Drug Abuse Among Secondary School Students – Implications For Counselling
Drug Abuse Among Secondary School Students – Implications For Counselling
The issue drug abuse is a well known phenomenon being condemned by all and sundry including the federal, state and local government through the mass media. It is a common thing among adolescents and even adult to abuse drugs of various types. To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.
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Nwoli (1975) defined drug as “a substance that by its chemical nature affect the structure or function of the organism”. The mode of action and the nature of the effect of drugs is the subject matter of pharmacology. It includes medicine, over the counter drugs, illegal drugs, drugs that are commonly referred to as beverages or cigarettes, food additives, pollutant and food itself.
Onuaguluchi (1983:p.34), quoting marsh defined drugs as:
(i) Articles recognized in the official US pharmcopeia, official Homeophathic pharmcopeia of the US or official national formulary or any supplement to any of them
(ii) Article intended for used in the diagnosis cure mitigation, treatment and prevention of distance in man or other animals
(iii) Articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure of any function of the body of man or other animals
(iv) Articles intended for use as a component of any article specified in clause, 1,2,3 but does not include device of their component part of accessories
Two important connotation of the definitions are; that, substances used for diagnosis or prevention of diseases are drugs; and that articles which are not normally intended for the treatment, cure, diagnosis or prevention of diseases in man and other animals, but are intended purely for modification of the function are regarded as drugs. Thus alcohol taken as beverages or marijuana taken purely for it effect on the psyche are drugs.
One of the principles of proper usage is that drugs should be medically prescribed and in addition the user should comply with the instruction of the prescription. However, it is known that some drug users do not always comply with the instruction and tend to use them without prescription. Both behaviours constitute either drug misuse or drug abuse respectively. Drug abuse is a situation when certain drugs are taken in short or over of the prescription dosage. Misuse of drugs can also be seen as a situation an individual applies a drug meant for a particular ailment for another type of a major social problem, particularly in the developing countries. Certain phase of the problem involves in some way almost every sector of the society. Because of the importance drugs are being recommended and haphazardly by students, parent, legislators and judges, just to mention but a few with or without medical instruction or prescription.
Drug abuse according to Tuner (1971) is defined ‘as taking of drugs without medical advice or direction”. Ndu (1982), defined it as “the use, especially by self-administration of any drug in a manner that deviate from the approved medical or social pattern within a given culture”.
From the above definition, it is obvious that any of the following conditions constitutes drug abuse, sell administration of drugs without prescription, excessive use of drugs and indiscrimination use of alcohol and tobacco. Ruch (9963) defined alcohol addiction as an uncontrollable need to drink that the person’s economic, social and family life disintegrates”. Such person depends on alcohol to get him through the day and feel he cannot face life without it.
Kalunta (1976), defined drugs as to obtain and take drug in over-increasing dose, and to develop physical and psychological symptoms if the source of supply is cut off.
The commonly abused drugs according to (Inhinmwin 1987), include alcohol, nicotine, hypnotics like barbiturates and stimulant, caffein like coffees tea, kolanuts and cocaine, hallucinatory like marijuana and narcotics like opium and other drugs.
Ndu (1982) in his study classified most of the pharmacological agent commonly abused into six. They includes, opium and related analgestic compounds, general central nervous system depressants, central nervous system stimulant and psychedetic. Drug abuse has become a cankerworm which has eaten deep into the fabric of the society, so much that there is hardly any government or regime that does not embark on one form of public campaign or the other in the effort to check it. The campaign mounted by the government and its agencies seem to have been ignored by the drug users and traffickers. Hence some government in Nigeria introduced draconian law in order to check drug abuse as well as drug trafficking among citizen, for instance, Buhari/Idiagbon (1983) introduced death penalty for drug trafficking in Nigeria.
Margan (1987), reported during the lunching of campaign against drug abuse at Lagos that the problem of drug abuse has reached a stage that it was necessary to arouse the awareness of the general populace to the menace. She stressed that if Nigerians did not rise up against drug abuse therefore it cancerous effect spreads, it might be their children, parent, relation or friend that would be the next victim. The then master of social development, youth and sport, Lawal (1987), report that his ministry was involved with the campaign because quite a number of abusers of drugs were young and women. These categories of citizens, he said, were the responsibility of his ministry. He identified reasons for taking drugs as boredom relief from rain and stresses, feeling of rejection, need for love, ignorance and curiosity. He therefore, stressed that the fight against drug abuse and illicit trafficking would amount do nothing without the collective effort of individual, families, parents, teachers, school, religious bodies and voluntary organization.
