Computer – Effect Of It’s Introduction Into Organization In Nigeria

Computer – Effect Of It’s Introduction Into Organization In Nigeria: A Case Study Of Shell Petroleum Development, Port Harcourt Refinery Company (PHRC) Eastern Division Of Rivers State

Computer – Effect Of It’s Introduction Into Organization In Nigeria: A Case Study Of Shell Petroleum Development, Port Harcourt Refinery Company (PHRC) Eastern Division Of Rivers State

A computer is an electronic devices, which is under the control of instructions (programmes) stored in its memory, has the ability to accept input, process the input, produce required output and also store information or data for future use of reference.

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The invention of the telegraph, television transistors, system unit have profoundly influenced the way we live today. Each of the advances has sprawled a technical revolution which in turn has reached the confines of technology to effect the way we live, work and see the world.

The introduction of computer based system produces the most recent and existing of all revolutionary technical advances, its profound impact in our daily lives and on the business community delude all imagination.

In our professional lives, the computer is an integral tool in the performance of many jobs, managers for instance, use the package of “word processing” system to compose memos and spell checking grammar and style etc. Geologist rely on an “expert” computer system for guidance in the guest for minerals. Also bankers “up to the minute securities information from their computer terminals”. However the development of this century, there has been an increased emphasized on the need for the introduction of the computer based management manager more efficiently and effectively and to provide a more positive service in the organization. In the past, corporation have fallen to see the need for such a system. Organization especially in Nigeria are slow to appreciate these benefits, which such a system yield.

However, the gradual introduction of computers into organization in general and particularly for administrative purposes could be attributed to the following reasons.

Firstly, top-level managers, have been involved in the negotiation and agreements covering the introduction of and the use of computer based technology in their organization.

Secondly, the work being carried out in most personnel department in various organizations in Nigeria has become a reality, so much, so that computer need to be introduced to promote efficiency.

Thirdly, the presence of their devices in organization draws a line between “prosperous and “Non prosperous” companies in the eyes of Nigerian.

Despite the appreciation of the need, computers based management information. System, it is not easy for organization to appreciate fully what a computer can do for it.

This project work therefore intend to promote a greater understanding to effect the introduction of computer to organizations in Nigeria especially it’ benefit in relation to the management service functions envisaging that together, they will combine to harness and promote this new technology most efficiently.


It is said that to manage an organization is to manage it’s future. How can the future be managed? The answered clearly is that the future can be managed through a timely procurement of relevant and reliable information. The storing and retrieval of these items of information is the complement of it’s procurement. The whole lot of activities therefore is ranging from validation and analysis to feed back make up what can be seen as a system.


Computers are electronics devices in terms of mere definition. In actual sense, it is the latest innovation in technology computerized management system with a view to reducing the benefit or other wise in taking such a decision.

In addition it will also help to expose those areas in which management as well of computerized firms have firms have failed to take advantage of the device of the computer within the organizational data processing and procurement as well as analysis area and therefore point the way to optimal utilization of installed capacity.

The study will go further to uphold or deny some presumptions that have existed around the computer displaces people from their jobs for instance, will be analysed.

In the same view, this study will also seek to portray how far the introduction of the computer into organization has solved the latent problem of the manual system and also, it will examine whether managers and other staff of the organization prefers computer system to the manual system why?

Finally, the study would also provide and appraised of the operational performance of the computer system with particular reference to shell petroleum Development Company Nigeria Limited Port Harcourt and the problems associated with the use advancement as it relates to the overall running of an organization.

Its major function include the sourcing and storing of many years of data in it’s memory banks of the computers. This over wheeling innovations has granted organization twice and edge in decisions making them if every envisage a decade ago, this is why it is important to introduce this device to organization in Nigeria especially consider the benefit that is been derived from it’s introduction.

This stud therefore is geared towards addressing the following problems.

1. To determine the extent of awareness and installation of computer in organizations like shell petroleum Development in Nigeria, Nitel, Enugu and Port Harcourt Refinery a subsidiary of NNPC.

