Bureaucracy And Problems Of Inefficiency In Nigeria’s Civil Service

Bureaucracy And Problems Of Inefficiency In Nigeria’s Civil Service:  A Case Study Of Enugu State Civil Service

Bureaucracy And Problems Of Inefficiency In Nigeria’s Civil Service:  A Case Study Of Enugu State Civil Service

Bureaucracy had its origin in the industrialized world and was transferred to the less developed Nations of the world.

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Therefore, Bureaucracy implies an organization characterized by rules, procedure, impersonal relations, elaborate and fairly rigid hierarchy of authority, responsibility and relationships. To achieve control and co-ordination in a large organization demands that bureaucracy principles be enthroned.

Bureaucracy is expected to function within specific norm of rationality; this marked a shift from over reliance on the primary relations and cultural values of the non-industrialized Nations.

In developing Nations like Nigeria, bureaucracy has come to be basically linked with unnecessary red-tapism and inefficiency. This stigma has undermines the functionality of bureaucracy in the third world countries. This has equally created doubts in the mind of many whether it is actually suitable for large organizations like the civil service. Administration is all about carrying out activities to achieve public goal; and achievement of public goal rest on proper control and co-ordination which enhances administrative efficiency that involves competing successfully large and complicated task that no one individual could accomplish alone. Therefore, bureaucracy instills efficient and effective way of management organization in large scale.

Civil service of Enugu State was established in 1991 as an off-shoot of the old Anambra State with the purpose of assisting the executive perform its function, since its inception this organization in spite of the reforms it has undergone has performed abysmally very low.

Thinking about efficiency in the civil service we should know that, it is far more direct and simple to evaluate and determine in commercial organization where the criterion of efficiency is largely guided by the profit objectives. In public administration, the values which public serve to realize are difficult to quantify in concrete terms. In spite of the difficulty, the public administrator must still apply the criterion of efficiency to his work.

Finally, the resources, which are inputs available to the public administration are strictly limited and are made available to him after much priming. It is generally agreed that the public service should be efficient as well as effective. Infact, many people would like to see public service adopt the principles and practices of business management which are regarded far more efficient than those of the public or civil service. No doubt, it is now generally recognized that public administration in order to serve the needs of modern times, must adopt some of the modern management principles and techniques.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The greatest problem confronting present day public service is the inability of the service to perform efficiently. More so, our public administration environment exhibits signs of inefficiency and poverty, infact this has hindered our development. The civil service in Nigeria is generally criticized, among others for being too bureaucratic, too conservative and there are conduct derived from colonial based civil service which was designed just to make law and order. Further to this, inadequate co-ordination, communication gap, over centralization of decision making, non- application of reforms reports has married the efficiency and effectiveness of Enugu State Civil Service.

Therefore, the researcher will pose the following questions:

1. Is bureaucracy is Enugu State Civil Service in variant with the ideal type bureaucracy?

2. Is bureaucratic inefficiency in Enugu State Civil Service rooted in the elements of its variation with the ideal type (Weberian) bureaucracy?

3. Do the rigid bureaucracy structures hinder the public bureaucracy from rendering efficient and effective services delivery in Nigeria?

4. To what extent have the several reforms in Enugu State civil service yielded positive result?

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To find out the underlying characters that makes bureaucracy in Enugu State to be in variant with the (Weberian) ideal type of bureaucracy.

2. To unearth the factors that has caused the non-performance of Enugu State Civil Service.

3. To identity those human an structural factors that lessens competitive anxieties and enhance administrative efficiency

4. To suggest and recommend the possible ways of resuscitating Enugu State civil service.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this research will be useful in redirecting management attention to some of the rigid features of bureaucratic organization with a view to correct the anomalies.

The recommendation of this study will contribute to existing literatures in the area of bureaucracies and its development in general, and will also help to minimize the numerous problems which create the gap between policy formulation and implementation and a guide to policy markers particularly with regards to reforms in bureaucratic organizations.

Furthermore, the study would reveal in a great detail, practical strategies and steps that would ensure the improvement of the Enugu State Civil Service even in the face of the numerous administrative bottlenecks.

1.5 HYPOTHESIS

From the foregoing, the researcher hypothesizes the following.

1. Hi: Several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu State Civil Service have yielded positive results.

2. H0: Several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu State Civil Service have not yielded positive results.

3. Hi: The rigid bureaucratic structure enables the public bureaucracy render efficient and effective service delivery in Nigeria.

4. Ho: The rigid bureaucratic structures do not enable the public bureaucracy render efficient and effective Service delivery in Nigeria.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

This work is centered on bureaucracy and problem inefficiency in Nigeria Civil Service, with particular reference to Enugu State Civil Service. (1999-2007)

This study had suffered some constraints before its completion.

Indeed, most of the places where the researcher presented research request letter was unanswered and some delayed. And compared with the fact that the researcher has only few months to complete or finish the research work, coupled with limited financial resources.

This and other problems consumed much time and as well limited the extent of the research.

1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

In recent years, there have been a growing number of theories purporting to explain bureaucratic inefficiency in the Nigeria Civil Service, for the purpose of this study and organizational convenience; we shall be guided by the ecological theory and the view of one of its chiefs proponent Fred Riggs, the leader of the Comparative Administration Group (CAG).

Riggs, (1964) asserts that: “the administrative institutions in the developing States are weak because of the ecological constraints that impinge on them.” After his elaborate study of the administration of the developing states, he observed first hand, the practices in the various countries’ administration. Riggs also argues that “these constraints prevent administrative institutions of the developing States from taking the form of the model or ideal administrative institutions found in the developed States.