Garba (1986) expressed concern over how students’ sexually transmitted disease (STD) resorted to treating themselves indiscriminately with antibiotic. According to him, student who avoided doctor or bought antibiotic from chemist without prescription endanger their health because of the risk of buying expired drugs and abuse of such drugs. He therefore called on the federal government to enact a law barning the indiscriminate sale of some drugs including antibiotics except on prescription from a medical doctor.
Reacting to drug abuse and its attendant consequences, Alusa (1986), reported that some students engaged in drug competition and might become psychitic after excessive consumption of a particular drug or alcohol, such student lost self controls, committe crimes including sexual abuse on female students and damaged public property. He warned that student who indulged in psychoactive drugs and alcohol, usually ended up with intellectual deficit as a result of brain damage leading to poor academic performance, early drop out and later delinquency. The then assistance inspector General of police, Aliyu (1987), listed a case of a boy in Lagos who suddenly pulled out a gun in the midst of a crowd and opened fire on the innocent people without any cause. On the arrest the police discovered the boy acted under the influence of drug. This is in line with the report of Lagos medical practitioner, Oyemiran (1989 p. 28), who reported that during influence criminal tendencies in youths.
“When a youth takes any of the activity drugs without the recommendation of a trained doctor, it becomes effective in him such that he begins to create an illusion about things. The more he uses the drug, the more his body gets activated”.
He further highlighted that in addition to these, drugs would create mental problems for the youth. This is because the drug taken goes to the brain through the blood stream. And since the brain control the entire body and through the blood stream the drug is transmitted to other part of the body, the drugs causes the youth to be immunes from pain and then has a lot of got to go anything no matter how irrational it is. The concerned antigens are thus worried about the degree at which this phenomenon is growing among our youths in the secondary schools.
The Emir of Fika Local Government Area of Borno state, Ablik(1986), said in Postiskum, that students and unemployed youths were responsible for most of the crimes committed at that time in Postiskum. According to him, the crime statistics compiled by the police revealed that minor crime like sexual abuse, truancy, picking pocketing, insults of teachers and assault of female were committed by students under the influence of drugs.
Asuni (1964), reported that eight of twenty-six cases administed to Amo- hospital (Abeokuta) due to effect of India Hem smoking were attributed to students. Olafunde and Oviasn (1974), reported that 62 out of 352 secondary school students investigated at Ibadan used central nervous system stimulant and 55 of these misused or abused drugs.
Similarly, Udo (1982), found in a study concerning drug taking beliefs, opinion and behaviour that amoung secondary school students in Ibadan that 89 out of 428 he investigated had experienced smoking cigarette, while 1990 of the same sample had taken wine or beer.
From the above instances of drug abuse and its attendant consequences, one is not left in doubt as to the magnitude of it concern to the nation. The issue is viewed seriously because the chief culprit and victims are the youth who are the main architects of the nation’s future. It is imperative therefore, that the war against crime in society should begin with fighting the use of hard drug by our youth as people were likely to be law abiding avoid crime if they were prevented from abusing hard drugs. Thus, the idea to investigate the prevalence of this social phenomenon among the secondary school students in Otuocha education zone of Anambra state was conceived by the researcher.
Statement Of Problem
It is generally known that human societies are faced with numerous problems and challenges. In like manners, institutions found with such societies are also engulfed by such societal problems and therefore the students in Otuocha Education zone who also constitute a fraction of the leaders of tomorrow are no exception to the problem of drug abuse.
