Computer Education – Problems Of Teaching In Secondary Schools In Enugu: (A Case Study Of Nsukka L. G. A.)
Computer Education – Problems Of Teaching In Secondary Schools In Enugu: (A Case Study Of Nsukka L. G. A.)
We have so many routine activities in our society today that are performed by computers. To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank) Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.
To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to
GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji ChukwukaAccount No – 0044157183
Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.For example, when we traveled on holidays, our plane seats are often reserved by computers, in some of the developed countries today, their major cities traffic are to some degree controlled by computers: many of the bills we pay-rates, electricity, telephone, insurance etc. are calculated or generated and printed by a computer.
The development of information technology has gained world-wide application because of its speed, quality and efficiency. The computer is an electronic automatic machine which is capable of receiving storing, recalling or retrieving information given in it. It is the fastest processing machine ever invented by man. Computer is useful in almost all spheres of life. It is useful in hospital for keeping of patients, drugs, staff and accounts. It is an instrument for diagnosis in the hospitals. It facilitate banking operation and quickens baking services to clients. It is very useful in professional services such as engineering, chartered firms and in businesses. Thus computer is regarded as all purpose machine (Ezeliora, 1997).
Here are some area where computer can be very relevant: In hospitals computer is used for diagnosing diseases, conduct X-ray on patient and monitory patient recovering pattern.
In offices for data base management and management information system (MIS) besides in offices it is use for spreedsheet accounting system, these include calculation of profit and lost account, preparation of workers payroll keeping records about worker and easily retrieved when needed. Moreso, it is used in manufacturing industries for the control of machines and tools. In university and other research establishment, for the analysis of scientific and other experimental data. This has helped scientists to come up recently with many reliable result from their experimental work. In the area of education, the computer is not left out.
The highlight of this research is to establish the role and importance of computer in the Nigerian educational system. Specifically, the hindrances to teaching computer science education in secondary schools in Nsukka local government area.
Education in many Nigerian communities is weak especially rural areas where teachers are deprived of up-to data information and other basic educational resources. As these wireless services becomes a reality, advance contents plays a key role in the adaptation and long success of this new information architectures. Within the frame work of this research project we find out growing interest in the use of new technology for education, but there still some hindrance and that is what this work is interested in finding.
Some of the problems hindering the teaching of computer science of education in secondary schools under study is that most of the teachers who are suppose to teach these computer assisted instructions does not have the basic knowledge of computer, since one can not teach another what he/she does not know. Secondly is lack of fund. In places where there are teachers with such basic knowledge of computer there has been problem of inadequate finance to purchase computer that can be used for such instructions. This is largely because of little internally, generated revenue. Thirdly is the problem of infrastructural facilities like electricity. Computer instruments can only be possible with the help of electricity but since most of the secondary schools under this study is located in place where there is no electricity it becomes very difficult, if not impossible for the authority of the school concern to think or carryout such instructions.
Fourthly is educational curriculum. Some subjects like mathematics, English language amongst few other subjects are made compulsory for students to be offered in secondary schools but computer science is presently not included.
There are some reasons for teaching computer science education such as:
1. To equip all students for a future in technological awareness and basic computer skills will be increasingly important for great number of citizens.
2. To build a resources of people highly in the use of information technology.
3. To use new technology to enhance the existing curriculum and improve the way which it was delivered.
4. To promote change in education by moving towards a move relevant curriculum and a new definition of the teachers role.
It is quite obvious that without orientation of the need for effective teaching and learning of computer science, it will make the study of computer science unrealistic which will diminish the development of science and technology in our society.
Moreso, a computer teacher who is not properly trained or qualified in the field of computer science will not execute the work of teaching computer science in education effectively. If the teachers are not experienced in the field of computer science, appropriate application of computer practical will be very difficult in Nigeria secondary schools.
Despite the problems associated with teaching of computers, there will be effective teaching and learning of computer science, if the take off of science and technology will be a smooth one. There will be also a vertical forward transfer of technology means’ where by indigenous computer scientist and professional through the study of the ground rules and basic principles of technology which develop the technology from the scratch and become real masters for it such that they can improve on a process and the quality of the products and services Umeh (1981). But denying Nigeria computer scientist the provisions for the effective teaching and learning of computer science will render computer literacy and skill unrealistic.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is no doubt to the fact that computer is a means of communication in the today global village (the word over). But there has been a problem in teaching computer in our secondary schools. For this, the research want to find out what has made student not to really embrace this knowledge in Nsukka local government Area of Enugu state. Is it because the infrastructures are not there? Is it because the teachers does not have the knowledge? Could it because there is no computer instructional materials? Or could it solely be because of the fund for purchasing computers are not there? Finally, could it be because the present curriculum does not have provision for computer instruction in secondary school?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to
(1) Study the problems hindering the teaching of computer education in secondary schools in Nsukka local government Area.