One of the theories grouped under Riggs ecological school is the prismatic theory upon which lies the major premise of bureaucratic inefficiency in the Nigeria Civil Service. Here Riggs dwells on poly normativism describing the administrative institutions of developing States as “Sala” bureaucracy that lies between the “paria” and the “office”. Riggs further explained that the inefficiency of the “Sala” or rather the administrative institution of developing countries is reinforced by the price indeterminacy of the bazaar canteen, through paria entrepreneurship and intrusive access of the elite by the agglomeration of values, strategic spending and learning as instrument of elite recruitment, poly-communalism and poly normativism

Ezeali and Edeh (2007) affirmed that Riggs, concluded that the result of the “bazzar canteen” are inefficiency and ineffectiveness, which the “Sala models” is associated with; the transitional society or prismatic society is characterized by inefficiency in rule application, institutionalized corruption, nepotism in recruitment lack of division of labour, unequal distribution of service, wide gap between formal expectation and actual behaviour and bureaucratic enclaves dominated by motives of self protection.

A clear observation and study of the environment in which the Civil Service operate in Nigeria would reveal that it is very much characterized with the features of the prismatic society. It is observed that the distinguishing characteristics of the “Sala” bureaucracy accounts for its dismal weakness in the inter-penetration of the elements of tradition and modernity. In plain language this tradition according to Okpata (2004) involves communal bonds, based upon diffuse emotional identification and attachment among individuals of which the family and the neigbourhood group may serve as an example.

This is equally noticeable in the Nigeria civil service. More so, according to Okpata, (2004), Forces ranging from the following weaken bureaucracy in the Nigerian public administration, there are lack of patriotism, corruption, Ghost workers syndrome, Appointment of unqualified and in experienced officials, Bribery. Lack of proper maintenance of men and material political intrusion.

Conclusively, the above constitutes the environment in which the Nigeria civil service operates and which have equally hindered development. Thus, the need to identify and provide for more efficient ways of handling the civil service becomes imperative.

1.8 OPERATIONALIZATION OF CONCEPTS

BUREAUCRACY

This is all those large sale formal organization, such as civil service, the police, academic institutions that uses a system of authority, men, material, office and method of structures within them to carry out their programmes and achieve their goals.

CIVIL SERVICE

Is the entire organization of employees of various ranks, talent and training who are in the service of government on permanent basis.

INEFFICIENCY

This refers to disequilibrium, whereby less result of output are produced irrespective of the huge inputs or resources.

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 MEANING AND NATURE OF BUREAUCRACY

Bureaucracy as conceptually used in Public Administration is often associated with conduct of public affairs and the activities of public officials. Therefore, bureaucracies are found in political religious, business, military, educational and other organizations. Modern society have come to regard bureaucracy as sine qua non for organizational effectiveness mark Weber, (1947:196) conceives bureaucracy as a powerful model of organization, he likened bureaucracy to emotion, which its description is incomplete; in many aspects, as a way of life, Weber indicated that bureaucracy involves a clear cut division of integrated activities which are regarded as duties inherent in office. To him, human organization without structures, stability and order breeds chaos. Therefore, in order to overcome what otherwise will lead to confusion in the organization structures, and ensure stability and order, man created bureaucracy.

Herbert Hicks and Gullet cited in (Okpata, 2004:74) referred to bureaucracy as! “A label, and not epithet, bureaucracy denotes an integrated hierarchy of specialized offices, defined systematic rules an impersonal routinised structure wherein legitimatized authority rest in the office and not in the person of the incumbent,”

Adebayo, (1981:18) stated that bureaucracy appeared to have acquired an opprobrious meaning, and odious connotations hence it is associated with inefficiency, lack of initiative, unintelligence rigidity in approach to human problems, and down right stubbornness on the part of official. This impression is very particular to Nigeria civil service and indeed has gained permanence in recent times and has so manifested in the way civil servants went about their business.

In the same vein Dimock (1969) cited in (Okpata 2006:731) identified bureaucracy with institutions and large scale organizations in society. For him “Bureaucracy” is the state of society in which institutions overshadow individuals and simple family relationships; stage of development in which division of labour specialization, organization, hierarchy, panning and regimentations of large groups of individuals either by voluntary or involuntary methods are the order of the day.

According to V.S.P Rao in Nwizu (200:97) the word “bureaucracy” implies an organization characterized by rules, procedures, impersonal relation, and an elaborate and fairly rigid hierarchy of authority responsibility and relationships. In simple terms, it implies the most efficient and rational organization in which there is clearly defined hierarchy of offices, each office with a clearly defined area of jurisdiction, each office filled by an individual tested to posses the highest technical qualifications and the entire set of office linked together by a system of rules, procedures and impersonal relationships.

Ralph, (2001:84) opined that the word bureaucracy is always in mixed and confused with red rape. This has brought untold hardship to a good number of people who want to express their views on either bureaucracy or red rape. For him bureaucracy is a form of organization that possesses certain special structural characteristics designed to maximize efficiency in pursuit of established goals”. He went further to state that the most important structural characteristics are a permanent class of civil servants with clearly defined duties, whose authority is officially fixed by law and record keeping so that past decisions can be used as the basis for future administrative actions. The result is a system of administration that can provide routine, uninterrupted services where officials are prove to emphasize operational effectiveness and relational behaviour over other organizational values.

Ihejiamaizu, (1996:9) sees bureaucracy as an organization with a hierarchy of paid, full time officials who form a chain of command. He reiterates that bureaucracy is often formed when people or individuals engage in some collective effort to achieve some collective goals.

Vieg (1989:55), says in free translation that bureaucracy means “desk government” or management by bureaus”. That it denotes the sum total of the personnel apparatus and by which an organization manages its work and accomplishes its purpose. The organization may be public or private, commercial, educational or ecclesiastical, but if it is of any size, it must be bureaucracy.

