Biscuit Production Process- Cassava And Peanut Blend As Substitute For Wheat Flour
Biscuit Production Process- Cassava And Peanut Blend As Substitute For Wheat Flour
2.1 ORIGIN OF CASSAVA
Cassava (manihot esculents, creantz), variously designated as manioc, yucca or tapioca is a native to south America and southern and western Mexico, Presumable Eastern Brazil. It was one of the first crops to be domesticated and there is archeological evidence that it was grown in Peru 4, 000 years ago and in Mexico 2, 000 years ago. From stem cuttings, the plant produces 5 to 10 very fleshy adventitious roots up to 15 centimeters in diameter. Young roots may have 30 – 35% starches by weight but very little fat or protein. To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.
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Cassava is adapted to the zone within latitudes 30 north and south of the equator, at elevations of not more than 2000m above sea level, in temperatures ranging from 18 to 25Oc to rainfall of 50 to 5000mm annually and to poor soils with PH from 4 to 9. After planting a stem cutting, the crop does not have to be tended and the roots are harvested 6 to 8 months later before they become woody. Cassava has the greatest yield of starch per acre of any crop in the world, often exceeding 20 tons of roots per acre.
From mid and south Americans, cassava spread to other parts of the world in post Colombian times and was introduced into the West Coast of Africa and Zaire in the late sixteenth century probably in salve ships. It was introduced into the East African via. Reunion by the end of t he eighteenth century and by 1800 it had reached India. It was widely grown in Africa and Southeast Asia by the 1850’s.
Cassava is a major subsistence staple with an annual world production estimated at over 100 million tons in 1972. This made cassava the sixth major source of staple foods in the world amounting to 57 percent of the tropical root and tuber production in 1972. Cassava supplies 38.6 percent of the caloric requirements in Africa, 11.7 percent in Latin America and 6.7 percent in the Far East. Although cassava is of New World origin, 40 percent of the current world production takes place in Africa. According to FAO, Brazil accounts for 30 million tons —- annually, Zaire 10.5 million, Indonesia 10.5 million, and Nigeria 7.5 million tons. Other major producing countries that make up the bulk of the world’s market supplies of cassava products a re Thailand, Madagascar and Benin. As many as 300 million people in the tropics consume cassava daily. Cassava is not only used in many food preparations for human consumption but it is important also in industries/starch, textiles, fuel, confectionery and in animal feed. Cassava products include Dextrins, Acetone, glues and pastes, cassava flour etc. Cassava is of two types Bitter and sweet cassava with many TMS varieties. Bitter cassava are bitter and poisonous if eaten raw. The bitter principle is a glycoside of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) which occurs in the white, yellow or red flesh. Very poisonous forms have greater than 100ppm of cyanide.
The lethal concentration of HCN is 150 milligrams for a 50 kilogram adult. Native Americans learned that the deadly bitter principles could be removed by boiling or squeezing. Some cultivars lack HCN (sweet cassava makasera). They have less than 50ppm of cyanide. Sweet cassava is widely used and requires no special detoxification process. It can be eaten raw, sun dried, kiln dried or cooked.
Cynogenic glycoside levels in cassava root vary widely and can accumulate to concentrations as high as 500mg / kg (Mamahon, 1995) cyanogenic glycosides varies with the part of the plant, its age, variety and environmental conditions such as soil, moisture, temperature etc. Therefore cynogenic glycoside levels in cassava must be qualified in order to assess bitterness or the cynogenic potential of cassava varieties. Linamarase enzymes isolated from the cassava peel are currently applied as diagnostic reagents in the screening of cassava varieties for bitterness.
Complete detoxification of bitter cassava varieties can feasibly be accomplished through the enzymes catalysed degradation of both cyanogenic glycosides and the cyanohydrains which result from their degradation. Linamarase enzymes located in the cell walls of the cassava root (Mkpong; 1990) catalyse the initial step in the breakdown of the cytoplasmic cyanogenic glycosides linamarin and lotanstralin, resulting in the release of cyanohydrins. There cyanohydrin are relatively stable under low PH conditions but decompose under conditions of high temperature and high PH (PH > 5) to produce ketones and HCN.
In pelation to organoleptic quality, sweet cassava products usually contain 40 to 130ppm cyanide, non – bitter ones, 30 to 180ppm, bitter 80 412.5ppm and very bitter 2 to 490ppm of cyanide. Consumption of cassava products containing non-toxic levels of cynical resulted in chronic toxicity and association pathological conditions.