2. To encourage the acceptability of computer by employee of shell, Nitel Port Harcourt.

3. To compare the production of these organization before and after installation of computers.


This project is limited to the affect of introduction of computer into organization. It aims at setting up a frame work for analysis a company with a computerized management system with a view to deducing the benefit or otherwise in taking such a decision.

In addition it will also help to expose those areas in which management of computerized firms have failed to take advantage of the device of the computer within the organizational data processing and procurement as well as analysis area and therefore point the way to optimal utilization of installed capacity.

The study will go further to uphold or deny some presumptions that have existed around the computer. Such idea widely held that the computer displaces people from their jobs for instance, will be analysed.

In the same view, this study will also seek to portray how far the introduction of the computer into organization has solved he latent problems of the manual system and also, it will examine whether managers and other staff of the organization prefers computer system to the manual system why?

Finally, the study would also provide and appraised of the operational performance of the computer system with particular reference to shell Petroleum Development Company Nigeria Limited port Harcourt and the problems associated with the use of the machine, also attempt shell be made to prefer possible solutions to minimize and if possible eliminate the problem.


The scope of this study is only confined to the effect of introduction of computer into organization especially in shell Port Harcourt with particular reference to the designating system. The adoption of the billing system will help in proving the relationship between the billing system and the profitability level.


The satisfactory operation and control of an organization rest to a great extent on information or data. Data processing for business purpose is not an end in itself but is used by management to assist in achieving its objectives is of providing goods and services, making profiting dealing fairly with employees, customers, suppliers and satisfying legal requirements regarding the keeping of records. This could be enhanced by the introduction of computer into an organization.

This project will highlight the importance of computers in organization and heighten the emphasis by computerized system of operation to the manual.

Whereas this work appears to be more beneficial to those in the management cadre, it is hoped that person with sapiental knowledge of management process will find it valuable.


Computing like other technical fields has it’s own equipment, unit of measure, concepts and vocabulary of older natural sciences, the language of computing is not rooted in classical latin or correct but in modern abbreviation.

Beginning from its foundation.

COMPUTER: A computer is a device that receive data and an instruction manipulates them according to a sequence of instruction and produces result.

MEMORY: This is the central processing unit. It is used for computation activities.

DATA PROCESSING: A process of converting raw data into information.

DATA: Raw facts.

DATA BASE: A collection of data that provides data access to all applications and uses with minimal redundancy.

HAND SHAKING: A procedure for transferring data in which on device informs another when it is ready to receive data than the second transmits them.

HAND-DISK: A rigid disk that installed in a derive semi-permanently. Also to help in saving some documents for future reference.

MEGABITES (M.B): The volume in which computing is measured. Approximately 1,000,000 styles.

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM: A system that provides information for operational tactical and strategic decision making.

Economic linkage between all sub-systems of an organization generally implemented on large mainframe computers.

NET WORKING: Connecting several computer together.

MAIN FRAME: A large computer installation that typically handles the computing installation need of several dozens to hundreds of user simultaneously.

PASS WORD: A security device used to prevent unauthoritized access to a computer or to the data stored in it.

POINTER: A piece of data that links others data, such as file record together.

SPREAD SHEET: A computerize columnar pad. A programme that helps to create a table of data and allows any piece of data to define mathematically in terms of other data with the table.

SYSTEM DEPARTMENT: A division of a data processing department that provides system design, development and maintenance.

TIME SHARING: Concurrent individuals.

WORD PROCESSING: Preparation of correspondence and documents by several individual means.

ELECTRONIC MAILS: The transmission of text and graphic data by electronic such data by electronic method.

DATA RETRIEVAL: Locating and making data available for processing or reporting.

FILE: A collection of records. Each record in the file typically has the same format or layout as all others.

PROGRAMME: A set of instruction that controls a computers action.

MINI COMPTER: Computer that are considerably smaller and affordably and quite capable of servicing a single medium sized business.