Davis (1949:66) took a structural views of bureaucracy as an organization. He used the term for denoting “an integrated hierarchy of specialized offices defined by systematic rules an impersonal routinised structure wherein legitimized authority rest in the office and not in the person of the incumbent.

Blau and Mayer (1966:161) lays great emphasis on functional aspect of bureaucracy. They defined bureaucracy as organization designed to accomplish large scale administrative rank by systematically co-coordinating the work of many individuals.

Websters third international diction any (1971) defined bureaucracy as a system of administration marked by constant striving for increased functions and power by lack of initiative and flexibility, by indifference of human needs or public opinion and by a tendency to defer decision to superior or to impede action with red rape. The body of officials that gives effect to such a system”.

Coser and Rosenberg (1976:68) defined bureaucracy as that type of hierarchical organization which is designed rationally to co-ordinate the work of many individuals in pursuit of large scale administrative tasks.

Bureaucracy according to Hyneman 91980:102) is a form of organization superior to all others we know or can hope to afford in the near and middle future, the chances of doing away with or changing if probably none is in existence in this century.

Mbawike (2003:78) defined bureaucracy as any large organization that operates lender division of labour, hierarchical structure, formal rules and regulation impersonal rational relationship and competence as a basis of employment. She further stated that the superior effectiveness of bureaucracy, its capacity to co-ordinate large scale administrative task, and superior efficiency are the expected results of its various characteristics as outlined by Weber the acknowledged Chief proponent.

Sergioranni and Starrat (1990:225) in their contribution, further asserted that bureaucracy provides us with orderliness and efficiency, while the costs are in its deterministic programming character which often result to rigid impersonal organizational structures.

Stillman (1998:49) argued that bureaucracy as the general formal structural elements of a type of human organization particularly the collective personnel and structures of a governmental organization. He maintains that bureaucracy has both good and adverse qualities, and sees it as a neutral term rather than as a hostile negative traits of large organization.

Tyagi (2004:406) affirmed that “bureaucracy” is used to describe any personnel system where the employees are classified in a system of administration composed of a hierarchy of sections, divisions, bureaus, departments and the like. He also added that the management or every large scale enterprise has necessity to be carried on through a well organized system of scions and bureaus manned by a hierarchy of officials, he added that every large scale administration, public or private, is bureaucratic.

Encyclopedia Britannica stated that the term “bureaucracy” signifies the concentration of administrative power in bureaus or department and the undue interference by officials in matters outside the scope of state interference.

Pfiffner (1997:26) used the term bureaucracy in this sense, “Bureaucracy is thee systematic organization of tasks and individuals into a pattern which can most effective effort.

Onah (2005:57) “Bureaucracy” is generally used to refer to specific set of structural arrangement often found in large organizations. She went further to state that bureaucracy is used to describe large scale formal and complex organizations with the line of authority arranged in hierarchical order. She also sees bureaucracy as a government by paid officials irrespective of the political party in power. That bureaucracy in this respect manifests itself most in the executive arm of government under the civil service. Hence, that the term bureaucrats refer to the caner officials in the civil service as against the political officials.

Agbonifor (1999:55) asserts that bureaucracy denotes integrated hierarchy of specialized officers defined by systematic rules an impersonal routinized structure where in legitimized authority rest in the office and not in the paria of the incumbent. He went further to state bureaucracy deals with the ideal way of structuring organization, so that maximum efficiency is attained.

Mcfarland (1979:81) sees bureaucracy as a system of organization and management, in which roles, tasks, and the relationships among people and positions are clearly defined, carefully prescribed and controlled in accordance with formal authority. He stated that the idea is efficiency in organization which it aims to achieve though measurement discipline and impersonality.

Berastein (1987:38) asserted that bureaucracy is a system with se rules of managerial and regularized ways of recruiting and appointing people who have the necessary expertise for their tasks. He went further to state that bureaucracy is seen as people vocational, looks at their jobs as careers ad are accorded status and salary. They maintain records, co-ordinate their operations and evaluate the effectiveness of their work.

Mouzel (1989:70) stated that bureaucratic administration means the exercise control on basis of knowledge. It is established for the purpose of co-coordinating organizational activities in order to achieve certain goals.

According to him, bureaucracy consists of rules which define tasks and responsibility of each participant as well as the formal mechanism which would permit the integration of these tasks.

Finally, having looked at bureaucracy by different authors, the researcher have it that bureaucracy is a situation in an organization where people are paid for full time work and placed in positions according to seniority. Also work is done collectively to achieve collective results.

2.2 MEANING OF CIVIL SERVICE/FEATURES

Civil service, according to the civil service hand book (1972) described civil service as the government machinery that manages its affairs and carries out its day to day duties that public administration demands.

Nwoso, (1977:92) shortly put that civil service “is a body or organ which enjoys continuity of existence.

Adesayo (2000:107) sees the Civil Service as the bedrock of the executive arm of government, charge with the task of implanting and executing the policies decided by the political authorities.

Avasthi and Maheshwai (1962:388) asserts that the term civil service has been defined in Britain as “those servants of the crown other than holders of political or judicial offices, who are employed in a civil capacity and whose remuneration is paid wholly and directly out of monies voted by parliament. An analysis of this definition shows that the term excludes persons in defense forces, person holding political or judicial offices, and persons who work for government in an honorary capacity or are paid out of public revenues.

FEATURES OF CIVIL SERVICE

Nevertheless, the new civil in Nigeria has certain appreciable features or legacies, values and ideas in their conjectures such as the value of honesty, prestige, devotion, selflessness, neutrality and impartiality etc, that enables every bureaucratic or civil servant to work towards accomplishing public objectives.

(Eze, 1995) cited in Okpata (2006:389) identified some of those features like: selfless service, political neutrality, career service, professionalism.

