. But today the word means more than this. Desseler (1976) sees it as a reflection of a person’s desire to fulfill certain needs.
The dictionary meaning of the word “motivation” simply means supplying a motive to; cause to feel active interest and this is exactly what the leaders or managers do to their employees in order to achieve its organizational goals.
According to Benson and Steiner, it is an inner state that energizes, activates, moves and that which directs or channels towards achievement or goals in an organization.
Therefore, to say that a manager motivates his subordinates means that he does the things which enables the workers to be satisfied; he drives and induces them to behave in the desired manner.
But the purpose of the this chapter is to undertake the theorical examination of the effect of motivation. However, answering the question as to what actually motivates workers to perform is rather difficult. This is because individuals have different needs. Basically, workers are being motivated through meeting their unsatisfied needs.
THE NEED- WHAT- SATISFACTION CHAIN
When a need is felt, this will give rise to want or goals sought, the sought goals will result to tension in the individual which will give rise to action, the action at last results to satisfaction of need.
2.2 SCHOOL OF THOUGHT WITHIN THE SUBJECT AREA
Since motivation is an essential clement in management, many theories have discussed the topic comprehensively and these comprises of this chapter which reviews some related thoughts on worker’s performance. Here much emphasis will be on the major school of thought that are related to the subject area. And studies on motivation.
STUDIES ON MOTIVATION
Borne/Esktands (1981) sees motivation “as explanatory concept used to answer questions about why organization behaves”.
Huse and Bowdith 91976) defined motivation as “the condition responsible for variations and sustains human behaviour”. Hull (1974) viewed motivation as “stemming from physiological based drive with physiological based drive with physiological drive”. The concept is exceedingly board, that psychologist have attempted to narrow it, singling out one aspect or another of the complex process of determination.
Deri (1975) sees of concept of work motivation and satisfaction when he said that “man is a complex organization with infinite variations of specific internal motives but striving to fulfill his personal predisposition for psychological growth”.
Specially, workers are among complex organization such as other human beings with numerous variations of specific internal motives. They also Stacie hard to fulfill their personal predisposition for psychological growth.
Dill and Eying (1978) see work motivation and job satisfaction as contained in the statement that “we must remember motives are not things, they are states of mind that spring chiefly from deficiencies from felt lacks, from an imbalance between what people have and what they want:. It is an established fact that motive are not things as said by Dill and Eyring, it is also a recognized facts that the i8mbalance between what have and what they want makes them feel dejected and frustrated at their places of duty and at the end their performance and how productivity springs up.
In order that workers in any organization or establishment may derive high level of motivation and job satisfaction, Vroom (1964) suggested that low level needs of workers must be provided against higher, thirst, sex and deprivation from sleep, beauty, leisure and relaxation, Vroom believes in hierarchy for distribution of motivation and incentives for deriving job satisfaction within and insides the organization. It will be outright injustice for top executives to be given first hand treatment while the lower level workers suffer in silence. The same previsions of the establishment which top executives enjoy should also be given to the lower level workers.
Maslow (1970) added fresh dimensi0on to Vroom’s concept of motivation. He said that in addition to providing how level needs to workers, establishment should provide also high level needs. These high level needs include protection against danger and health freedom from fear, anxiety and chaos and need for order, security and stability. Other high level needs includes the provision of friendship and affection, appreciation, creativity, status, respect, confidence, dignity, recognition, sense of self achievement, self development and self expression.
To a great extent, Maslow’s suggestion are right in relation to the workers in an organization since the suggestions highly apply to satisfying the workers needs. When low level needs and high level needs are both provided, the workers would be happier than before and surely put in his/her best in survive, so long as the provision of both the low level and high level needs continues.
In research carried out by Herzberg (1969) it was discovered that certain factors are responsible for motivation and satisfaction of worker. VIZ: Responsibility and advancement Megregor (1957) has distinguished between two types of motivation which are democratically administered and negative motivation which are autocratically administered.
The implication is that since educational institutions are democratically administered, workers should be positively motivated by means of reward, incentive, remuneration and enhance status.
TYPES OF MOTIVATION:
1. Intrinsic motivation– This type carries its own reward within the activity, for instance, when you read for sheer interest or pleasure, we say that you are internally motivated.