2.2 NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CASSAVA
Cassava is a starchy staple whose roots are very rich in carbohydrates, a major source of energy. Infact, the cassava plant is the highest producer of carbohydrates among crop plants with perhaps the exception of sugar cane.
Although cassava roots are rich in calories, they are grossly deficient in protein.
2.4 LIMITATIONS OF CASSAVA UTILIZATION
Cassava contains cyanogenic glycosides in the form of linamarine (93 percent), and to much less extent, lotaustralin (7 percent). The amount of cyanogenic glucosides vary with the part of the plant, its age, variety, and environment conditions such as soil, moisture, temperature etc. certain varieties of cassava have long been designated as sweet or bitter, purportedly in relation to their cyanogenic glucoside content the sweet varieties are supposed to be much lower in HCN content than the bitter varieties. However, results of chemical analysis of various parts of the cassava plant at different stages of development indicate that at times no significant differences exists between comparable parts of sweet and bitter varieties. Nartey (13) observed that the phelloderm of sweet varieties may contain cyanogenic glucoside while the fleshy cortex may contain none. Also the seeds of sweet varieties contain no HCN, though seeds of bitter ones do.
Circumstantial evidence, epidemiological studies and labouratory studies with experimental animals have linked cassava consumption with certain pathological conditions and diseases such as tropical ataxic neuropathy and endemic goitre (Okigbo, 1980).
Cassava – eating American Indians have known of toxic properties in the roots for centuries. This led to the development of methods for detoxification. Consumption of cassava and other food shifts high in cyanide can cause acute cyanide poisoning and death is man and other animals. It was observed that in relation to organoleptic quality sweet – cassava products usually contain 40 to 130 ppm cyanide. Consumption of cassava products containing non-toxic levels of cyanide over long periods of time results in chronic cyanide toxicity and associated pathological conditions fat, and some of the minerals and vitamins. Consequently, cassava is of lower nutritional value than are cereals, legumes and even some other root and tubers such as yam. The cassava root contains carbohydrates 64 to 72 percent of which is made up of starch mainly in the form of amylase and amylopect in. about 17 percent sucrose is found in sweet varieties and a small quantities of fructose and dextrose have also been reported. (Okigbo, 1980). The inpict content of cassava is only 0.5 percent. Cassava is poor in proteins (1 to 2 percent), and the amino – acid profile of the cassava root is very low in some essential amino – acid, particularly lysine, methionine and trytophan. The peel of cassava roots contains slightly more protein than is found in the flesh. Therefore, peeling results in loss of part of the valuable protein component of the root. However, fermentation of the roots results in protein enrichment by a factor of some 6 to 8. Cassava is reasonably rich in calcium and vitamin C but not thiamin, riboflavin and niacin contents. Large proportions of these nutrients have been reported to be lost during processing. All these should be taken into account in cassava processing in order to retain as much as possible of these nutrients.
Cassava leaves are richer in protein than the roots. Although the leaves contain far less methionine than the roots, the levels of all other essential amino acid exceed the FAO’s recommend reference protein intake (Okigbo 1980) for this reason cassava leaf protein is claimed to be superior to soy bean protein. Supplementation of cassava product such as leaf – meal with lacks serve to improve its biological value significantly and has been widely practiced in industry for the processing of food for human consumption and animal feeds.
Osuntokun (21) reported the occurrence of tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) consisting of lesions of the skin, mucous membranes optic and auditory nerves, spinal coral and peripheral nerves. Patients exhibited myclopathy, bilateral glossitis and motor – neuron disease, parkinson’s disease, cerebellar degeneration psychosis and dementia were also found to be associated with the TAN disease.
It was concluded that, although he pathological conditions in Nigerian cases of tropical ataxic neuropathy are similar to those observed elsewhere, it is not justifiable to assume that these represent clinical variants of the same disease, since, when a diet is poor, multiple nutritional deficiencies usually occur together.
Experiments with laboratory animals confirmed that cassava in diet interfered with iodine up take by the thyroid.
Other conditions that may result from cassava dependency include kwashiorkor among children following weaning because of imbalance of protein relative to calorie intake.
ORIGIN OF PEANUT
The peanut (Arachis hypogea linn) better known worldwide as groundnut and to lesser extent as earthnut, monkey nut and goobers is not a true nut but rather an annual legume much like the bean or pea (Nwokolo; 1996: pp. 49 – 63).