(2) Suggest an effective way of carrying out computer instruction in the area under study.
(3) Proffer solution to the hindrances identified.
The researcher formulated the following research questions to sense all a guide to the study.
(1)What are the factors hindering effective teaching of Computer science in secondary schools?
(2) What are the constraints in teaching computer science education in secondary schools?
(3) What are the necessary solution in teaching computer science or how can this problem be solved?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that this study will benefit both the students, teachers and local government education authority in finding computer in secondary schools in Nsukka local government area of Enugu state.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covered the 30 secondary schools in Nsukka local government Area. It is meant to find out what has hindered the teaching and learning of computer science in the area under study.
This chapter review literature as they relates to teaching and learning of computer science at secondary school level in particular. It should be carried out under the following sub-tittles:
Implementation of computer science programme, students related factors in computer science education, school related factors in computer science education, problems of teaching and learning computer science education.
IMPLEMENTATION OF COMPUTER STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
According to micro-computer in secondary school (common wealth of nation:1996), information technology in schools is still a relatively new area of curriculum development. As more education become involved, and as the technology itself develops, now opportunities for education will become apparent. It is important, therefore that structure which are created to implement a national project are flexible enough to respond and reacts to developments, as they occur. A programme of information technology needs as organisational structure to support policy information and implementation policy identify existing expressive to ensure the efficient use of resources and facilities communications between the various groups who are involved.
The aims and intentions of the programme needs to be clearly articulated in the early stages of planning and clearly communication to those people responsible for implementation, it is quite likely that as the programme of implementation, progresses, those aims will need to be revised in the right of practical experience. However, no attempt is made at the beginning to commit to preliminary aims there will be no way of evaluating progress, making resources decisions or planning teacher and unnecessary costs may be easily be incurred.
There are at least five major functions which needs to be fulfilled:
1.policy development in the light of national educational needs.
2. Project management
3. Curriculum development including the creation of curriculum support.
Policy formation and development can be carried out by a specific group such as selected adversary or steering group, containing representative of the various interested parts-representative, employers, educational specialist universities, teacher training institution parents and practicing teacher. This board representation is advisable in the case of information technology because policy decision will need support from various groups if they are successfully implemented and the realism of policy decisions will be constantly assessed from a variety of perspective.
They day-to-day management of the implementation usually requires full professional groups whose main skills lie in their ability to manage educational change. Computer awareness, and the ability to manage educational change. Computer awareness, and the ability to handle hardware and software effectively is also necessary, but such skill are relatively easy to acquire. Proffer educational educators will readily understand better most of the possibilities and constraints in bringing about educational change and will have help the teachers they will be working with.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Some most valuable uses of computers challenge existing attitude in education particular those about the role of the teacher. If those factors is ignored during the training of the teachers, and they are allowed to use the computers with there reviewed attitudes and practices. In fact, the initiatives may prove ineffective in enriching the quality of education provided. If computer scientist is given responsibility for the introduction of computers, these fears will only increase. It therefore makes more educational sense, if teacher training and curriculum development are carried out using existing expertise and existing structures for the economic sense to build on and make use of existing people.
COMPUTER TEACHERS AND THEIR ROLE IN COMPUTER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
The creation of programmed center may facilitate the provision of continuous support for teachers. As part of their role such centers can provide:
(a) A total point for the development of curriculum materials.
(b) Short courses and further teacher training on a regular basis.
(c) A meeting place for teachers to discuss curriculum issues or class room practices.
(d) A library of books and journals for teacher study, borrow or reference.
(e) A venue for small seminars and exhibition to take place.
(f) Information about the program and its policies.
Oladebo (1986) teachers are totally the key persons who alone can make curriculum design to achieve what it was designed to achieve yet getting the right qualified teachers has been a problem.