2. Extrinsic motivation– This type has its own reward outside the activity. Under this type, the student needs the book not for its sake, but for the purpose of being able to achieve something else, such as passing exams etc
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION:
Motivational theories are much but we are going to discuss few of them starting with maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS: This theory was propounded by an American psychologist called Abraham Maslow. He saw needs in the form of hierarchy starting in an ascending order from the lowest to the highest need. He advance the following important propositions about human behaviors.
1. Humans are wanting beings, if one set of needs was satisfied, this kind of need will cease to be a motivator. As soon as one need is satisfied, another appears in its place.
2. A satisfied need is not a motivation of behaviour, only unsatisfied needs motivate behaviour.
3. Human needs are arranged in series of levels- a hierarchy of importance. As soon as needs on lower level are satisfied, another on the highest level will appear and demand satisfaction too.
This, Maslow felt that several levels of need exists within individuals and these needs relate to each other in the form of hierarchy. His hierarchy of needs consists of five levels. Physiological needs, safety (security) needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs.
HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Safety (security) needs.
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS: This type of need is basically the need of the human beings that must be satisfied in order to sustain life, they are fundamental needs which include food, clothing, sleep, water and shelter etc. these needs must be satisfied before the needs of higher levels emerge.
Maslow rightly puts it that humans like by “bread alone when there is no other bread”.
SAFETY NEEDS: When physiological needs are reasonably satisfied, the need for security beings to dominate behaviour, safety needs are concerned with protection against danger, threat or deprivation, discrimination and arbitrary administration of organization policies.
SOCIAL NEEDS: When a person’s physiological needs and safety needs are relatively satisfied, social needs become important motivator of behaviour. Human beings are gregarious in nature and therefore, in many societies, isolation of an individual and solitary confinement are considered as some of the punishments.
ESTEEM NEEDS: The esteem need includes both self-esteem and esteem of others. Self esteem needs include therefore-self confidence, achievement, competence, knowledge, self respect, independence and freedom. The esteem of others is that which relates to the individuals reputation for status, recognition, importance or appreciation and the desired respect of association.
SELF ACTUALIZATION: Most physiological content, that the highest need of “human being is that of self-actualization. It encompasses not only the ability to accomplish, but the need for actual achievement of some things in life. The job or task is the major source of satisfaction of this need.
2.3 SCHOOL OF THOUGHT RELEVANT TO THE PROBLEM AREA
According to Nwachukwu (1988) “an unmotivated worker is a threat to himself and the organization.” When an employee fails to achieve a goal, he feels frustrated and acts in such a way to show his inability to achieve nwachukwu, therefore went further to highlight some of the problems of motivation as follows:
(1) When workers salary are not paid as and when due, performance will not be at its best. They can go as far as withdrawing their services from the organization. Again when they are not been motivated by compensation as to what is obtained in other organization, it will lead to the problem of high labour turnover and influence their effort towards the achievement of organization’s goal.
(2) When the workers are not allowed to participate towards contributing to the organization, thus making the relationship between the employer and the employee cordial will affect productivity and atmosphere of work. Environment will also be calm and employees will feel relaxed both at home and their working place, but if the reverse is the case, i.e if worker are not motivated towards the above that had been said, the reverse will be the case thus, affecting productivity and performance in a lower standard.
THEORY X AND Y
Douglas Mc Gregory postulated x and y. Theory x propose that:
1. The average man has an inherent dislike towards work and will avoid it if possible.
2. Because of this human of this human characteristics of dislike of work. Most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort.
3. The average human being prefers to be dictated, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all.
THEORY Y ON THE OTHER HAND STATES THAT
1. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is natural as play or rest.
2. People will exercise self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
3. Commitment to objectives of the rewards associated with achievements.
4. The average human being learns under proper conditions, nor accept also to seek responsibility.
5. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organization distributed in the population.
6. Under conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized.
ARGYRIS’ MATURE HUMAN BEING
Chris Argyris proposed the theory of mature human being. He states that man develops from every immature state towards maturity. When a man is born he starts from the immature state and develops to achieve a good and mental health.
At the immature- infant stage man (1) is passive (2) dependent (3) unaware of self (4) subordinates (5) possess a short term perspective (6) has casual shallow interests (7) is capable of behaving only in a few ways. On the other hand of maturity man’s behaviour characterized by increased activity, i9ndependence, an equal or superior position, having long term perspective, developing deeper interests and being capable of behaving in many ways to satisfy needs.