It can also be defined as an annual herb belonging to the division papilionaceae of the family leguminosal. The peanut plant is unusual because it flowers above ground and pods containing one to five seeds are produced underground. Peanut need a hot climate for development with moderate rainfall or irrigation and ample sunshine during the growing season. It is suitable for tropical, sub – tropical, Mediterranean and warm temperate climates.
Peanut is the fifth most important oil seed in the world. It is used for different purposes, food (raw, roasted or boiled, cooking oil), and animal feed and industrial raw material. There are (4) four varieties of peanut viz virginia, Peruvian runner, Valencia and Spanish. The different varieties can be broadly divided into two types. The bushy upright or erect and the trailing or runner. The plant which has pinnate leaves and yellow flowers usually grows up to 25 – 5ocm high and spreads rapidly. When the corolla has dropped, the flower bends down, the ovary elongates and the fruit penetrates the soil where the pod containing about one to five seeds develop. The soil should be well drained; preferably a fertile sandy loam. After Soya beans, glyane max, groundnut is the second most important source of vegetable oil in the world. It originates from Paraguay and South America.
The archaeological records supports its cultivation between 300 and 2500 BC in Peruvian desert oases (Weiss; 2000). Today groundnut is widely distributed and has adapted various countries of the world. The most important countries for production are India, China, USA, west and Southern Africa and brazil. Peanut is one of the world’s most popular and universal crops cultivated in more than 100 countries in all the six continents (Nwokolo; 1996). China and India are the largest producers. A substantial proportion of total production is consumed by growers without ever being recorded (Weiss; 2000). Although USA had been third largest producers in the world until mid 199’s, Nigeria is the third largest producer in the world now.
CULTIVATION OF PEANUT
The peanut, Arachis hypogea is an annual legume. The seeds are usually planted at the rate of about 37 – 50kg of unluilled seeds or 24 – 37kg of hulled seeds per hectare, spaced at about 45 x 30cm but considerable variations occur between countries. Germination occurs within 6 – 10days for undecorticated seeds and 4 – 5 days for decorticated seeds. The peanut is sparsely hairy and has a well developed tap root system with many lateral roots. Roots are usually devoid of hairs and a distinct epidemics. A unique characteristic of the plant is the Nyctinastic movement of the leaflets (Coffelt; 1980). The main range of peanut cultivation is between 350S and 400N but it extends to 450N in central Asia and North America. It adapts to wide range of environments. It is a day neutral plant and thus little affected by day light. However, plant growth is adversely affected by low light intensity. Bunchy types are generally more severally affected by climatic variation than runner types. Temperature between 25 and 300c is optimum for plant development (Weiss 2000; p. 150). One established, peanut is drought resistant and to some extent, it also tolerates flooding. A rainfall of 500 to 1000 will allow commercial production. Once pods are mature, rainfall will adversely affect the crop as some cultivars have a very brief dormancy and germinate under suitable condition.
2.7 NUTRITIVE VALUE OF PEANUT
It is estimated that the shell represents about 25% of the dry weight of unshell peanut and the kernel comprises 75%. Peanuts are very high in calories because of their high fat and protein contents. A pound (0.45kg), of peanut brittle, salted peanut or peanut butter contains about 2, 800 calories. Cotyledons are the main storage tissues and are concentrated source of protein lipids and dietary energy. Comparatively, the protein content of raw peanut is about 70% of that of raw soy bean.
Peanuts are generally low in carbohydrate content which is about 21.6g/100% edible portion. These carbohydrates include sugars, starch, crude fibre and pentosans. Peanuts are a reasonable source of dietary minerals especially potassium, phosphorus and magnesium, however they are poor source of fat soluble vitamins like A, D and K.
Peanut oil is an excellent source of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids exceeding the levels of these fatty acids in soy bean and corn oil but significantly lower than in sunflower and safflower oil. The oil content of peanut is between 35% and 54.2% of the seed. According to Canola processors (1989), peanut oil contains about 18% saturated fat, 34% linoleic acid and 48% monounsaturated fatty acids.
As in many of the seeds of other grain legumes, the protein is nutritionally inferior to that of the Standard Reference Protein (SFP), which approximates the average amino – acid profile of human proteins because it contains relatively small proportions of lysine, methionine and threonine, and sometimes isoleucine and valine (Pancholy; 1958 p. 103). Aspartic and glutanric acids and arginine constitute about 45 percent of the total amino – acids and their proportion is greater than in the SRP (Young; 2002).