Onodu (1975) researching on the problem associated with industrial technical teachers in trade center and comprehensive schools in east central state came out with conclusion that problem of technical teachers among others are:
1. Lack of equipment, books and materials
2. Incompetent administrative personnel
3. Poor salaries and condition of service technical teachers.
4. Low qualification of teachers and lack of minimum teaching requirement.
5. Poor technical background of some technical subjects.
STUDENTS RELATED FACTORS IN COMPUTER EDUCATION PROGRAM
According to Lawton (1978) “The physical condition of pupils home, income of the parents, attitude to education and size of the family added up to either foster or retard students performance in school.
Uche (1980), Believed that level of a child achievement in school depends on to a large extent, on the prevailing socio-economic stated that home is an influential factor determining the academic achievement of pupils. According to him, facilities that have positive attitude on education encourage their children to have high aspiration. Parental occupation to a great extent, can influence the achievement of students.
SCHOOL RELATED FACTORS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION
The task target of the school is to raise a standard of living of its students and the curriculum of computer studies in the school must be designed to met the specific objective and needs of the children in the community (1 Page 1983). Hence national policy on education states the secondary school; should equip students to live effectively in this modern age of science and technology.
Olaitan (1982) stated that the school should estimate good learning environment with the right tools as found in the real life occupation.
Therefore, the school ought to provide manpower needs of the nation, availability of teacher for effective teaching and learning of computer programme.
PROBLEM OF TEACHING AND LEARNING COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION
The problem of teaching and learning computer is one of the most discussed topics in the computing instruction field. The problem ranged from problems of instruction, teaching strategy, instruction, media curriculum and evaluation (Ponjpradit, Wantance, 1996). There are many approaches to tackle the computing instruction problems. A good instruction design is one of the approaches. . Learning should not occur in half-hazard manner but should be developed in accordance with orderly and have measurable outcomes (Seels, Barbara and Glasgow, Zita 1994). To achieve the best result effective instruction must be delivered. This study utilized Seels and Glasgows instructional design models (Seels 1994) to develop the instruction. The constructionalism the problem solving and expository approaches were selected and the instructional activities.
RESEARCH METHOD AND DESIGN
DESIGN OF THE STUDY
This chapter gives emphasis on how the research project was executed. Here, area of the study, population of the study, sample and Sampling techniques, instrument for date collection, validity of the instrument, method of data analysis were all highlighted.
AREA OF THE STUDY
The area of study is 30 secondary schools in Nsukka local Government.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The target population for the study consisted of all S.S. 3 students in secondary schools in Nsukka local Government of Enugu state.
The total number is 3600 as at the time of this study, which 120 students from each school were selected.
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
The researcher first sampled each of the 30 schools in the local government area.
Consequently a total of 20 schools were indicated for sampling. The random sampling techniques were used to select 10 schools. From each of the selected school a total number of 140 student that is 14 students from each schools were selected which was about 14 percent of the total population.
DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENT
For the purpose of data collection for this study, questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was structured into two parts.
First part sought information from respondents on the factor hindering teaching and learning of computer science in secondary schools.
The second part was designed to elicit information from the respondents on constraints of computer science.
The third part was design to elicit response on the solutions in teaching computer science in secondary schools.
Finally, a total of 140 copies of questionnaire were used for the study.
RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
The test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. The instrument was distributed to 14 students randomly selected from the 10 selected schools in Nsukka local government area. After four week interval the instrument was re-administered to the same 14 students. The initial test and re-test scores were collected and analysed.
VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
The questionnaire used in this study was given to some WAEC examiners to determine the appropriateness or otherwise of the instrument. Useful suggestions offered by the experts were taken into consideration and incorporated in the questionnaire. The face and content validity of the instrument was finally approved by the same experts before its final administration.
METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The researcher intends to use the simple percentage calculation to test the questionnaires. This is to convey information at a glance to make for easy understanding.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF DATA
The data collected for this research were analysed using simple percentage (%) as the main element of data analysis.
As mentioned one hundred and forty copies of the questionnaire were distributed but only hundred and thirty were correctly filled. Therefore, the researcher based her analysis in the number that were correctly filled.
ANALYSIS OF RESPONSE RATE
Part A: What are the factors that hinder effective teaching and learning of computer science in secondary schools.
S/N Questions SA % A % D % SD %
1 Lack of fund 70 54 30 24 15 11 15 11
2 Lack of trained personnel 80 62 20 15 16 12 14 11
3 Negative attitude of the school authority 65 50 20 15 20 15 25 19
4 High cost and insufficient test books on computer studies 30 23 70 54 20 15 10 8
5 Lack of motivation or incentives to computer science teachers 60 47 50 38 20 15 0 0
The table I above, showed the factors that hinder effective teaching and learning of computer science in secondary schools. A total of 78% of the respondents agreed that lack of fund was one of the factors hindering effective teaching and learning of computer science in secondary schooled to this reason.