In the same vein, Ezeali and Edeh (2007:111-112) identified other features of the civil service which includes: permanency in office, political neutrality merit system, impartiality, operation within the frame work of the law, strict regulations and procedures, hierarchy and expertise.

2.3 THE IMPORTANCE/NEED FOR BUREAUCRACY IN ENUGU STATE CIVIL SERVICE

In reality of the present modern government, public bureaucracy has become inevitable in modern society; as it has become the main instrument through which any government implement social change.

First, bureaucracy aids in the framing of legislation. Bureaucrats are at their best when it comes to framing of legislation.

Uduma (2003:107) noted that bureaucrats play an active role in the initiation and framing of laws which are usually recommended to the legislature for satisfaction and approval.

In the same vein Okpata (2004:75) added that framing of legislation is on important function of bureaucracy that once a bill has been passed into law on a broad principle, the bureaucrats will spell out details of the legislation for effective implementation. In spelling out the details of legislation, the bureaucrat, because of this expert knowledge and information, exercises wide discretion and can extend the legislation beyond its original intents with the basic understanding that bureaucracy operates at the executive arm of the government, this function of the bureaucracy has become very important in situations of strong executives. The executives usually initiate thus most legislation, and bureaucrats train most of the executive legislation.

Bureaucrats recommend policy. According to Okpata (2004:75) this is perceived as a new function of the bureaucracy. Traditionally, policy is solely believed to be the duty of the legislations but with increasing complexities of modern government and the volume of technical legislative issues awaiting the attention of the legislatures, with the need for expertise knowledge and competence, advice and guidance, the bureaucrats are usually called up in such pressure ridden situation coupled with the urgency an technical details of some policies to assists the legislators. He further states that this role is in tandem with the understanding that technical experts of various dimensions and qualities are located in the bureaucracy, which is indispensable in the process of legislation.

Dum, et al (2004:29:30) affirmed that another importance of bureaucracy is that it enables the specialization of function. He argued that specialization converts complex activities into simple tasks with each position handling the aspect of job in which it is most competent and disposed to handle. Also that bureaucracy creates structure. That the duties of each person is clearly spelt out and makes for easy coordination of organizational activities while eliminating indecision.

He went further to state that bureaucracy creates room for creditability and stability. That the creditability and stability of an organization is premised on the rules and regulations, structure, specialization and other features of bureaucracy. Creditability and stability in the sense that it makes for order and rationalizes human relationship that would have been irrational and accidental and also provides certainty in the organizational activities.

Furthermore he noted rationality as an important function of bureaucracy. Fir him bureaucracy emphasizes on technical competence and qualification as the sole basis for gaining and holding a hob. In this way, there is no room for favoritism, ethnicity and nepotism; rather job opportunities and promotion are based on achievement, qualification and experience.

Meanwhile, Chukwuemka et al (1998) in Okpata (2004:75) noted other functions which includes;

Engineering and implementing social change, influencing public policy, implementing public policy and discharging routine duties of government.

2.4 BUREAUCRATIC PROBLEMS IN ENUGU STATE CIVIL SERVICE

Despite the importance and seeming inevitability of the bureaucracy in modern society, it has been faced with a lot of problems. Even max Weber himself who is seen ass the father of modern bureaucracy was fully aware of such problems and criticisms and fears about bureaucracy.

First, the division of labour which bureaucracy demands apparently lead to monotony and boredom. Most importantly it leads to alienation. This explains a situation where the workers is estrange or dissociated from the surrounding society. Being afraid of this situation, Weber wrote that “it is horrible to think that the world would one day be filled with little cogs, little man changing to little jobs and string for another bigger ones”.

Schafer (2002:203) argued that true division of labour has certainly enhanced the performance of many complex bureaucracies, in some cases it can lead to trained incapacity: that is workers become so specialized that they develop blind problems. Even worse, they may not care about what is happening in the next departments.

Bureaucratic values of impersonality are constantly in conflict with societal values. According to Rosen bloom and Krauchuk, (2002:205), public organization, bureaucratically as organized, tends to be in tension or conflict with society in terms of style of action, emotional feelings, and overriding concerns. The differences between societal and bureaucratic values, in short, are social interaction versus doing and the beliefs randomness, and emotionalism versus specialized expertise systemization and impersonality, while to Weber, “the question in order to keep a position of mankind free from this parceling out of the soul, from this supreme mastery of the bureaucratic way of life.

The problem of red tapes associated with the bureaucracy is one which seems highly over-flogged. However, the frustrations which people meet every day in their interaction with public bureaucracies are such that still call for emphasis on this issue. Apart from the fact that many third world bureaucracies are indolent and inefficient (like in Nigeria), all over the world, the adherence to rules and regulations has made the bureaucracy to be noted for its slow nature.

Schaefer (2002:206) believe that adherence to rules is quite in order but he argues that at times it over shadows the large goals of an organization and becomes dysfunctional. If blindly applied, they will no longer serve as a means to achieving an objective but instead will become important (and perhaps too important) in their own right.

The demand of conformity to official regulations has always pitched the bureaucracy against the people who find it difficult to understand why public officials cannot use their initiatives to get problems solved. Victor Thompson (1961:105) brought home this point when he wrote that:

The bureaucratic culture makes certain demands upon the clients as well as upon the clients as well as upon the organization employees. There are many people in our society who have not been able to adjust to those demands. To them bureaucracy is a curse. They see no good in it whatsoever, but view the demand of modern organization on red rape.

Bureaucracy is inconsistent with democratic governance. According to Onah (2000), bureaucracy is an anti thesis of democracy. Although in literature, bureaucracy is efficient, but if it is compared with democracy, it is clearly seen that both principles contradicts. Democracy is a government of compromise, understanding respect of all recognition of system most of the time people are manipulated by those who they elected into position to rule, this situation has been described as ‘the illusion of democracy” democracy involves supremacy of the people, supremacy of the people in government.