PRINTER: A device that is used to print out these documents.

PRINT OUT: A copy of a data stored in the computer.


A central management objectives is getting effective result wish people . These results come with the assistance of the vice – president, general managers, line supervisor and the latest on the list being the computers.

According to strains Lyles (1980 p.12) the human problems of management ,says that the introduction of computer organization permits management to make effective use of employee recodes ,in addition to this function ,computer store other relevant data, records, organizational charts etc

Computers are used to provide individual with data now blocked from than. Richards Hactoman Job design, (1989). This he claims is because many clerical operations are now being programmed on computer consoles. These therefore, provides the clerk with immediate feed back in forms of printout indicating that an error has been made. Sometimes, some computer has been programmed to provide the operator with a positive feed back message when a period of error free performance has been sustained.

This is stated in Management Review, April (1966) vol. 55 No 4, A computer system can dispense with the best guess approach, provides a realistic appraisal of the uncertainty associated with each factor and combine the result to get a better answer. In other words computer provides managers with information and analytical capabilities that will help them make important decisions.

The computer therefore, integrates various aspects of the business environment into a comprehensive up to-date and consistent data base, so that the executive has a better foundation for evaluating and making corporate decisions.


The technological development of computers resulted from being chain events and innovative thinking. The fundamental ideas behind the development of computers are today traced back to the “ABACUS” This was a primitive device used for numerical calculations.

However, during the seventeenth century “Blause Pascal” and Golt fuiced with elm van Lai Britz Developed another device for performing operation. This was another attempt in facilitating numerical calculation.

The first record on the use of punch card was developed by Joseph Marie Jacquard. According to “Gallagher M.I computer and personnel management 1986, punched cards are methods of input and claims that they are useful ways of explaining the principal of data processing. It also helps in explaining some of the features of inputs is an existing Batdi system.

The development of controlling a machine by means of punched cards. This no doubt would have marked the beginning of the application of computers to organization.

Another significant development in computers occurred in the United State in the 1880s. during this period, Herman Hollermath was concerned that the tabulation of 1890 census may not become reality. This concern resulted in the development of “Tabulating computers” that reduced tabulation time from 7 years, to 21/2. year.

Micheal (1988. 45-46) in his book computer a management approach, stated that tabulating was one of the forerunner of today’s computer based on “accounting system”. In recent years, the computers is used for tabulations. This functions aids financial organization in its over all decision making process.

Major changes in the characteristics of computers took place in 1930. These computers used hundreds of miles of wire and filled large rooms, they also possessed large vacuum tables that generated large amount of heat causing short work periods. During this period, computers were developed for many practices including in the directions of military appliances. One of such may practice leads to the discovery that programming instructions was a tedious work since it involved setting switches.

Consequently, in 1946, John Von Nemmann changed the nature of computerizing with the idea of storing and entire set of instructions in the computer.

Today this store programme concept has allowed for practical decision making techniques enabling a computer to change any instructions in the programme and then takes action on the basis of a new information relevant to organization.

Computers developed rapidly after this primarily because of advances in other technologies, the first transistors appeared in 1947 by the 1950s, the replacement vacuum tubes and substantially improved the speed and reliability of computer and hand-held computer widely used in offices today.

This earlier discoveries which was at the heart of many computer based system, has enhanced impact of computers to organization has complimented the decision making process in the entire organization.


The sophisticated packaging and specialized language accompanying the proliferation of computer have sometimes tended to observe what really constitutes a computer included:-

a. The input unit

b. The central processing unit (CPU)

c. The memory

d. The output unit


INPUT: An input devices transmits data and instructions into memory to be used by the central processing unit (CPU).

An example of this is the key board which may be attached or separated from the display unit.

CPU: This is the main chip to the system, it controls the entire operation of the computer also it is know as the brain of the computer, its functions:

1. Fetch an instruction

2. decade the instruction

3. fetch required data from memory and carry out the instructions.

