ANYOR A. ALEXANDER (NCE, B.Sc)
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Assessment Of The Factors Influencing The Quantity Of Solid Waste Generation In Makurdi Urban Area
SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION.
1.2 Background to the Study
As the human population continues to increase, the quantity of solid waste generation continually to increase worldwide (Sridhar and Adeoye, 2003). The quantity of solid waste generation in various countries of the world depends largely on the population, socio-economic status of the citizens and kinds of commercial activities being predominant. The quantity of solid waste generated on the earth’s surface today is far greater than the one in the past years across the world. This is due to the increase in the world population along side with the socio-economic status. Countries with high population have high quantity of solid waste generation. The amount solid waste generated in the developing countries of the world is higher than the amount of solid waste generates in the developed world. This is because of high population experiencing in the developing countries. Developing countries have high population than the developed countries. Their population is high with low level of technology. It is however noted that population(human population) is the most determining factor that influence the quantity of solid waste generation worldwide. Also, developing countries of the world including Nigeria, lack efficient and modern technology for the management of the waste generated. Solid waste management practices are highly done in the developed countries than in the developing world due to their advancement in technology. In 2011, America generated about 250 million tones of trash and recycled solid waste. The amount of solid waste generated in Washington state increase steadily between 2006 and 2009 before decreasing in 2010 (Agunwamba et al,1998). Every where human beings are living, solid wastes are generated.
Solid waste can then be defined as non-liquid and non-gaseous products of human activities, regards as being useless. It could take the form of refuse, garbage and Sludgeb(Leton and Omotosho, 2004). Solid waste generation include all discards from home and businesses as well as waste from manufacturing, construction and environment cleanups. Solid wastes are either sent to a landfill such as recycling.
Cities in Nigeria, being among the fast growing cities in the world all faced with the problem of solid waste generation (Onibokun and Kumuyi, 1996). The implication is serious when a country is growing rapidly and the wastes are not efficiently managed. Waste generation in Nigeria has been a great concern both globally and locally. Of the different categories of wastes being generated, solid waste had posed a hydra-headed problem beyond the cope of various solid waste management systems in Nigeria (Geoffery, 2005) as the streets experience continually presence of solid waste from commercial activities.
Several factors influence the, solid waste generation in Nigeria. The quantity and generation rate of solid waste in Nigeria have increased at an alarming rate over years with lack of efficient and modern technology for the management of the waste. Therefore the quantity of solid waste generation in various states of Nigeria depends on the population, socio-economic status of the cities, kinds of commercial activities being predominant, lack of advanced technology and facility for separation at the source, among others. Abel (2009) showed that education, income and also socio-economic status are important factors influencing per-capita solid waste generation in Ogbomoso, Oyo state.
Nigeria having the population of over 120 million people, generates 0.58kg solid waste per person per day (Sridhar and Adeoye, 2003). The quantity of solid waste generate per person per day in some Nigerian cities has shown that Abeokuta generates 0.60kg/person/day, Ado-Ekiti in Ekiti state generates 0.71kg/person/day, Akure in Ondo State 0.54kg/person/day, Ile-ife in Osun Oyo State generates 0.74kg/person/day.
Makurdi town in Benue state has been experiencing high quantity of solid waste generation. It generates the highest quantity of solid waste in the state followed by Katsina-Ala town. The high quantity of solid waste generation in the town is influenced by a number of factors. It is on this background that the study intends to assess the factors influencing the quantity of solid waste in Makurdi town.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Benue State is today replete with high quantity of solid waste generation with low management practices. The factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation are seems to be human. Human being is therefore the most generator (producer) of solid waste in any part of the world. The consequences that may come out of the waste generated by human may turn to harm him.
In Makurdi urban area of Benue State, the quantity of solid waste generation has increased. This is due to a number of factors that influence it. This has made Makurdi urban area one of the cities in Nigeria, that generates highest quantity of solid waste.
Some researches have attempted to look at the evaluation of solid waste generation as well as effect of solid waste generation in Makurdi urban area but have failed to cover the assessment of the factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation in the area. Therefore, this study seeks to assess the factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation in Makurdi Urban Area. Therefore, this study seeks to assess the factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation in Makurdi urban area of Benue state.