The proteins of groundnuts have certain unique functional properties, such as low viscosity at relatively high concentrations (5 – 10 percent), good computability with biscuit batter system, white colour and bland flavour.
The mature kernel contains 20 – 25 percent carbohydrate, of which about 8 – 10 percent is cellulose and hemicelluloses, 4 percent is starch and 10 – 12 percent is sugar (Patee; 1959: p. 33).
Sucrose is the principal sugar, varying from 2.86 – 6.35 percent depending on the cultivar. When the kernels are roasted, the sucrose is hydrolysed to fructose and glucose which then reacts with free amino acids to form the numerous substances which give the characteristic flavour to the roasted product (Mason; 1985: p. 95).
Groundnuts are useful sources of thiamin, niacin, tocopherol (Vit E) and folic acid in the human diet (Ahmed and Young, 1982: p. 91).
USES OF PEANUT
Peanuts are grown for their kernels, the oil and meal derived from them, and the vegetative residue (haulms). As human food, the kernels are eaten raw, lightly roasted or boiled, sometimes salted or made in to paste which is known as peanut butter. In Senegal, the leaves are used as a vegetable in soups. Groundnut oil is the most important product of the crop. Many of the people in West and Equatorial Africa use traditional method of extracting the oil contained in the kernels. The kernels are roasted, ground and made into paste and boiled again; oil rises to the surface and is skimmed off. The best oil is simply obtained by simple pressure and is called “cold pressed oil”, whereas oil of inferior quality is obtained by further pressure and heat and is mainly used for soap – making. The oil may also be used for margarines and vegetable ghee, for shortening in pastries and biscuits, for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics products, as lubricant and emulsion for insecticides and as fuel for diesel engines, (Dukes; 1981).
Groundnut flour, produced from the cake, can be used for enriching tuber flours such as cassava flour, which is low in protein. The so – called Mysore flour, which is a mixture of 25 parts of groundnut flour and 75 parts cassava flour and has a protein content of 12 percent, is accepted as a partial substitute for cereals in certain parts of India. Paushtikatta, a blend of wheat, groundnut flour and cassava flour is also used in India for biscuit production. In the USA, about half the groundnut harvest is used to make peanut butter.
LIMITATION OF PEANUT UTILIZATION
Although peanuts contain a good number of essential amino – acids which are used in determining the quality of their protein. Methionine and lysine content is peanut are limited.
Flatulence is also one of he beat known problems that result from the consumption of peanut. Lipid oxidation is known to be the major problem in the storage of fresh and processed peanut. This is because its oil content is susceptible to lipid oxidation due to its high poilun saturated fatty acid oxidating the oil that causes stale odour. (Ogbo, 2002). The flavour and the nutritive value of the peanuts are affected. The lipid oxygenase oxidation of linoleic acid and its methyl esters to form Sc – 19 and c – 13 hydrogen peroxide. These can be degraded in to secondary products which result in lower nutritive value of peanuts.
Certain strains of the common mould aspergillums flavour found in unwholesome groundnut produce potent toxins, aflatoxin. Unfortunately, aflatoxins are highly stable so that even if the mounld is killed during processing or cooking, the toxins remain active. Aflatoxins are associated with liver problems such as hepatitis and cancer of the liver, since the disease has been implicated in areas where there is aflatoxin contamination (Keen and Marthin, 1971: p. 13).
Therefore the best way to cope with aflatoxin is to prevent its formation.
FLOURS FOR BISCUIT PRODUCTION
The manufactured of good quality biscuit depend solely on selecting the correct flour for each type and applying processes which are compatible. With the exception of reports from the soft wheat quality laboratory at Wooster, Ohio, very little fundamental work has been published on the effect of flour on biscuit and crackers. However, the protein content is the first and perhaps most significant analytical reference work. Bakers producing a complete line of biscuits and crackers find that they require three types of flour characterised by their protein content, from 7 to 8% for the softest flour, to 8.5 to 10% for the strongest flour.
The water binding capacity of the flour also appear to be a significant property in determining the product quality. This property is also related to flour particle size, extent of starch damage, protein and starch gelatinization during baking. Milling is responsible for the particle size and extent of starch damage, while starch gelatinization is influenced by other constituents of the dough especially sugar. So, the sugar content is always controlled. From the studies of the British cereal scientists on test – baking procedures for semi – sweet biscuits, they have concluded that the best method of evaluating a biscuit flour is a baking test based on the conditions under which the flour is to be used in production. When the amount of water and final dough temperature are closely controlled, the effect of flour properties on biscuit weight and dimensions are relatively small. Although high protein flours give hard biscuit of poor appearance the use of sodium metabisulphite as a dough softening agent reduces still further the effect of flour properties on biscuit weight and dimension, but does not overcome the deleterious effect of the high protein flour on appearance and texture.