MAIN MEMORY: The computer need a place to store data to be processed and also that upon completion of operation and this is the functions of the main memory two main common types of memory chips are used which are Read Only Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). In RAM, information can either be written to or read from memory. The RAM is volatile meaning that information stored in it will be at the interruption of power supply, though the RAM – the meaning used during all the processing activities of the computer.

Likewise in Rom, information can only be read from it but not written into it, therefore information stored in it are those ceded into it during it’s manufacturing process. The ROM is not volatile meaning that at power failure, information can still remains.


Organization must keep some form of record of all it’s operation although there is no standardized form of keeping these records. The amount and type of information recorded. The amount and type of information recorded, stored and analyzed will depend on the extend to which it’s needs to be utilized for manpower or corporate decision making.

The immensity of this role in organization, call for urgent need for the introduction of computers in facilitating the collection of data and data processing.

Data processing and data processing devices have been around almost since the beginning of civilization. However, it was only with the introduction of the computer system that data processing emerged as a well-designed and imported discipline.

Data are any collection of fact “thus age of children, nationality, even photographs, drawings and maps are considered as data. Data processing on the other hand, it is the manipulation as data into more useful forms. Data processing is performed by computer and induces not only numerical calculations but also the classification and transmission of data from one place to another.


Data processing consists of three basic steps, input, processing, output, these constitutes of the core.

INPUT: In this steps, data are prepared in some convenient form for processing and will depend on the processing machine. For example, the input data are punched on cards. But if computers are used the input data could be recorded on anyone of several types of input medium such as cards, tapes and diskettes.

PROCESSING: In this step, the input data are changed and combined with other information to produce data in a more useful form. Thus, statement of accounts, organization, salary structure of the organization may be processed for the month.

OUTPUT: Here the result of the proceeding processing steps are collected, the particular form of the output data depends on the use of the data for instance, output data may be paychecks, a printed summary training courses for the month or simply data stored for further processing.

Other functions of the data processing cycle may include:





A data processing procedure normally consist of a number of basic processing operations which can be made easier in organizations by the introduction and use of computers. These fuctions which include:

a. Recording

b. duplicating

c. Verifying

d. Classifying

Sorting: where being carried out manually, this facilities distortion in accuracies and lose of data.

Today introducing computers has make these operation earlier, making work more pleasurable in organizations.

RECORDING: This refers to the transfer of data onto some form or document. It occurs not only during the original step (on the source document) and during the distribution step (on the report documents) but through the processing circle.

DUPLICATION: This operation consist of reproducing. The data into many forms of documents. Duplicating may be done while the data are being recorded manually or afterwards by some machine.

VERIFYING: Since recording is usually a manual operation, it is important that recorded data be carefully checked for any errors. This operations is called verifying.

CLASSIFICATION: This operation separated data into various categories classifying can usually be done in more than one way.

SORTING: Arranging data in a specific order is called “sorting”. This operation is familiar is every day life.


Shell Petroleum Development Company Nigeria Limited is an European Oil Company based in Nigeria. It is a joint venture company of the Nigerian National Petroleum corporation came into being on April, 1st 1977 by a merger of the defunct Nigeria National Oil Corporation (NNOC) and the former federal ministry of petroleum resources. The statutory instrument decree No. 33 of 1977, which established the corporation, created a public organization that would on behalf of government adequately manage all aspects of the Nigeria Petroleum industry.

Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria came into being under a Joint Venture of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and it is involved in the exploration and production of crude oil and gas just like others that is, AGIP, ELF, MOBIL and GULF to mention but few.

The mission of this company is to profitably operate an optimum size petroleum exploration and production business nationally and internationally taking full advantage of local expertise in upstream operations.


1. To effectively and profitably produce and market hydrocarbons both domestically and internationally.

2. To combine exploration activities, supportive of it’s hydrocarbons reserves base and

3. To develop local expertise particularly in production operations.

The company in 1989 found a market for Nigerian Liquefied Gas together with other joint ventures partners (Mobile, EIF, etc) in Europe and today in Nigeria, Shell Petroleum Development Company Nigeria Limited is one of the giant oil Company in Nigeria with many branches and so many workers in it.