This is why Abraham Lincoln defined Democracy as government of the people, by the people and for the people. Unlike bureaucracy, it rules and principles of bureaucracy are stacked to and if it is not diluted it would not blend well with democratic government.

Obi and Chukwuemeka (2006:112) observed that it is obvious that inefficiency of civil service are discredits to the democratic government in Nigeria are all caused by the strict adherence to the bureaucratic rules by the civil service thus, leading to poor and belated policy making and subsequently Methuselah age to be implemented, all in the name of due process, while the populace which consumes the outputs are in jeopardous state. This obliviously differs from military administration, where the military administrator gives order to the civil service and it shall be carried out. Example was the military regime of Mike Torey in Enugu State.

However, rash decisions were made them.

REFERENCES

Blam, P.M and Mayer M.W. (1966) Bureaucracy in the modern society; New York, prentice Hal

Chukwu, L. (2002) The Civil Service System: Enugu computer edge publishers.

Dimmock, M.E. (1960) Bureaucracy self-examined Administration and management; Oxford, B.H publisher.

Duru, E.J .C et al (2004) Nigerian Local Government and Rural Development Administration; Onitsha, Cymart ventures.

Eldridge, G. (1967) Bureaucracy and innovations Home word, Illion Irwin publishers.

Ezeali, B.O and Edeh, J.N. (2007) Comparative public Administration; Onitsha, chambers Book Ltd.

Ihejiamaizu, E.C. (1966) Comprehensive Test Book in Administrative and organizational theory; Calaber, Executive publishers.

Maheshwari, Sand Avasthia, A. (1962) Public Aministration; Aga, lack shim Nigeria Argawal publishers.

Obi, E.A. and Chukwemeka, J.N (2006), Development Administration theory and application; Onitsha Abbrt communication.

Okapta, F.O. (2006) Bureaucracy communication and information management; Enugu, Jones publishers.

Onah, R.C (2005) Public Administration, Nsukka Great Ap express publishers.

Penow, C. (1970) Organization Analysis A Sociological view; California, Wards work publishers.

Ralph, N. (2001) Elements of Public Administration, Enugu, John Jacob’s Publishers.

Tyagi, A.R (2004) Public Administration principles and practice; Dechi; B.K. offset press.

Uduma, D.O (2003) Contemporary Public Administration; Enugu, Agmasum Publishers.

 

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

Research design is determined by the nature of the research problem and purpose of study. The research design sampling survey method which entails the distribution of analysis of question to arrive at a dependable answer to any problem.

3.2 AREA OF STUDY

The area of covered by the research is limited to only the Enugu State Civil Service.

3.3 SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION

The researcher used two major sources to collect the necessary data for the analytical review of Bureaucracy and problem of inefficiency. These sources are primary and secondary sources.

PRIMARY SOURCES:

One of the primary sources as the administering of the questionnaires. The researcher adopted the method of setting out questionnaire which were designed specifically to get useful information for the analysis of Bureaucracy and problem of inefficiency. The question was set out in simple and direct language devoid of ambiguity to avoid misunderstanding by the respondents which may lead to incorrect information. The information required in the questionnaire includes: sex, qualification, length of service, age, grade level.

Another primary source of data collection was through personal interview. The workers were personally interviewed by the researcher. The advantage of this to get some facts that were not provided in the questionnaire. The interview conducted was deliberately designed to checkmate the tendency of questionnaire being filled by other workers different from these that were given the questionnaire.

SECONDARY SOURCES:

The secondary source of data was gathered from textbooks, journals newspaper, magazine and pamphlets.

3.4 INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION

For this study, the instrument employed includes questionnaire which was purely structured questions. The method was preferred in order to obtain clear information. It allows respondent to air their own individual opinions.

3.5 POPULATION OF THE STUDY

The total population of the people under study amounted to five thousand (5000) which represents the Enugu State Civil Service staff strength. But because of the limitations mentioned earlier, only the Enugu State Civil Servants at Enugu, the State headquarter were used for the study. The 5000 workers are made up 1100 serious staff, 1800 intermediate and 2100 junior staffs.

3.6 SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLE TECHNIQUE

The sample size of this research work is determined using Yaro Yamini formular

 

Where n=sample size

n=population of study

i=constant

e=minimum error in calculation or margin of error (0.052)

3.7 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE MEASURING INSTRUMENT

An expert in educational administration and supervision critically examined the instrument for relevance of the context and effectiveness to the problem under investigation. Corrections were made and irrelevant items were discarded.

To establish the reliability of the instrument, the researcher used a text retest technique. The materials were administered to the respondents at the intervals of ten days. It was discovered that most of the answers get co-related with the first result of questionnaire. It was this result that convinced the investigator to pass a judgment that the instrument used was reliable.

PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

This chapter analyses the data and the interpretation of the respondents. By so doing the study shall summarizes some of the data’s collected through the questionnaire items, and interviews schedules were analyzed using statistical tables. In the process of doing this, the research questions of study will be answered on how certain structural variables of bureaucracy affect the effective implementation of government programme will be answered. This presentation was expressed in simple percentage and in tabular form. The percentage were determined by using the formular:

Where %=percentage

R=Number of responses in each option

N=Total respondents.

The number of frequency in each option in any of the question were represented in the table as Responses (R) out of the four hundred questionnaires items distributed, three hundred and sixty were only completed and returned which represented a 90% of the total size.

ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL DATA

CATEGORIES OF STAFF NO OF STAFF

1. Management staff GL 13 and above 50

2. Senior staff GL 08-GL12 70

3. Middle management staff GL06 -07 140

4. Junior staff GL 01-06 400

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

Based on the number of questionnaire (360) returned, the researcher analyzed the data collected as follows:

AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS

Age M Percentage F Percentage Total

19-29 72 20% 28 85 100

30-41 130 36.1% 60 17% 190

42-52 38 10% 10 2.8% 48

52& above 18 5% 4 1.1% 22

258 71.1% 102 28.9% 360

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

The above result represented age and sex distribution of respondents, 258 were male representing (71.1%) while 102 were female representing 28.9% with different age groups respectively:

LENGTH OF SERVICE OF OFFICERS

Length of service Junior staff % Senior staff % Total

5-10yrs 55 15.2 15 4.2 70

15-20 118 32.8 42 11.7 160

25-30 58 16.1 24 6.7 82

30& above 36 74.1 93 25.9 48

267 74.1 93 25.9 360 (100%)

Source: Onah Celestine C. 2008

From the above figure, we as ascertained that 55 junior officers have put in length of service between 5and 10 years, while 118 junior officers have put in length of service between 15 and 20 years. 58 junior officers have put in between 25 and 30 years, while 36 junior officers put in length of service between 30 years and above, representing a total of 267 junior officer with a percentage of 74.1% 15 senior officers have put in a length of service between 15 and 20 years, 24 senior officers put in a length of service 25 and 30 years, while 12 senior officers put in a length of service between 30 years and above representing a total of 93 senior officers with a percentage of 25.9%.

QUESTION I

Does bureaucracy in Enugu Stat modern organization in variation with the ideal type bureaucracy?

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 280 77.8%

No (negative) 80 22.2%

No Response – -

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

The analysis shows that 280 representing 77.8% of the respondents agreed by saying “Yes” while 80 representing 22.2% marked “No” that they do not agree with the motion. None of the workers did not respond. They are all enlightened about the issue. Therefore, based on this analysis, we can therefore state that bureaucracy in Enugu State modern organization vary with the ideal type bureaucracy.

QUESTION II

Does ideal type of bureaucracy and its principles not well understood in Enugu State.

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 300 83.3%

No (negative) 40 11.1%

No Response 20 5.6%

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

From the table 300 or 83.3% marked “Yes” 40 or 11.1% marked “No” while 20 or 5.6% respondents did not respond. This finally indicates that a greater number of the respondents agree that the ideal type of bureaucracy and it’s Enugu State.

This is true because bureaucratic principles is a legacy left by the colonial masters, it is inherited from colonial (British). Some Civil Servants in Enugu State are still afraid and inferior about the bureaucratic principles.

QUESTION III

Does Enugu State environment not allow proper institutionalization of bureaucracy and its principles?

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 290 80.5%

No (negative) 50 13.9%

No Response 20 5.6%

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

The analysis shows that 290 or 80.5% of the respondents agreed by saying “Yes” while 50 representing 13.9% marked “No” that they do not agree with the notion. While 20 representing 5.6% did not respond. Therefore based on this analysis, we can finally state that Enugu State environment does not allow proper institutionalization of bureaucracy and its principles.

QUESTION IV

Are there some socio-cultural factors in Enugu State that impinge on ideal bureaucratization as it is in developed world?

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 310 86.1%

No (negative) 50 13.9%

No Response — –

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

A glance at the table shows that 310 representing 86.1% agreed by saying “Yes” while 50 representing 13.9% marked “No” that they do not agree with the notion. None of the workers did not respond they are all enlightened about the issue. Therefore based on this analysis, we can state that socio-cultural factors in Enugu State impinge on ideal type bureaucracy as in the developed countries.

QUESTION V

Is bureaucratic inefficiency of Enugu State Civil Service rooted in the element of its variation with the ideal type (Weberian) bureaucracy?

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 250 69.4%

No (negative) 80 22.2%

No Response 30 8.4%

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

From the above table 250 or 69.4% of the respondents ticked “Yes” 80 or 22.2% of the respondents ticked “No” while 30 or 8.4% of the respondents did not respond with the following record, we can deduce that since a greater number of the respondents 250 said yes, therefore, we can agree that bureaucratic inefficiency is rooted in the element of its variation with the ideal type (Weberian) bureaucracy.

QUESTION VI

Could it be possible for Enugu State Civil Service or public administration to render service without Bureaucracy inefficiency?

RESPONSE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 40 11.1%

No (negative) 320 88.9%

No Response — –

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

40 or 11.1% of the respondents ticked “Yes”, while 320 representing 88.9% of the respondent ticked “No” and none of the worker did not respond. They are all enlightened on the issue. It then signifies that it is not possible for Enugu State civil service to survive without bureaucratic problems.

QUESTION VII

Is bureaucracy the best solution to our public administrative system?

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 240 66.7%

No (negative) 120 33.3%

No Response — –

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

On this table, 240 or 66.7% of the respondents ticked “Yes”, 120 or 33.3% of the respondents ticked “No” and none of the respondent or the workers did not respond. Therefore, we can say that bureaucracy is the only solution to our public administration.

This is true because, if bureaucracy is not adhered strictly, the institution will lack people with pioneering instinct and the Enugu State as a whole will produce authoritarian personalities who lack self confidence and who are content to preserve the status quo.

QUESTION VIII

Do several bureaucracy reforms in Enugu State civil service yield positive result?

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 60 16.7%

No (negative) 280 77.7%

No Response 20 5.6%

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

From the table 60 representing 16.7% of the respondents ticked “Yes”, while 280 or 77.7% of the respondents ticked “No” and 20 or 5.6% did not respond. It then signifies that all the bureaucratic reforms made, contributed to the inefficiency in Enugu State civil service.

QUESTION IX

Does promotion through seniority lessen competitive anxieties among bureaucrats and enhance administrative efficiency?