1.3 Aim and objectives
The main aim of this study is to assess the factor influencing the quantity of solid waste generation in Makurdi Urban Area of Benue State. Specifically the study will focus on the following objectives.
i. To determine the degree of extent of solid waste generation in the study area.
ii. To assess the factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation in Makurdi Urban Area.
iii. To examine the effect of solid waste generation on Human being in the study area.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions
i. What is the degree of extent of solid waste generation in the study area?
ii. What are the factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation in Makurdi urban area?
iii. What are the effects of solid waste generation on human being in the study.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will be significant such that it will enable to determine the degree of extent of solid waste generation in the study area. It will also enable the inhabitants of the study area to be aware of the factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation so as to minimize the high quantity being experienced in the area.
The study will also help to examine the effect of solid waste generated in the study area on human being so as to prevent it for future occurring. Finally the knowledge that will be gained from this study will be documented to serve as a fundamental knowledge for future related studies.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study.
The content scope of this study will be the assessment of the factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation in the Makurdi Urban Area. However, solid waste collection and management may not form part of the study due to time and financial constraints.
Also, the geographical scope of the study will include six major areas of Makurdi Urban Area. They include Wurukum, North Bank, High level, Modern Market, Gyado Villa and the new established International Market. Meanwhile, Nyiman, Wadata, among others may not form part of the study based on the same reason stated above.
1.7 Study Area
Makurdi Urban Area is located at latitude 70 471 and 100 01 North and longitude 60251 and 8081 East of the Equator It is bound by Guma Local Government to the South-West and Doma Local Government Area of Nassarawa State to the North-East. It is situated in the Benue State valley on the bank of river Benue. The town is strategically located on the North-South transportation network by road and by rail respectively.
The excess water in Makurdi Urban Area is removed by river Benue which is the major source of drainage in the area. Other streams which also contribute to the removal of excess water (drainage) in the area include Mu, Oludu, among others.
1.73 Soil and Land Use
The predominant soil in Makurdi Urban Area is Fadama (hydromorphic soil) which can be used for the cultivation of rice. Another part of soil in the town is clay which is used by burnt bricks industries. The land use in Makurdi is predominated by buildings of houses, market and shops.
1.7.4 People and Settlement
The type of settlement in Makurdi urban area is nucleated. The buildings are clustered to each other, with a good lay-out. People in Makurdi come from different tribes such as Tiv, Idoma, Igede, Housa, Fulani, Etulo, Jukun, among others while Tiv forms the majority followed by Idoma.
1.7.5 Economic Activities
The people of Makurdi urban area are predominantly civil servants, business men and women, traders and farmers of tropical crops. Other forms of occupation found in this area are hunting, fishing, in the river Benue, carving, among others. These are carried in full time and part time basis.
2.0 SECTION TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
This section will deal with the review of literature under various sub-headings such as the concept of solid waste, factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation, effects of solid waste generation and the control measures.
Some authors such as Idodo-umeh(2006), Iwena (2010), Michael (2008), Abel (2009), Leton and Omotosho (2004), among others have written much about solid waste generation in the particular areas of the world as can be seen below.
2.2 The Concept of Solid Waste
Solid waste simply refers to the unwanted hard materials that are produced as a result of human activities in the area. Solid waste exists every where human beings operate (Ajayi, 2003)
Similarly to the above view, Leton and Omotosho(2004) defined solid waste as non-liquid and non-gaseous products of human activities, regarded as being useless. It could take the form of refuse, garbage and sludge (Leton and Omotosho,2004).
In another view, Iwena (2010) did not define solid waste but mentioned the examples of solid waste and the places where there are found. According to Iwena (2010) Examples of solid waste include broken bottles, glasses and plastics. He further stated that solid wastes are produced by man in the manufacturing industries, breweries, hotels, plastic manufacturing industries, home and offices.
In a related development, Ogbonna et-al (2002) pointed out that, solid waste generation include all discarded materials from homes and businesses as well as waste from manufacturing, constructing and environmental cleanups. Solid wastes are either sent to a landfill such as recycling.
Going by the views of the above authors the study deduces and adds that solid wastes are hard in nature. They are produced in the factories, in the homes, offices, churches, schools and everywhere human being lives. Human beings are the chief generators or producers of solid waste. The study also adds that sewage and refuse are part of the solid waste. Refuse when decay can act as manure to the crops.
2.3 Factors Influencing the Quantity of Solid Waste Generation
Several factors are responsible for influencing the quantity of solid waste generation in any given area. The quantity of solid waste generation increases as a result of changes that take place in the environment where man is in control. Man is the greatest generator of solid waste in the environment on the earth’s surface.