Teachers in the secondary schools have observed with dismay and regret the non-challant attitude of some students towards their studies. Some of them do not come to school regularly and some others when they come do not stay in the class for their lessons, as most of them prefer to stay in their hide-outs where they carry out their nefarious activities such as smoking and taking of alcohol. It is no news these days to hear of students bullying other students and even some of them fighting their teachers as well as the school authorities. Most schools are experiencing one form of disturbance/demonstration or the other. Recently, due to drug abuse/misuse, it was reported that some students in a Federal Government College in Rivers State beat their fellow student to death. Such sporadic violent behaviour exhibited by students are mostly carried out on the influence of drugs. The health implication of self medication among our secondary school student has become a source of concern for so many well meaning Nigerians. Most students have turned themselves into “medical practitioners” because of an ailment they once had. They are constantly diagnosing and prescribing for themselves and others without any knowledge of the composition, purpose or side effects of the drug. This is a dangerous precedent to which other people in the society have become accustomed to, to the neglect of its grave consequences.
In view of the fact that drug abuse is gradually gaining ground among Nigeria youth and also for the fact that it has done irreparable harm to most families as well as rendering most people useless, it becomes imperative that something ought to be done to correct the situation.
Purpose Of The Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the indicates of drug among secondary schools student in Otuocha education and its implication for counselling. Therefore, it tends to:
1. To investigate why students abuse drugs.
2. To identify the drug commonly abused by students.
3. To determine which gender abuse drugs more than the other.
4. To ascertain how through counseling the rate of drug abuse can be reduced in our secondary school.
Significance Of The Study
This project is important for the following reasons.
Firstly, it will help the parents to understand the drugs commonly abused by students in secondary schools and why they abuse them. This will help the parents adopt a better strategy in joining the fight against drug abuse among secondary school children.
Secondly, the mass media will have more knowledge on the nature and impact of drug abuse among secondary school students. This will help them adopt a more sophisticated approach in using the mass media to discourage secondary school students from indiscriminate taking of drugs.
Thirdly, education administration in Otuocha education zone will understand to a large extent how drug abuse has contributed to recent indiscipline and decline in student, performance and perhaps adapt a better method to check this ugly trend.
Lastly, the larger society has been handicapped about the rising incidence of drug abuse. This study will identify those drugs that are commonly abused and how it has contributed to the falling standard in education, besides the rising cases of youth indiscipline in the larger society. It will highlight how counseling can help reduce this problem to its barest minimum.
The researcher formulated four research questions to give guide to the work. They includes;
1. What reasons can you proffer for using drugs?
2. What are the drugs commonly abused by students?
3. Which gender abuse these drugs more than the other?
4. To what extent can counseling be used to reduce drug abuse among students in secondary schools?
Scope Of The Study
This study course the four local government that make up Otuocha Education Zone [Anambra East, Anambra West, Ayamelum, Oyi Local Government Area.] There are 50 secondary schools in all from which the study is carried out.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Literature related to the study was reviewed under the following headings
(1) Why student abuse days
(2) Drug commonly abused by students
(3) Student under that above drugs
(4) Use of counseling to reduce dry abuse
Why Students Abuse Drugs
Colemen, Butcher and Carson (1980) reported that student abuse drugs in order to react to failure with marked feelings of hurt and inferiority, to have low frustration tolerance, and to feel inadequate and unsure of their ability to play expected male or female roles maccleland, David, Kalin and Wanner (1972) see why students abuse drugs as an attempt to prove their masculinity and achieve feelings of adequacy and competency.
Awka of July 8, 2001 agree that the influence of peer was prime reason they start using drugs equally Newsweek reported on 7th July 1996, “the street of Seattle are chuttered with lids who have moved there to do heroin, just because (rock musician) lobain did”
Also Awka July 8, 2001 report on why student abuse drugs. Among these are disillusionment, depression and a lack of purpose in life. It noted that some who have equally difficulty with human relationship use drugs to help them cope in social situations. They believe that drugs boat their confidence, making them feel with and likable.
Boredom is another reason youths fun to drugs. The book, “The promence of Disky – why teenages do the things they do” comment on boredom and the lack of parental supervision “Boy and girls come home after school to empty houses. No surprise, they are homely and don’t want to be alone”. Eiserman (1978).
According to Awka (April 22, 1994) reported, “indeed, the reason many people become addicted is their bad association with those who are abusing alcohol and drug”. It also reported that peer pressure and curiosity often play a significant role, especially for youth. This may explain a us survey that revealed that 41 percent of high school seniors go on an alcohol bring every two week (Awka April 22, 1994)
Some export even suggested a genetic link making some move vulnerable to addition than others. “what we see is an interaction of personality, environment, biology and social acceptability”, says jack Hengingfield of the national institute on drug Abuse. Kelunta (1977).