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 190 52.2%

No (negative) 130 36.1%

No Response 40 11.1%

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

A glance at the table shows that 190 or 52.2% marked “Yes”, 130 or 36.1% marked “No”, while 40 or 11.1% respondents did not respond. This indicates that a greater number of the respondents agreed that promotion through seniority lessen competitive anxieties and enhance administrative efficiency.

QUESTION X

Do the structural variables upon which bureaucracy is built militate against public bureaucracy from rendering efficient and effective service delivery in Enugu State?

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 230 63.9%

No (negative) 100 27.8%

No Response 30 8.3%

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

230 or 63.9% of the respondents ticked “Yes”, while 100 or 27. 8% ticked “No” and 30 or 8.3% did not respond. Therefore, this means that the structural variable upon which bureaucracy is built militates against public bureaucracy from rendering efficient and effective service delivery in Enugu State.

QUESTION XI

Does hierarchical arrangement of staff introduce communication problem, reduce social interaction and social support and also limit the use of initiative at the lower level of the organization hierarchy.

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 305 84.7%

No (negative) 45 12.5%

No Response 10 2.8%

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

305 or 84.7% of the respondents ticked “Yes” while 45 or 12.5% of the respondent ticked “No” and 10 or 2.8% did not respond. Therefore based on this analysis hierarchical arrangement of staff introduces communication problem, reduce social interaction and social support and equally limit the use of initiative at the lower level of the organization hierarchy.

QUESTION XII

Does specialization increase problem of coordination and generate apathy in public bureaucracy in Enugu State?

RESPONSES FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

Yes (positive) 300 83.4%

No (negative) 45 12.5%

No Response 15 4.1%

Total 360 100%

Source: Onah Celestine C 2008

On the table, 300 or 83.4% of the respondents ticked “Yes”, 45 or 12.5% of the respondents ticked “No” and 15 or 4.1% of the respondents did not respond. Therefore, based on this analysis, we can state that specialization can lead to greater productivity and efficiency but increase problem of coordination which can generate apathy in Enugu State public bureaucracy.

TEST OF HYPOTHESIS

In testing the formulated hypothesis, the researcher shall employ the use of the chi-square as a measure of assessment. The chi-square decision rule states that Accept Ho if the calculated value of X2 is less than the table value, otherwise reject Ho.

Formular

 

HYPOTHESIS ONE

Hi: Several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu State Civil Service have yielded positive results.

Ho: Several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu State Civil Service have not yielded positive results.

RESPONSES HO HI Total

Yes (positive) 160 40 200

No (negative) 30 120 150

No Response — 10 10

Total 190 360

 

For 160=

For 40=

For 30=

For 120=

For 10=

 

 

160 105.6 54.4 2959.4 28

40 94.4 -54.4 -2959.4 -31.3

120 79.2 -49.2 -2420-6 -30.6

10 5.6 4.4 19.4 3.5

109.6

DF= (R-1) (C-1)

=(3-1) (3-1)

=(2) (2)

=4

:. 95% (DF) under 4=9.49

Decision

Given a 95% confidence level lower of 9.49 degree of freedom (DF) and 109.6 table value. We therefore reject Hi and accepted Ho. And concluded that several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu State Civil Service have not yielded positive result.

HYPOTHESIS TWO

Hi: The rigid bureaucratic structure enables the public bureaucracy to render efficient and effective service delivery in Nigeria.

Ho: The rigid bureaucratic structures do not enable public bureaucracy to render efficient and effective service delivery in Nigeria.

RESPONSES HO HI Total

Yes (positive) 160 60 200

No (negative) 30 110 140

No Response — – –

Total 190 170 360

 

For 160=

For 60=

For 30=

For 110=

160 116.1 43.9 1927.2 16.6

60 103.9 -43.9 -1927.2 -18.5

30 73.9 -43.9 -1927.2 -26

110 66.1 43.9 1927.2 29.2

90.3

DF= (0-1) (C-1)

=(3-1) (3-1)

=(2) )(2)

=4

Decision

Given a 95% confidence level under 4 of 9.49 degree of freedom (DF) and 90.3 table values. We therefore reject the Hi and accepted Ho. And concluded that the rigid bureaucratic structures do not enable public bureaucracy to render efficient and effective service delivery in Nigeria.

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY/CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

Under this chapter, the findings obtained from the results of the research data analyzed in chapter four are discussed. And explains why bureaucracy that is said to function more efficiently in the developed countries is said to be synonymous with inefficiency in Enugu State Civil Service. It was discovered from the analysis of the data collected that;

i. Bureaucracy in Enugu State modern organization is in variation with the ideal type bureaucracy. Where offices are not filled on merit, but on basis of other extraneous criteria, written examination is not considered before employment. But the basic criterion for employment is to know the right persons. This situation perverts the Weberian bureaucratic edifice.

ii. Ideal type of bureaucracy and its principles are not well understood in Enugu State Civil Service and it lead to lack of team spirit among workers.

iii. Enugu State environment does not allow for proper institutionalization of bureaucracy and its principles. Just as Riggs said, that the bureaucratic institutions of less developed countries are weak because of the ecological constraints that impinge on them. It was discovered that there is corruption in the system, where for instance officers who reached the age of retirement are left to constitute “dead wood” impairing efficiency in the system.

iv. There are some socio-cultural factors in Enugu State that impinge on ideal bureaucratization, such as favoritism etc.

v. Bureaucratic inefficiency in Enugu State Civil Service is rooted in the elements of its variation with the ideal type Weberian bureaucracy.

vi. The Enugu State Civil Service hardly renders service without bureaucratic inefficiency as a result of recruitment of unqualified staffs.

vii. The several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu State Civil Service have not yielded positive result. Mostly because of political interference in the activities of bureaucratic.

viii. It is discovered that those who are less qualified are promoted to superintend over those who are qualified than they are.

ix. The hierarchical arrangement of staffs resulted to the problem of communication overload.

x. There is over rigidity in the Enugu State Civil Service as a result of centralization.

xi. Specialization and division of labour in the Enugu State Civil Service increase the problem of lack of coordination.