Ogbonna et-al (2002) mentioned a number of factors that influence the quantity of solid waste generation in Nigeria to include lack of advanced technology and facility for separation at the source, strength of solid waste management policy and enforcement, environmental education and awareness, income status of the individual, among others. These factors determine the quantity and even the rate of solid waste generation in the area (Ogbonna, 2003).
Similarly, Sridhar and Adeoye (2003), stated that the quantity of solid waste generation in various state of Nigeria depends on population, socio-economic status of the cities and kinds of commercial activities being predominant. He says population is the greatest determining factor of solid waste generation in any part of the world.
Adewami et-al (2005) agree with the view of Sridher and Adeoye (2003) which says population is the most determining factor of solid waste generation. They add that, Nigeria having the population of 120 million people, generate 0.58kg per person per day. They further give the breakdown of solid waste generates by some cities in Nigeria to include:
Abeokuta in Ogun state generates 0.60kg/person/day.
Ado-Ekiti in Ekiti 0.71kg/person/day.
Akure in Osun state generates 0.71kg/person/day.
Ile Ife in Osun state generates 0.46kg/person/day.
Ibadan in Oyo 0.74kg/person/day.
Also, about 55200kg/person/day of solid waste were estimated to be generated in the traditional city in Oyo state (Abel, and Afolabi, 2007). Another source (GEO, 2000), consider the population of Lagos to be 10.3 million report the waste generation of 37 million tones per year for Lagos in 1994 and 40kg/capital/year for Ibadan in 1997.
Considering the population of Kano 1.4 million Lewvcork (1994) gave an estimate of total solid waste generated in the city as 456 tones per day.
According to Onibokun and Kumuyi (1996), cities in Nigeria, being among the fast growing cities in the world all faced with the problem of solid waste generation. The implication is serious when a country is growing rapidly and the wastes are not efficiently managed.
Geoffery (2005) maintained that, “of the different categories of waste being generated, solid waste had posed a hydra-head problem beyond the cope of various solid waste management systems in Nigeria as the streets experience continual presence of solid waste from commercial activities.
Abel (2009) agrees with the view of Ogbonna (2002) and make it peculiar that education, income and social status are the important factors influencing per-capita solid waste generation in Ogbomoso, Oyo State.
The study has deduced that, the quantities of solid waste generation in most parts of the world are dependent on the type of activities practiced by the inhabitants of the place. These activities include food production, timber harvesting, trading, farming, among others. Each of these activities produces by-products in the solid form which can be termed solid waste. Some of the solid waste are biodegradable (decay with the aid of decaying-organism) while others are non-biodegradable(can not decay). Degradable solid waste influences the environment both positively and negatively.
2.4 Effect of Solid waste Generation on Human
Waste generation scenario in Nigeria has been a great concern both globally and locally. Human is the greatest producer of solid waste and on the other hand bear the consequences that may come out of it. Solid waste generation in the environment exposes the environment including man to a lot of negative effects as can be seen below:
Michael (2008) observed that solid waste produces refuse and sewage that cause pollution of the environment. Refuse and sewage cause pollution of the environment by producing offensive odour to the environment when they decay. Solid waste can also cause respiratory disorder to human beings (Michael 2008). Micheal (2008) further maintained that sewage as a product of solid serves as a breeding ground for pathogens which cause diseases to the humans and even death.
In a related view, Idodo-umeh (2006) maintained that solid waste (sewages) may contain the eggs of worms such as those of the round worms. Man becomes infected on eating food contaminated with infected soil. Idodo-umeh also pointed out that the sinking odour resulting from decay causes discomfort and nose irritation.
In another view Iwena (2010) says broken bottles, glasses and plastics produced in the manufacturing industries, breweries, hotels, plastic manufacturing industries, homes and offices can cause serious body injuries if mis-handled or stepped. He further stated that these solid wastes may render the land difficult land to cultivate, occupy farming space and may contain water where mosquitoes breed. The breeding of mosquito can cause malaria in the place which is a killer disease to man. Solid waste also causes flooding in particular areas as they block the drainage channels.
2.5 Control of Solid Waste Generation
Iwena (2010) maintained that broken glasses and broken bottles should be gathered and recycled by glass manufacturing companies. Broken glasses and bottles at homes be gathered in a special place and sent to glass manufacturing industries for recycling (Iwena, 2010).
Idodo-umeh (2006) said, sewage should be properly treated before disposal or recycling. Indiscriminate passing of excreta must be avoided in order to serve the nature from the bad effect of solid waste.