Equally 77% of the respondents, agreed that lack of trained personnel are on the factors hindering effective teaching and learning of computer science in secondary schools. Only a very small portion of 23% disagreed to this fact. From the table also, 65% of the respondents agreed that negative attitude of the school authority has not helped teaching and learning of computer science in the schools under study. Only a very small proportion 34% of the respondents disagreed to this reason.
Moreso, it is clear from this table above that most of the test books used in teaching computer were written by foreign authors, perhaps are very costly, 77% of the respondents agreed to this, equally 85% of the respondents agreed that computer science teachers are not being motivated in many ways and this has contributed in the ineffective teaching of computer science in secondary schools.
Part B: What are the constraints in teaching of computer science:
S/N Questions SA % A % D % SD %
1 Unavailability of computer and its accessories 70 54 30 23 20 15 10 8
2 Computer science education not being included as one of the compulsory subjects taught in secondary schools in the present philosophy of education 60 46 60 46 10 8 0 0
3 Lack of infrastructure facilities like electricity 50 38 50 15 12 12 15 12
4 Location of the schools like where there is no electricity and security 70 54 40 30 10 8 10 8
5 Government insufficient budget on education 80 62 20 15 14 11 16 12
It is glaringly clear from the table II above that, unavailability of computer and its accessories are among the reasons or constraints affecting effective teaching of computer science a total of 77% of the respondents used for this study consented to this, only few of the respondents disagreed to this (23%). Moreso, it was established from the table above that non inclusion of computer science as one of the compulsory subjects in the present curriculum is also a constraints, 92% of the respondents agreed to this reason. Few however disagreed (8%).
From the table above 76% respondents agreed that lack of infrastructural facilities like electricity is one big constraints to effective teaching and learning of computer science in secondary schools. However 24% of the total respondents did not agree to this reason strongly.
Also 74% of the respondents agree that the location of some schools in rural area where there’s no electricity. Since computer cannot be taught practically without the help of electricity. Therefore been one of the hindrance identified to have contributed to ineffective teaching of computer science in the area under consideration. Only 20% of the respondents disagreed to this reason. Equally 77% of the respondents agreed that insufficient government budget on education both at the federal and state level is equally a big hindrance to the teaching and learning of computer science.
Part C What are the necessary solutions to effective teaching computer science education in schools.
S/N Questions SA % A % D % SD %
1 Provision of enough fund for purchasing computer and computer accessories 80 62 30 23 10 8 10 8
2 Organising effective training of teachers who are computer literate 60 47 50 38 20 15 0 0
3 Making computer science education a compulsory subject in senior secondary schools 60 46 60 46 5 4 5 4
4 Provision of test books and other computer assisted instructions (CAI) 90 69 20 15 10 8 10 8
5 Increase government budgetary allocation on education. 60 46 60 46 5 4 5 4
The table III above showed clearly that provision of fund for purchasing computer and computer accessories, organizing effective training for teachers that will specialize in computer science education and making computer science a compulsory subject for students particularly at the senior secondary school level. This will be a way out of the problems of teaching and learning computer science a total of 85%, 85% and 92% of the respondents as shown in the table above agreed to these decision. Just a small proportion of 16%, 15% and 8% disagreed to these reasons.
This table also showed 84% agreeing that provision of textbooks on computer studies and other computer assisted instructions (CAI) will boast the teaching of computer science in secondary schools. Finally it showed that if both federal and state government increase their budgetary allocation to the education sector it will help enhance effective teaching and learning of computer.
It is clear from this chapter that lack of fund, inadequate trained teachers and school authorities negative attitude towards the call for computer science in secondary schools are among the major factors hindering effective teaching and learning of computer science education in-secondary schools. Secondary, it was also highlighted that unavailability of computer and its accessories, computer science not being included as a compulsory subject in the present philosophy of education and lack of infrastructural facilities are also among the constraints to effective teaching and learning of computer.
Moreso, provision f enough fund for purchasing of computer and computer accessories, sponsoring or organising effective training of teachers who are computer literate and making computer science a compulsory subject in the senior secondary school level was been as ways out of these problems that has for years militated against teaching and learning of computer science education in secondary schools. This no doubt has also kept our education from catching up with the rest of the advanced nations.