Equally, so many experts in the in medical field have proved that student take drugs for therapeutic uses. Perhaps, the most recognized reason behind the use of hard drugs by people is that of achieving pleasurable excitement. People use drugs such as LISO, Mascaline, amphetamines and alcohol to go in “trips” or achieve a highly falsified elated state of being. These drugs among other similar influence, are majority used to achiee estasy. Samuel, Faguyi and Njoku (1979).
In trying to identify why students abuse drugs, some researchers including Winokur, Raich, Rimmes and pitts (1970), and Hodwin, Harmansan, Schulsinger, Auze winokur (1973), have stressed the role of genetic and biochemical factors, others including Bandurs (1976), Schaeter (1971), and freeney (1976), have viewed it as a maladaptive pattern of adjustment to the stree of life, still other including westermyer (1971) and elsermen (1978) have emphasize socio-cultural factors, such as the availability of alcohol and social approval of excessive drug abuse i.e. drinking and smoking. As with most other forms of maladaptive behaviour, it would appear that there may be several types of drug dependence in which there are some what difference patterns of biological, psychological and socio-cultural level factors.
Psychologically, it can be understood that “there an alcoholic personality is a type of character organisation that predisposes a given individual to the use of alcohol rather of coping with stress. Coleman, Butcher and Carson (1980). In attempt to explain this further Coleman, Butcher and Carso (1980) reported that alcoholics in terms of pre-alcoholic personality, tend to be emotionally immature to expert a great deal of the world, to require an inordinate amount of praise and appreciation, to react to failure with marked feelings of hurt and inferiority, to have low frustration tolerance, and to feel inadequate and unsure of their ability to play expected male or female roles. With respect to the lart characteristic maccleland, David Kalin and Wanner (1972) have viewed heavy drinking by some young man as an attempt to prove their masculinity and achieve feelings of adequate and competency. Similarly, wilsnck (1973), concluded that the potential female alcoholic places strong value on the traditional female role, while at the same time her sense of adequately as a female is highly fragile.
A number of investigations have pointed out that the typical alcoholic is discontented with his or her life situation and is unable or unwilling to tolerate tension and stress. Beckman (1978). In fact Schaefer (1971) has concluded that alcoholism is a conditioned response to anxiety. The individual presumably find in alcohol a means of relieving anxiety, resentment, depression, or unpleasant feelings. Each drink relieves tension at the moment, this the behaviour is reinforced.
Grahua and cross (1975), have found important personality differences between chronic users and non users of marijuana. Users showed more spontoneiety and novelty seeking, while non user appeared well specialized confirmed, and respectful of authority, they strone for traditional value and rarely acted on impulse. Key, lyons, newman mankind and boeb (1978), tested a large group of college students on several occasions with Califonia psychological inventory (CPI), the adjective check list (ACI), and a drug questionnaire. They found personality different between user and non-users and concluded that individuals with certain personality characteristics such as flexibility are more likely to use marijuana than confirming constructive individual. In comparison between a group of 45 young institutionalized male addicts and as a control of non- addicts, Ailbert and Lombardi (1967) found that distinguishing features were “the addicts psychopathic traits, his depression, tension, and his difficulty in forming warm and lasting interpersonal relationship”.
Similarly, in a study of 112 drug abusers admitted to Bellevue psychiatric hospital in New York, Hekimian and Gershon (19680), found that users usually showed psychopathic personality characteristic personality pattern as being characteristics of female addict studied over a period of seven years in New York city. He concluded that a female addicts has three keys goals
(a) A conscious wish to lose control of her drug usage so that she can blame her failure on the drug.
(b) A desire to obliterate all sense of time blot what is happening in her frustrating life, situation and
(c) A need to deny cause-and effect relationship in her sexual activity and pregnancy.
Barbin, Ross, English and Haley (1974), assessed the personality make up of 1500 hospitalized opiate addicts, 150 male and 750 female. They found that in the majority of addict- 60% showed a variety emotional disturbance and related characteristic that did not fit consistent personalize of the subject were remaining 40% of the subject were characterized by high level of subjective distress, non-conformity, and confused thinking.