It contributes generously towards the growth of the economy and also offer contributions towards the general upliftment of the country with the profit realized from it’s business each year.

The areas includes:

1. Agricultural services

2. Free Education for Students

3. Sports

4. Even on mass transit and road maintenance.

5. Pipe borne water and electrification projects, to mention but few. The company has been an immense help to the country as a whole.


The research is this study (research) will only concentrate on the application of computer to personnel department in shell petroleum. Development company Nigeria Limited. To apply computer to any transaction, it must be possible to break it into steps that is to bring out all the functions of the personnel department in the organization. The step includes:

1. Recruitment of workers

2. Dismissal of workers

3. Training of Workers

4. Job specification and rotation

5. Disciplinary actions

The aim is to interpret and report on the present status on the effect of introduction of computer into organization. The work was based on recent finding, in the survey conducted and those of historical research from several documents.


The area of study for this research includes: the function of the personnel department in Shell Petroleum Development Company Nigeria Limited. In this areas, we will talk on how computer has affected the activities of the people.

1. RECRUITMENT OF WORKERS: In this area, computer is used to store the message on which the recruitment will take place. The message is stored and will be very easy to get when needed.

2. TRAINING OF WORKERS: The computer helps to store the areas on which the employee is likely to be trained or developed. The information is already in the computer and will be recalled at the press of a button.

3. DISMISSAL OF WORKERS: The areas in the organization in which an employee would not go contrary to, it carefully recorded in the computer for him to know about it and failure to abide to the rules, he will be dismissed.

4. JOB SPECIFICATION AND ROTATION DESIGN: Which are carefully recorded in the computer and is used to tell the employee of his duly in the organization?

5. Disciplinary actions are being carried out by personnel department if the employee refuses to carry out his duties and also to follow the rules and regulations of the organization as stipulated. The rules are carefully recorded in the computer for future references.


Just like there are two sides to a coin, there are also two sides to the effect of introducing computers into organizations.

The Western world be the destinations used in viewing these effects because as we said earlier, Nigeria is not yet advanced in the use of this technological innovation.

Point under this heading, would be categorized into positive impact to show the beneficial effect and the negative impact to show the problems associated with it’s introduction.


The advantage which results from the introduction of computer into organization in the Western world includes:


Each computer system has it’s own security device that prevents default or from coping or accessing into other people file. This devices include the use of a “PASSWORD” which is only know by the use and does not show on the screen.

Another is a VIRUS which eats into the system of one which tries to copy unauthorized files. These therefore, promotes confidentiality and security amongst it’s user and within the organization.

COMMUNICATION: Computer facilitates communication within and outside the organization. Messages could be sent and reversed from any part of the world, amongst people, organizations and parastatels through such means as Electronic Mail System and Internet.

DOWN-LOADING: This is facility in computer that enables employee to copy from the hardware into diskettes.

DATA COLLECTION: The collection of data in an organization is a very important task. It is the bedrock of all functions. For this reason, the introduction of computers to organsiation is very important.

1. It facilitate the storage of data.

2. Data collected through the means of computer last longer than any other.

3. Data requested for could easily be called up and collected.


HEALTH PROBLEM: Continuous use of computer causes health problems for its user. These could come inform of pain in the eyes as a result of Excess rays from the computer on pain in the chest. All these condition are detrimental to the health and working condition of the company staff, as stipulated in the constitution.

GABBAGE-IN GABBAGE OUT: Most people feel that you could ask computer for any information and you immediately get it. If these information has not been fed into the mainframe or memory banks of the computers, then they can never be made available.

This therefore applies, that is wrong information is fed into the computer, it would be used but vast majority causing conscious and absolute danger.

See the Net; WILLIAM KIMBSTEIN, 1996 production. NET WORKING: Net working could be defined as connecting several computers together. In practice, Networking offers user the authority to get connected into another users system and draw information. Although each user has a limit to authorize information, they may gain access into unauthorized information that could be wrongly used.