Argyris went further to point that our organization are set up in such a way that the immature nature of man can work there. Organization expects employees to submit to order’s plans, policies, procedures and rules as given. They are expected to work in an environment they have little control over their lives. He said in effect that if conditions were right, man would exhibit maturity not immaturity.
CARROT AND STICK APPROACH
Under this theory, Mcgregor says that management can provide or without the means for satisfying man’s physiological and safety needs. Employment itself is such a means, also wages working conditions and fringe benefits.
By with-holding employment etc, man remains in a deprived state so is motivated towards satisfying these needs. By providing people with employment, fringe benefits etc, management is offering them carrot and by with-holding employment, management is disciplining them with a stick. So management can provide them with a little of the two at a time to keep them in check.
But the carrot and stick theory does not work once a man has reached an adequate subsistence level and is motivated primarily by high level needs. Management cannot provide people with self respect, or with the satisfaction of needs of self fulfillment. Management can create the conditions that would encourage employee to seek such satisfaction.
By making possible the satisfaction of low-level needs. Management has deprived self of the ability to use as motivations the devices of reward, promises incentives or threats.
On the other people deprived of the opportunities to satisfy at work the need which are not important is than have exactly as we might predict-with indolence. Lack of responsibility, unreasonable economic demands and resistance to change.
Carrot and stick approach is not very practical because deprivation has its own behaviour consequences, which might be determined or be detrimental to the organization.
HERZBERG’S THEORY MOTIVATIONAL HYGIGNG
The American psychologist, Fredrick Herzbery advanced another content explanation of motivation in 1959. He based his theory on a study of need satisfaction and on the reported motivational effects of these satisfaction on 200 engineers and accountants. The theory is referred to as the two-factor theory of motivation.
In the study of engineers and accountants. Herzbery and his associates asked the subjects to think of times both when they felt especially good and when they felt especially bad about their jobs. Each employee was then asked to desire the condition that led to these particular feelings. It was found that the employees named different kinds of condition as causes of each of the feelings for example. If recognition led to a good feeling about a job, the lack of recognition was seldom indicated as a cause of a bad feeling. Based on the study Herzbery reached two conditions
(1) Some condition of a job operate primarily to dissatisfy employees when they are not present. However, the presence of these conditions does these maintenance or hygiene factors, since they are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of satisfaction. He also noted that many of these have often been perceived by managers as factors that can motivate subordinates but that they are, infact, more potent as the following maintenance.
a. Company policy and salary administration.
b. Technical supervision and job security.
c. Inter-personal relations with supervisor’s personal life.
d. Interpersonal relations with peer work conditions.
e. Interpersonal relations with subordinates status.
(2) Some job conditions build high level of motivation and job satisfaction. However, if these conditions are not present, they do not prove highly satisfying. Herzbery described six of these motivational factors, or satisfiers:
c. Personal growth
e. The work itself
f. The possibility of responsibility
The maintenance factors cause much dissatisfaction when they are not present, but do not provide strong motivation when they are present. On the other hand, the factors in the second group lead to strong motivation and satisfaction when they are present but do not cause much dissatisfaction when they are absent. Herzberg’s study of engineers and accountants suggested to him that the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction but simply “not satisfaction”.
The distinction between motivational and maintenance factors is similar to what psychologists have described as “intrinsic” and “Extrinsic” motivators. Intrinsic motivators are part of the job and occur when the employee performs the work. The opportunity to perform a job with intrinsic motivational potentials is motivating because the work itself is rewarding.
Extrinsic motivators are external rewards that work or away from the work place. The work is being performed. Pay is a good example of what Herzbery classifies as maintenance factor and what some psychologists call extrinsi9c motivator.
2.4 DIFFERENT METHODS OF STUDYING THE PROBLEM
The different methods of studying the problem was designed in such a way to enable the researcher to sample the opinion of some reasonable percentage of workers in Nike Lake Resort (Protea Hotel). The research method used include the reactive and non reactive research techniques. The reactive techniques used are the oral interviews and questionnaires while survey. A set of questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the respondents (1.e, the workers) of Protea Hotel (Nike Lake Resort), Enugu, this was done to examine the views, opinion, knowledge and perceptions about the subject matter under study. The researcher designed the questionnaires in the following methods:
1. Multiple choice question which allows respondent to choose from an array of suggested answer that best described their suggestions.