Biologically, Winoker, (1970), found that slight over 40 percent had alcoholic parents usually the father. This findings proved that children of alcoholic, parents who had been adopted by non-alcoholic foster parents still had nearly twice the number of alcoholic did a control of adopted children whose real parent did not have history of alcoholism.
In another study, Godwin, schussing, miller, Hermansen and winoker (1974), compared the sons of alcoholic parents who were adopted in infancy by non-alcoholic parents. Both adopted and non-adopted sons later showed evidence of high rate of alcoholism – 25 percent and 19 percent respectively. Roe, Burks and mittlemen (1945), followed the case histories of 36 children who had been taken from securely alcoholic parents and placed in fostered homes. They found that the likely-hood of their becoming alcoholic turned out to be no greater than that of a control group of 25 children of non-alcoholic parents.
Socio-culturally Eiserman (1978) reported that pressure on young people to do well in school especially by parents who have fixed ideas on what their children should be regardless of their vocational or academic aptitudes, drive such children to use amphetamine and other central nervous system stimulants while at school. Eiserman (1978), discovered that there are three different types of homes- the democratic, Laiser faire and autocratic. The democratic allows for change of idea between parents and children. There is shared lover tender care and concerned members would correct one another whenever one does wrong. The Laisser fairs one is very permissive and every one tends to do as he/ she wishes. The autocratic on the other hand is ever demanding full of nagging and love is absent. Eirserman discovered that the type of child-rearing practices in the home will determine the level of participation drugs. Drug users ar more likely to come from either Laisser fair or autocratic homes from the former, because where parents do not care about what their children are up to the children are likely to be involved since no one cares about whether they do good or bad. In the latter, because where there is no love and good inter-personal relationship the children are likely to seek for alternative areas where they can win love and generate satisfactions and problems peer influence is yet another socio-cultural factor in dry use and abuse. Coleman (1980). Coleman discovered that peers try to initiate new members into their group acts using sweet but unfounded words about the importance of drugs- if the peers indulge in them. They may tell the new “converts” that there is a new drug in town that is capable of strengthening their ego, one that will make them go high and can energize them to face members of the opposite sex with courage.
Gordon (1975), advanced some reasons for the increased use and smoking habits of adolescents among the reason were affluence, rock music, television advertisement, competition, and risk- taking behaviour. From the catalogue of reasons, he concluded that smoking and drug use were basically social phenomena. Samuel, fasuyi and Njoku (1970), listed above as follows: Lack of parental care and guidance, curiosity and lack of proper understanding of effects of drugs on physical, psychological and emotional well-being.
From the literature so far reviewed, the reason, why students in secondary schools abuse drugs appears to be diverse. Evidence shows that the following are the causes of drug abuse. These include psychological factors such as low frustration tolerance, low personality Traits, biological factors. Socio-cultural factors like lack of parental care, competition and others factors risk taking behaviour, curiosity and ignorance.
The present study will also investigate the drugs commonly abused by students in Otuocha education zone.
Drugs Commonly Abused By Students
In a study conducted at Aba by Kalunta (1977), he broadly divided drugs into six. The first and most popular is marijuana or India lemp otherwise known as “port” “grass” “wee”, “weed” and “hashish”. The second groups of drug are stimulant which include amphetamine group with various slang names of “speed” “dexies” and “pepelis”. The third group is so called psychedelic drugs also known as hallucinogenic drugs and include names of “blue leaven”, “Red” “Bird” and “yellow jacket”. Others in this group are non-barbiturates, hypothesis and frangurthers. The fifth growth of these drugs includes opinion, morphine and Heroin. The last groups of drugs are the Chinese capsules such as “franquinot”, “drug topic” and “tonin”. Kalunts (1979).
Ndu (1982), in his study classified most of the pharmacological agent commonly abused for subjective purpose with six. They include: opinion and related analgesic compounds, general central nervous system stimulant, nicotine cannabis and related compound and psychedelic.
Attah (1985), gave a lot of insight about some of these drugs which he named as follows: First there are the morphine types of drugs. Common drugs in this family are opium, heroine, morphone and methadone. There are the barbiturates types of drugs which include pentabarbitons quinbarbintone, ranaldelyde, and, moprobamaten. Attah (1985).