5.2 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The Enugu State Civil Service is governed by a set of laid down rules which dated back to the colonial period. There are rules and regulations compiled in a big document called the General orders.

The general order has provision for every aspect of the Civil Service career from recruitment to retirement. Even though many changes have been made in the general orders since independence, the document remains largely unchanged and still contains rules and regulations considered irrelevant to present situations, thereby encouraging inefficiency.

Bureaucracy is not problematic but it adversely affects the attitude of the people who practice it. What is condemned in bureaucracy is when these practice and operatives are overdone. For example when the use of filling forms is needlessly multiplied and elaborated or the adherence to circulars is so rigidly enforced even when they have outlived their usefulness.

It is important to note that while bureaucracy has inherent elements that makes its processes often cumbersome or distrustful to its clients the public; yet it is indispensable and indeed an instrument for the achievement of efficiency in all large organizations. It is concerned with the most efficient means of planning and control, and the fact that these processes are often misused and abused by inefficient, corrupt, and stubborn officials is not a case for the total condemnation of bureaucracy.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

In view of the findings so far made, there is need to establish sound and efficient public bureaucracy in Nigeria. To this end, bureaucratic inefficiency has to be eradicated in Nigeria Public Administration. It is an attempt to realize this noble objective that the researcher recommend the following:

i. A thorough and well articulated reforms which will enshrine the proper institutionalization of Weberian ideal principles of bureaucracy should be made.

ii. Entrance into public bureaucracy should be properly guided by meritocracy.

iii. Nigeria Administrative institution should evolve an administrative model suitable for her administration.

iv. There should be periodic trainings and workshops for staffs.

v. Government should provide special reward for bureaucrats who live above aboard in the Civil Service.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Blau, D.M and Mayer, M.W (1966) Bureaucracy in the modern society; New York, Prentice Hall.

Chukwu, L (2002) the Civil Service system. Enugu Computer Edge publisher.

Dimmock, M.E. (1960) Bureaucracy self examined Administration and management. Oxford, 1BH publishers.

Duru, E.J.C et al (2004) Nigeria Local Government and Rural Development Administration; Onitsha Cymart Venture.

Eldridse, G. (1967) Bureaucracy and innovation, Home word, illion Irwin Pub.

Ezeali, B.O and Edeh, J.N (2007) Comparative Public Administration; Onitsha, chambers Book Ltd.

Ihejamaizu, E.C. (1996) Comprehensive Test Administrative and Organization theory; Calabar, Executive publishers.

Maheshwani, S. and Avasthi; A. (1962) Public Administration: Agra, Lakshmi narain Argawak Pub.

Obi, E.A and Chukwuemeka, J.N (2006), Development Administration theory and application; Onitsha, Abbot Communication.

Onah R.C. (2005) Public Administration Nsukka, Great AP Express Publishers.

Okpata, F.O (2006) Bureaucratic communication and information management; Enugu, Jones comm. Publishers.

Perrow, C. (1970) Organization Analysis A socio-logical view, California, wards worth publishing.

Presttius, R. (1962) The organization society: An analysis and a theory, New York, Alfred A.K Pub.

Ralph, N. (2001) Elements of Public Administration Enugu, John Jacob’s publishers.

Tyagi R. (2004) Public Administration principles and Practice, Deli, B.K Offset Pres.

Uduma, D.O (2003) Contemporary Public Administration; Enugu, Agasun Publishers.

QUESTIONNAIRE

PERSONAL DATA

1. Sex

a. male

b. female

2. Age

a. 19-29

b. 30-41

c. 42-52

d. 52 and above

3. Category staffs

a. GL 13 and above

b. GL 08-GL 12

c. GL 06-07

d. GL01-GL06

SECTION B

QUESTION

1. Does bureaucracy in Enugu State modern organization in variation with the ideal type bureaucracy a Yes No

2. Does ideal type of bureaucracy and its principles not well understood in Enugu State? (a) Yes (b) No

3. Does Enugu State environment not allow institutionalization of bureaucracy and its principles? (a) Yes (b) No

4. Are there some socio-cultural factors in Enugu State that impinge on ideal bureaucratization as it is in developed world? (a) Yes (b) No

5. Is bureaucratic inefficiency of Enugu State civil service rooted in the element I of its variation with the ideal type (Weberian) bureaucracy?

(a) Yes (b) No

6. Could it be possible for Enugu State civil service or public administration to render service without bureaucratic inefficiency (a) Yes (b) No

7. Is bureaucracy the best solution to our public administrative system?

(a) Yes (b) No

8. Do several bureaucratic reforms in Enugu Stage civil service yield positive result? (a) Yes (b) No

9. Does promotion through seniority lesson competitive efficiency? (a) Yes (b) No

10. Do the structural variables upon which bureaucracy is built militate against public bureaucracy from rendering efficient and effective service delivery in Enugu State?

(a) Yes (b) No

11. Does hierarchical arrangement of staff introduce communication problem, social interaction and social support and also limit the use of initiative at the lower level of the organization hierarchy? (a) Yes (b) No

12. Does specialization increase problem of co-ordination and generate apathy in public bureaucracy in Enugu State? (a) Yes (b) No

Bureaucracy And Problems Of Inefficiency In Nigeria’s Civil Service:  A Case Study Of Enugu State Civil Service

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One Comment

  1. Posted June 11, 2014 at 8:28 am | Permalink

    Nice work

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