CAPITAL INTENSIVE: The installation of a computer system involves a lot of money. Although cost could be reduced from the company staff from its employ, these could not doubt be ploughed back into the installation and maintenance of the computer.

Firstly, computer makes use of a different power (Electricity) system know as “ups uninterrupted power supply. This system ensures constant power so that data stored in the memory bank will not be wiped off from seizure of power.

Secondly, computers makes use of a coiling aid such as Air-conditioners to prevent a complete break-down of the system.

redundancy: Computers facilitate redundancy. Employers depend a lot on the facilities available in the computer thereby making less use of their brains. This produces a false sense in intelligence which is fast over coming the human race.

CYBERPHOBIA: This is related to the fear of computers, people base their fears on the grounds that computers are mystical and would one day rule the world. This fear is so wide spread that psychologist device the name “CYBERPHOBI”

ROUTINE: Employees job becomes routine after few years. It is usually reduced to the punching of buttons and fall shorts of all the excitement that associated it’s introduced.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The introduction of computer facilitate unemployment. This is because the computer integrates into one, the functions of many employees making their continued services unnecessary.

ROLE OF SECRETARIES: The role of secretaries in organsiations it not of important after the introduction of computers. The use of this device, enable a novice take to typing with ease. This therefore posses a threat to secretaries and to the progressions as a whole.


This study was carried out to find the effect of computerization in our oil industries, using Shell Petroleum Development Company Nigeria Ltd as a case study. The main aim was to find out whether computer have an effect on one oil industries and it so to what extend.

Therefore from the different responses from our respondent, who were actually used for this study, it could be pointed out that computers have actually had an effect in the oil sectors. In the country, influencing it’s services cost and information storage.

Also the findings of the study indicate the following:-

1. That computer had made work in shell less burden some.

2. Computer had helped to speed up services in the organization.

3. Computerization had led to more efficiency information storage. However this research study would not be complete without stating the problems encountered by oil industries when computerizing.

1. In case of breakdown, so many operations would be affected and repairs are only done by importation of parts and engaging experts to work on it.

2. Lack of adequate personnel to handle the computer.

However, in the light of the above problems, computerization has actually affected shell petroleum Development system in a very positive way and oil industries which have not actually gone into computerization of their services are advised to do so.

Therefore, the research wishes to make some recommendation which the organization might find very useful in computerizing their resources.


In the course of this research work, the project writer administered a total of 227 questionnaire to the staff of shell petroleum Development Company of Nigeria.

These questionnaire where distributed and collected with 100% response. Each questionnaire a total of five (5) questions.

It is also represented by the mean of percentage, Bar chart, and chi square.


Taking cognizance of the fact that that findings of the research have been enumerated, and the bar chart analysis of the hypothesis, the researcher sees the need to make the following recommendation based on the result of the analysis and the problem facing the organization in computerization.

The recommendation will also be of immense benefit to the generality of profit oriented organization who will want to go into computerization.

The researcher believes, is that, if these recommendation is implemented, it will go a long way in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of bank operations.

The researcher recommends a bigger part for computerizations in actual oil sector activity, at this stage, computerization is till mainly used for records keeping and other activities which seems not to be of any important to their customers.


There is need for massive computer education on this part of organization.

The worker need adequate knowledge on the computer process and how it affects them and their needs. This will lead to better use of computer by the workers.


As already pointed out in the conclusion that lack of personnel is one of the problem facing computerization, the organization needs to train more personnel manage their computer department and bring about more efficient and optimum services from the computer.


There is a need to separate between the services that can be rendered by staff and those that can be carried out by the computers. This will reduce duplication of duties in the organization and also cut down cost.

Computer – Effect Of It’s Introduction Into Organization In Nigeria: A Case Study Of Shell Petroleum Development, Port Harcourt Refinery Company (PHRC) Eastern Division Of Rivers State

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to

GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183

Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.  

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