Another type of drug is alcohol, it includes, beer, wine and spirit. A fourth class of drug is the amphetamine which include cannabis leaf, resin, marijuana and hashish. Cocaine a class of drug which has become popular recently in the country has cocoa-leaf and other preparation of cocaine in the family. Attah (1985). Another class of drug according to the same Attah is hallucinogenic. These drugs include mescaline, mescal, cafes and morning glory. There other offers like petrol, nut meg, tobacco smoking, e.g. cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking.
In a study conducted in secondary schools in Lagos involving about 14,584 students, Samuel, Fasuyi and Njoku (1975), reported that one out of every ten students has taken marijuana or some other dangerous drugs at east once. They listed some of the possible causes of the practice as foolws: lack of parental care and guidance curiosity and lack of proper understanding of effect of drugs. On physical, psychological and emotional well- being.
Olatude and Oviasu (1974), In another study about drug habits among tenager and young people, discovered that 62 out of 392 (18) secondary school student used central nervous system (CNS) stimulant while 21 of the sample used some form of CNS depressant.
Glatt (1968) in viewing the pattern of drugs abuse and dependence on drug affecting the central nervous system, noted that a small minority find the effects of such drugs so attractive that they does prescribed for them and or go on takings the drug long after the medical need ha passed. He thought those particularly at risk were the psychologically “vunerable”. These emotionally unstable and immature; inadequate personalities, psychopate, those who had been dependent on past and alcoholic. From the fore going, it becomes obvious that students are worst offenders as regard drug abuse and addiction.
Kalunta (1977), Attah (1985) and Olatunde and Oviasu (1974), have identified the most abused drugs by students as marijuana or Indian hemp, central nervous system depressant and tobacco smoking. In a society like ours which is examination and certificate conscious, it is not surprising that students go to any length to obtain what the society values as symbol of achievement. Studies by the researchers reveal however, that the types of drugs they abuse are yet to be uncovered.
There is a growing evidence that illicit use of marijuana is becoming a part of students life and for a large number users, it begins in secondary school and universities. On the extent of the use of drug. Ralunta (1981), states that India hemp has been used at least once by an estimated 300,000 out of 500,000 Nigerians. Smart and Jackson (1966), found that 67 percent of the student sample numbering 360 reported marijuana use while 2.5 percent admitted having used lysergic acid diethylamide and 7.3 percent use amphetamines.
Anumonye (1980), indicated that India hemp abuse in Nigeria was common between he age of 11 and 25 years and that the social status of patient ranges from he very upper class to the very lower class. A survey carried out by David and Cowley (1980), in one East lancanshine secondary school in the united kingdom indicated that some of the student were addicted to cigarette smoking and hey conducted that it would be unrealistic to expects them to stay without having cigarette.
In another survey, Martino and Truss (1973), indicated that when an interviewer asked students questions regarding type and extent of drug on 20 campuses in the United State, 60 percent of the collected sample reported having tried marijuana.
Ogbolu (1981), in the study of 50 indian hemp addicts at the psychiatric hospital, Enugu, indicated that the addict were mainly school leavers, appreciate, drop-out and youths in confused state who were searching for identity, security and direction in life.
Asumi (1964), reported that eight out of twenty-six cases admitted to Aro- Hospital (Abeokuta) due to effect of India hemp smoking, were students. Similarly, Udo (1982), found in a study concerning drug taking, beliefs, opinion and behaviour among secondary school student in Ibadan that 99 out 428 he investigated had experimented with indian hemp smoking, while 190 of the same sample had taken wine or beer.
Students’ Gender That Abuse Drug
The incidence of drug abuse is not exclusively to male alone rather it extents to the female folk as well.
Mabadaji (1971), carried out a study to find out from which source present day inhabitant of Lagos seek treatment when they fall sick and secondly to determine what influence the level of education and advertisement by the various mass communication media has on drug abuse. The result showed that males had a statistically significant greater tendency to having their treatment prescribed by the medically qualified persons than females. Mabadaji (1971), said on the other hand female had a statistically significant greater tendency to having their treatment recommended through advertisement. The implication of the above result is that both males and female indulge in drug abuse, though the tendency is higher in female.