Weak flour yield small loaves with coarse open crumb texture and generally are lower in protein content. Cracker’s flours are milled from the hardest soft wheat. For crackers sponges, it is usually necessary to blend is some low protein hard wheat to obtain flour of optimum characteristics. Dough flour is of medium strength.
There are three important processing considerations in biscuit production that are influenced by flour protein.
a) The final moisture content of biscuits is around 4%. Thus soft wheat flours at low protein content are preferred to minimise the water requirement of the dough.
b) The biscuit has to fit the packet. Once shaped, the baker wants that shape retained. Too much elasticity in the gluten and the dough will spring back to give smaller diameter but thicker biscuits. The upset consumers because they buy fever biscuits per packet. Too little elasticity and the dough may flow after shaping so thin large diameter, than biscuit are produced. If they flow too far, they will not fit in the packet. But if by chance they do, the manufacture is upset because he must put more biscuits in to fill the packet. So the balance of elasticity and viscosity of the gluten is critical. The use of low protein flours and under mixing at low work inputs helps to give the balance required to achieve good products.
c) Taste: Upon biting, the biscuit should snap for this a flour protein of 7.8 to 8.2% seems to be critical. Much less than this and the biscuit becomes brittle. Much more, and it is chewy. Sometimes, this is exploited to produce chewy biscuits.
In biscuit production, these effects due to protein are crucial and only certain wheat’s with the desirable dough theological properties and at the correct protein level can be used.
In general, for most products, soft wheat flow of low antlolytic activity, coarser particle profile than for cake flour is preferred. Where only stronger flour are available, it is possible to employ sulphur dioxide directly or in various forms such as sodium metabisulphite to bring about the required weakening. Hard dough biscuits made from strong flour not so treated shrink after baking and dry out much more readily and may result in high incidence of biscuit checking (breaking of biscuit after baking due to internal stress). Crackers can however be made from stronger flours if a long fermentation (12 – 24hrs) procedure is followed.
The theological properties of the dough for short and semi – sweet biscuits is particularly critical. Such flours must give doughs which are quite extensible with less spring and this may be predetermined by the miller by the use of starch instrument as the alveograph and extensimeter which produce characteristic curves from which inference can be made about the characteristics of the flour.
2.9.1 TYPES OF BISCUITS AND THEIR COMPOSITION
Apart from the three broad classifications of biscuits into spongy goods, chemically leavened crackers and sweet goods, there are many other names given to the various types of biscuits. Apart from crackers and spongy goods, which contain little or no sugar, all other biscuits can be classified as sweet good.
Based on enrichment criterion, biscuits may be produced from hard doughs, soft dough or from batters to give hard dough, soft dough and batter biscuits respectively.
2.9.2 SOFT DOUGH BISCUITS
Soft dough biscuits are normally high in combined fat and sugar content with low moisture additions. In processing, the dough passes direct from the mixing machine to the shaping machine without an intermediary process. Soft dough biscuits may be further classified into short medium and flow types.
Short Soft Dough Biscuits: There are very rich biscuits containing a high percentage of combined fat and sugar but the fat is far in excess of the sugar. Example of short soft dough include short bread and short cakes.
Medium Softy Dough Biscuits: This type of biscuit include Digestive and Abernathy contains a lower percentage of combined fat and sugar than short types and the balance of fat to sugar is not so critical.
Flow Soft Dough Biscuit: Flow biscuits are also high in their combined sugar and fat content but unlike the short types, the sugar greatly exceeds the fat content. Examples include Ginger Nuts, Perkins and Rice biscuits.
2.9.3 HARD DOUGH BISCUITS
This type of biscuit is usually low in the level of combined sugar and fat in the recipe with a high level of water addition at the dough preparation stage. During processing, all traditional hard dough biscuits pass through some intermediary process such as fermentation surfacing or layering between the mixing machine and shaping machine. Hard dough biscuits are further subdivided into three groups – lean, medium and puff.
Lean Hard Dough Biscuits: This type of biscuit, which include water biscuits and cream crackers contain virtually little or no sugar and very little fat. The water content is high when compared with soft dough types but is just sufficient enough to allow the formation of a crumbly aggregate rather than a smooth dough.