2. Dichotomy questions, which is the yes and no type of question. This system allows for two possible options and it is aimed at making that answer is easy for respondent.
3. Open ended questions, which are those that do not limit the respondent to any particular choice hence they can freely express their options in their own ways.
All about were aimed at eliciting information, from respondents. In addition to the questionnaires distributed. The researcher interviewed some of the top managers of the organization. The information gathered from those interviewed was used to confirm and check collected through questionnaire.
In order to maximize profit productivity in the highest quality, management must give some incentives to their subordinates beyond that which is given to the average worker in the trade. On the other hand, Nwachukwu, observations were made that one of the major problems confronting management is motivating workers to perform signed task to meet or surpass to predetermined standard.
Nwachukwu saw motivation as that emerging force that induces or compels and maintain behaviour. According to him, human behaviour is motivated for individual success, and any motivational efforts depends on the extent to which the motivation meets the needs of individual employees for whom it is intended. The motivation value of money might change after a persons basic needs have been reasonably satisfied. Human beings have a way of continual meeting their needs whether money would motivate it to some degree as a matter of money involved and the amount an individual is already earning.
Generally, the more people earn, the more they are motivated to work harder or stay longer. Furthermore, incentive when judiciously and earnestly applied should motivate greater work efforts and kinder service ambitious. Promotion should be a clean reward of merit measured in terms of success against defined workers objectives and standards.
The essential of this last chapter present the summary of finding from the research work as it was carried out with regard to the subject matter which is an assessment on the effects of motivation on workers performance “with special emphasis on Nike Lake Resort (Protea Hotel) Enugu. From the finding, the research with recommendation and the draw of conclusion from the study.
Based on the finding of the study, the research is included to make the following recommendations.
1. The management of the organization should be praised for the little effort they made towards motivating the workers in their organization. This will enable them to continue and not relent since it is only through motivation that the workers will have a sense of belonging in the organization.
2. The workers must be encouraged to make their contributions towards the achievement of the organization and not side lived when issues or decisions affecting them or the organization have been made. They should be encouraged the more to participate indecision making in running the affairs of the organization.
3. The cordial relationship existing between the management and the workers in the organization must be allowed to continue. This is because this kind of cordial relationship has enable the management and the workers to handle their grievances without any group feeling cheated or been left out.
4. It should be made very clear in the mind of the management of the organization that it is an essential step towards motivating workers, because it is an essential management tool for increasing the productivity of workers.
5. The organization should be advised to maintain their present statuesque. They should be encouraged to keep with their performance. This will enable them to compete favorably services as theirs and also enable them to enjoy wider market share.
6. The top management workers while appraising their subordinates, they should try as much as possible to make use of the informal way rather than formal way because this will give the workers the sense of being appreciated and this appraisal if good. It should be done publicly to increase the workers and not be downcast morally.
Finally, the researcher is of the view that if al this recommendations are religiously adhered to, that the organization will always achieve their aims and objectives at the same time enjoy increased productivity from the workers.
There is a popular saying that a labourer deserves more than his wages however, it is imperative to restate that a labourer deserves more of his wages alone-if essential to mention, thence are times when workers in an
organization should be given a path on the back by their employer’s through the provision of other necessary uncreative which will make them only feel much happier but help in increasing their efficiency and at the same time making them more productive. This can only be achieved if their adequately in their place in a penance to abysmal performance of the workers.
According to the findings, promotion was used to motivate the employees. It should be realized that when promotion is used as a motivational tool to increase performance, the workers will work harder so that they will be promoted and it is seen as basis of reward to hard working people. Promotion will continue to be a strong motivator as long as the desire to move to a higher grade is still felt.
Motivation is a management tool, which will ensure that workers and their employers work harmoniously and enjoy an atmosphere of rancor. It is the only means of encouraging a virtile labour management relation. In whatever angle it is what is worthy of note is that in any organization, whether private or public the importance of motivation to organizational welfare cannot be underestimated. Therefore, there is need for every
Organization to imbibe in its curriculum, the concept of motivation even though it is believed that human beings are insatiable, but with the provisions of certain incentives (through motivation) the researcher is of the opinion that every organization must achieve its objectives and this will make the management of the organization to appreciate the fact that motivation is an important tool for increasing the productivity and performance of workers.
Effect Of Motivation On Workers’ Performance: (A Case Study Of Nike Lake, Resort Enugu)
To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183
Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.