Olatunde and Oviasu (1974), in their study to find out the use and misuse of certain drugs, found that 62 of 392 (18%) of secondary school children with a means age of 15 years used central nervous system stimulant and 59 (15%) of these misused or abused drugs. 39% of those abusing these drugs were boys while 20 (3%) were girls. Similarly, they found out that twenty-one percent of the secondary school children investigated used some from of central nervous system depressant and 15% actually abused this group of drugs. According to them the misused appeared to be twice as common in school boys (10%) as in girls (15%).
In the area of alcohol Costello, lawlis, manders and chistin (1978), reported that men predominant in alcoholism. In general man drink more than women (Eward Chandler and Hanzman 1972). Predictably, also diference have been found in male and females attitude to drinking with male as the more liberel group (Mulford 1983). On the other hand drinking and drinking problem appear to be increasing at a greater rate amongst women than amongst men. (cahalam, Wisin 1976): Difference between the sexes have also emerged in the smoking domain. The proportion of young women taking up smoking is increasing, whereas the proportion of young men is increasing and women appear to have more difficulty giving up smoking than men. (Jacobson 1979), sex differences in relation to drug abuse has never remained a controversial issue among researcher as there does not seem to be a clear-cut direction of difference between the rare of abuse by both sexes.
While we accept that the sex of a person predisposes him/her towards abusing certain drugs. More work is needed in this area hence one of the central area forces of the present research is to find out whether female abuse drug more than their male counterpart.
Uses Of Counselling To Reduce Drug Abuse
The guidance counselor has multivalent roles to ply in tackling the problem of drug abuse and it attendant effect on people. It may not be an over-emphasis to say that if guidance counselors are adequate in number and functions they can save the society of the plaque of drugs.
According to Samuel, Fasuji and Njoku (1979), the counselor’s principal role in tackling the problem of drug abuse should be both educational and therapeutic. It is the duty of the counselor to educate people on the nature and negative effect o drugs on the individual and the society according to them. They affirm that the counselor is expected to warm people against the tragic effect of drugs on the physical, social and mental health of drug users. More importantly, the counselor should be one who gives useful advice on when and when not to use drugs and how and how not to use drugs. For instance, the counselor is expected to identify narcotics as dangerous drugs and educate people on how it should be used a highly restricted medical usage.
Samuel, Fasuji: and Njoku (1979), said the counselor equally has a therapeutic role of play in the control of the effect of drug on the individual and society. He should use his closeness to the victims of drug abuse to investigate into the source, mode of delivery and use of drug considered dangerous to the human system and engage appropriate counseling techniques to ensure that such drugs are neither supplied nor used.
Mabadaji (1971), said since most people use drugs as a result of failure to resolve intra-and inter-personal conflicts, the counselors should assist people suffering from such inadequate to find alternative way of resolving their problem, the counselor should be actively involved in the preventive and corrective measures against drug abuse and its effect on people.
Sekuk, Rimfat and Ogbonna (2003) suggested that the guidance counselor should help the student to develop adequate study habit and adequately motivate them to learn since most of the students take drugs for the sake of passing exam by all means. Besides the guidance counselor should help them avoid boredom and idleness which often lead them to drug taking and abuse. Lastly, the suggested that the guidance counselor give guidance to parent regarding procedure to be following in dealing wish their children who are already tripped in drug abuse.
Akinboye (1987), suggested that the guidance counselor in conjunction with the principals in secondary schools should carry out enlightment on the danger of drug abuse and drug addiction using mass literacy educational facilities and the mass media.
Ezeh (2003) suggested that the role of guidance cousellor in reducing drug abuse in secondary schools could be looked at from free approaches. These approaches he said can be termed biological, social educational and psychological. It is biological when it is focused on pharmacological intervention like reducing anxiety or suppressing aggressive behaviour or reducing obsesional and ritualistic behaviour. The social approaches emphasize the importance of high quality normal living environment, stressing problem as drug abuse with respect and dignity and to teach them social learning skills. The underlying assumption is that if children are well treated they likely to behave in more adaptive and appropriate ways.
Educational and psychological approaches emphasizes the importance experience on the assumption that in absence of more appropriate response, children will use whatever skill they have available to meet their various living needs.