Medium Hard Dough Biscuit: This type of biscuit also known as Tea Biscuits contain more fat than the lean types and small amount of sugar. Because of their sugar content, they are referred to as semi – sweet biscuit. Their water content is much lower than for lean types and maximum gluten development is encourages. In the presence of lower water level, the dough is mixed for up to one hour at a dough temperature of 430c to aid gluten development to a state of maximum extensibility. It is this type of dough that is sometimes treated chemically with sulphur dioxide or metabisulphite to assist the conditioning of the gluten and to dispense with the lamination process, example of medium hard dough biscuit include Garibaldi, Marie, Osborne and Rich Tea.
Puff Hard Dough Biscuit: Puff biscuit, which include butter puffs, fruits puffs and waffers have very low sugar content but an apparently high fat content. The fat is however not rubbed in but instead is used for layering. The water content of puff hard dough biscuit recipe is a little higher than for the lean types.
2.9.4 BATTER BISCUITS
Batter type biscuits are common in the United States but are penetrating markets in other parts of the world. These biscuits contain high levels of water and after mixing can be poured and are thus deposited in baking trays. Two categories of batter biscuit are common. They are vary lean and highly enriched types
Lean Batter Biscuit: This type of batter biscuit is basically water and flour with a minimum of fat and sugar and are baked on water iron water cones for ice cream and cream water biscuits are of this group.
Highly Enriched Biscuits: The fat and sugar content is in excess of the flour, a common example of this type of biscuit is the vanilla water.
2.9.5 NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BISCUITS
The nutritive value depends on the ingredient in the mix for dough. Most biscuits contain a lot of fat (shortening), plus the basic ingredient, flour and also sugar. Consequently they are of high energy value, 420 to 510 kcal (1.7 – 2.1mj), per 100g.
They are also rich in protein since they contain milk and sometimes eggs. For example finger biscuits and ratafia biscuits contain a lot of eggs. Minerals and vitamins especially vitamin E are also inclusive.
2.9.7 BASIC BISCUIT RECIPE
Ingredients Drop Biscuits Rolled Biscuits Short cake
Shifted flour 2 cups 2 cups 2 cups
Baking powder 2 teaspoon 2 ½ teaspoons 3 teaspoons
Salt 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoons
Sugar – – 2 tablespoons
Shortening 1/4 cup 1/4cup 1/3 cup
Milk 1 cup 3/4 cup 3/4 cup
Time 4500f, 10 to 20 min 4500f, 10 to 20 min 4500f, 10 to 20 min
Source: Alice Golden (1964).
The nature of biscuit is to be light any flaky and tender. Biscuits can be made in many ways so the gluten content is not developed for tender and flavourful recipe. The dry ingredients and shortening should be measured into the 60 wl. The shortening should then be cut into pastry blender (10 break up the fat and expose more surface are thereby preventing excess gluten from forming. It also makes biscuits light and flaky). The blender should be pushed repeatedly at different angles while cleaning blades often. This should be continued until mixture is like coarse corn meal; almost all the milk should be rapidly stirred in with a fork. If flour is not completely absorbed, the remaining milk should be added, stirred and not beaten.
For drop biscuits the dough should be dropped by table spoonfuls on a greased cookie sheet. For shaped rolled biscuits or short cakes, the dough should be turned out on a floured surface, fold the dough over; and press out flat again. Repeat about ten times. It should then be rolled out to desired thickness keeping in mind that biscuits rise to double height in mind that biscuit rise to double height in baking. A metal cutter should be used to make rounds or cut the dough into squares with a knife.
In order to get biscuit with soft while sides, the sides should tough on the baking sheet, but for those with crusty sides, the biscuits are set on inch apart. The baking is done until top is dark – golden brown and crisp.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
From the results of the analysis obtained, it is obvious that biscuit of acceptable quality could be produced using different ratio mix of cassava flour. The optimum level of blends constituent with high nutritional quality is product B with small margarine added which played an important role is improving the taste and crispness. The level added could be reduced from 40% to 10% to produce an acceptable biscuit.
Problem of having a good batter was encountered in this work. It is either the batter become too soft or weak that removal from the mixing equipment or kneading poses a great problem. This may be overcome as in this work by reducing the amount of water added and or b y using wheat of farinography is recommended for preliminary determination of the appropriate water absorption and mixing time for commercial industries.
Biscuit Production – Cassava And Peanut Blend As Substitute For Wheat Flour
To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183
Then text the name of the Project topic, email address and your names to 08060565721.