Finally, that if government both at the state and deferral level increase their budgetary allocation on education, it will equally boast the teaching and learning of computer education.
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
From table I it was discovered from the result that lack of fund (78%), lack of trained personnel (77%) and Negative attitude of School authority (65%) are among the factors hindering teaching of computer education in secondary schools.
Also from table II the researcher found out that unavailability of computer and it accessories (77%), non inclusion of computer science as a compulsory subject in the present philosophy of education (92%) and lack of infrastructural facilities (76%) are equally constraints to teaching computer science particularly in secondary schools.
Finally, from table III the researcher discovered that provision of enough fund (85%) training of teachers that specialize in computer science (85%) and making computer education in Nsukka Local government area.
IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY
Stated below are the results of the study, which the various implication have been derived.
One of the reasons that has hampered teaching of computer science education is that there is no enough teachers that specialize in computer science. This therefore calls that there should be joint effort by both government and the private sector to sponsor training of teachers in this field.
Moreso, that the attitude of many school authorities towards computer science education has not been positive. This therefore calls for re-orientation of the school principal on the importance of computer science education in our “March” towards becoming a force to reckon with economically and educationally.
Finally, that the present philosophy of education, there is need to make computer science compulsory if we must be a force to reaction with educationally.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
From the analysis of the preceding chapter (chapter 4) the researcher discovered the following.
Firstly, that computer education is not taught in secondary schools in Nsukka local government Area because there is no fund to provide such computer assisted instructions. Besides there is need to train enough teachers with good computer knowledge. Since this was discovered as one of the factors hindering teaching of computer education.
Secondly, the present philosophy of education is not in its totality encouraging as it is suppose the teaching and learning of computer education in Nsukka local government area.
Lastly, that making frantic effort by government and private sector will help improve the teaching and learning of computer. Besides provision of funds to purchase computer and its accessories.
The following recommendation have been made in the height of the finding of this study:
(1) A prominent discovery mad in this study is that fund is a big hindrance to teaching of computer science education. The researcher therefore recommends that Nsukka local government area and the state government should give education priority attention in it annual budget.
(2) That our education administrations and all state holder in education should consider a revisit of the present curriculum of education.
(3) Since one of the by problem of teaching computer science education is lack of trained personnel, effort should be made to encourage training of teacher that will specialize in computer science education.
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES
Through the research question of this study and answer given the following complimentary studies could further be undertaken.
(1) A similar study can be carried out using other local government area.
(2) A study can be taken on how government sponsorship of personnel training can help in improve teaching of computer science education.
(3) A study can be also carried out n how curriculum reform can help improve teaching of computer science education.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The world has become one global family through technology. Every nation therefore is trying to be t the fore front of this development. Any nation that must lead other nation must have it citizens well versed in the knowledge of computer. This study therefore took an indebt look into the problem of computer science education in Nsukka local government area of Enugu State. This study is there a clarion call that the present level of computer science education in our secondary school should be in provided.
Tick “x” in the option most appropriate to you
The following factors kinds effective teaching and learning of computer science in secondary schools
S/N Questions SA A SD D
a) Lack of fund
b) Lack of trained personnel
c) Negative attitude of the school authority
d) High cost and insufficient test books on computer studies
e) Lack of motivation or incentives to computer science teacher
The following are the constraints in teaching of computer education.
S/N Questions SA A SD D
a) Lock of infrastructural facilities like electricity
b) Un-aviability of computer an its accessories in schools
c) Computer science education not being included as one of the compulsory subjects in secondary schools in the present philosophy of education
d) Location of the schools like where there is no electricity and security
e) Government insufficient budget on education
The following are the necessary solutions in teaching computer science in schools.
S/N Questions SA A SD D
a) Provision of enough fund for purchasing computer and computer accessories
b) Organising effective training of teachers who are computer literate
c) Making computer science education a compulsory subject in senior secondary schools
d) Provision of test books and other computer assisted instructions (CAI)
e) Increase government budgetary allocation on education.
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Umeh E. the role of Trained Technical in the Technological Development of Neg. Keng paper Presented at the graduation ceremony of the government.
Computer Education – Problems Of Teaching In Secondary Schools In Enugu: (A Case Study Of Nsukka L. G. A.)Computer Education – Problems Of Teaching In Secondary Schools In Enugu: (A Case Study Of Nsukka L. G. A.)To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank) Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka Account No – 0044157183 Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.