These and so many other ways can be employed to reduce drug abuse through counseling.
The chapter has reviewed some related literature on why student abuse drugs in secondary schools. This chapter relates students’ abuse of drug to influence of were groups while other abuse drugs because of boredom. When one is lonely and feeling bored, there is the tendency of using drugs to keep himself warmed or “high”. Equally it was pointed out that there are those who take drug for therapeutic reasons. Perhaps the most recognized reason behind the use is for achieving pleasurable excitement.
This chapter on a final note suggested that to curb this ugly trend in our secondary school the guidance counselor and the principal of schools should adopt both educational and therapeutic measures. Proper enlightenment should be carried out in our secondary school on the health and societal danger of drug abuse and addiction in our secondary school.
The researcher found out from this chapter that student abuse drugs for various reasons. Quite an alarming number abuse drugs because of peer group influence, many others just to create false impression about themselves by “feeling high”. Many other use some drugs simply because they see people on television using them. This is most disturbing because they do not understand why they should use those drugs.
Boys particularly are addicted to alcoholic drinks, cigarette smoking, Indian Hemp smoking and few rich ones among take heroine. Girls abuse antibiotics and depressants more than boys. So many of them take them because they are prescribed by friend. This call for orientation on drug abuse and its danger.
Finally, there is need for professional. Guidance Counsellors in the schools. This is because some of the counseling techniques tested proved to be effective and is only a professional Guidance and counseling that can apply them correctly because of their training.
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION
Discussion Of Results
From table 1 the researcher found out that 83% of the student take or abuse drug because of peer group influence. This therefore demands, that serious disciplinary measure be introduced in the school under consideration because if there is more student who are truant, they will lead others into such evil as drug addiction. Equally, I found out that 89% of students abuse, because of mass media influence. Adverts on television particularly make some students abuse drugs with knowing the health implication. This demands that all authorities concerned should ensure that there is a standard for every advert being erred on television. More so from table 1 it was discovered that there is a serious psychological problem among the student since about 56% of them take drug to overcome shyness.
From table 11, the researcher found out that most students in the area under study abuse drugs like alcoholic drink, 72% cigarette 67%, depressants 66%. However, only a small proportion of 22% abuse India hemp and 1% abuse heroine. There is a call for the school authorities to have a serious check of what shops or stores around the school environment sales to the students.
From table 111, I found out that a total of 66% boys abuse performance enhance drug more than girls. This is because boys engage in more physical activities than girls. Equally, I found out that girls abuse antibiotic than boys because they are more prone to infection. A total of 87% of the population confirmed this. From this table 111, also I discovered that girls abuse sleeping pill more than boys.
Finally from table IV, techniques such as desensitization of the addicts, group counseling, reinforcement, application of proximity control and modeling has a way of helping addicts out of their situation.
This research has thrown a big challenge to authorities, parents, government and the general society to devise ways of finding lasting solution to the problem of drug abuse in our secondary schools.
Implication Of The Study
Stated below are the results of the study which the various implication have been derived.
One of the reasons which majority of the students gave for abusing drug is to please their friends that abuse the same drugs. This implies that taking drugs that make them feel belonging among their peers is a way of life. Furthermore, there is the implication that many students do not know the dangers themselves by taking drugs simply to please their fellow human being.
Moreso, the fact that many students take drug because of publicity in the mass media suggest that information for public consumption should first be thoroughly scrutinized; besides the advertising drugs over the mass media should be curtailed. Information of educative nature should be delayed through the mass media since adolescence value information from such greatly. Taking drugs to have momentary relief from shyness was highlighted by adolescent respondents. This implies that some of our adolescent suffers from emotional problem that call for immediate intervention before they degenerate to a psychotic dimension. The fact that more make them female abuse drugs like alcoholic drink marijuana, cigarette smoking heroine suggest that the male students have more psychological problem that calls for the use of drug than their female counterpart.
The implication of this study to guidance and counseling is that effort should be made to provide guidance counselors to school with none while school that have guidance counselors should as a matter of urgency lie up to expectation by way of reactivating guidance service as the schools.
Drug Abuse Among Secondary School Students – Implications For Counselling
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