According to Michael (2008), refuse which is a product of solid waste should be properly burnt or buried. Legislation should be made by government against dumping of harmful or toxic wastes (Michael, 2008).
SECTION THREE: METHODOLOGY
This section will describe that procedure that would be employed to obtain data under the various sub-headings such as Data needs and sources, population of the study, sample size/sampling technique, Data collection methods and Data analysis.
3.2 Data Needs and Source.
3.2.1 Objective One: To determine the degree of extent of solid
waste generation in the study area
To achieve this objective, the following information will be needed thus:
(i) High quantity of solid waste
(ii) Low quantity of solid waste
(iii) Moderate quantity of solid waste
These information are the variables and they will be obtained from the households hrough questionnaire, personal observation and oral interview.
3.2.2 Objective Two: To assess the factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation in the Makurdi Urban Area.
To achieve this objective, theses information will be required.
Socio-economic status of the area
Commercial activities being predominant
Lack of advanced technology
Also the above information will be obtained from the households through questionnaire, oral interview and personal observation.
3.2.3 Objective Three: To examine the effect of solid waste generated on human being in the study area
These information will include:
Pollution of environment
Disease outbreak e.g. Tuberculosis, Pneumonia
Creation of breading space for Mosquitoes
Causing of injuries
The above information will be obtained from the households in the six selected areas of Makurdi Town.
3.3 Population of Study
The population of study will include all the residents of the six selected areas of Makurdi town totaling about 1400.
3.4 Sample Size/Sampling Technique
The study will use Taro Yamane formula to determine the sample size that will represent the study area. A total of 338 respondents will be sampled randomly across the study area.
Data Collection Methods
The study will use the following methods to collect data from the field.
This is a set of carefully designed questions to be answered by the respondents on the related topic. The questionnaire will be closed-ended which will be divided into four sections. Section one; addresses the personal information of the respondents, sections two treats the degree of extent of solid waste generation, section three; treats the factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation while section four; will address the effect of solid waste generation on human being in the study area.
The questionnaire will be distributed to 338 respondents across the study area using random sampling technique. It is expected that all the 338 copies of questionnaire to be distributed will return.
Oral interview will be conducted by the researcher to those who may be unable to read and write. The questions to be asked during oral interview will be the native of the questionnaire.
Personal observation will be carried by the researcher as he will be going round to distribute questionnaire in the study area.
The data to be obtained from the field will be analyzed using descriptive statistics technique such as frequency tables and percentages.
SUB-SECTION THREE: CONCLUSION
Anticipation of Result.
The following results will be obtained during the full completion of the study.
i. That the quantity of solid waste generation in Makurdi Urban Area is very high. It is found in large quantities in the residential houses, on the main streets, in the offices, business places, among others.
ii. That the major factors influencing the quantity of solid waste generation in Makurdi urban area include population, illiteracy, socio-economic status of the individual and commercial activities.
iii. That the effect of solid waste generation on the human being in the study area include environmental pollution, diseases outbreak, creation of breeding space for mosquitoes and causing of injuries when stepped on.
Based on the result anticipated above, the study will conclude that solid waste generation in Makurdi Urban Area is very high in quantity. The high quantity of solid waste in Makurdi Urban Area is influenced by human population, illiteracy, socio-economic status of the individual of the area and commercial activities. The study will further make it clear that population (human) is the greatest factor influencing the quantity of solid waste generation in the study area. It is humans that bring other factors. Due to the high quantity of solid waste generation in the town, the town is exposed to environmental pollution, disease outbreak such as cholera, typhoid, Tuberculoses, among others. This makes Makurdi Urban Area very dirty which make the area unconducive for living.
Abel, O.A (2009): Analysis of Solid Waste Generation in Traditional African City; the Example of Ogbomoso, Nigeria; Environment and Urbanization; SAGE Journal, 19(2); 527-537.
Abel, O.A and Afolabi,O (2007); Estimating the Quantity of Solid Waste Generation in Oyo, Nigeria Management and Resource; SAGE Journal 25(4): 371-379
Adewuji, J.C et-al (1998); Solid Waste Management Onistsha and Research, 16 (11): 23:31
Aina, O.M (2006): Wood Utilization for Energy Generation Proceeding of the International Conference on Revenue Energy for Developing Countries,2006.
Idodo-Umeh (2006); College Biology; Beni-city Idodo-Umeh Publishers.
Leton, T.G and Omotosho, O (2004): Land fill Operation in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria: Engineering Geology 73(1-2), 171-177
Michael M..C. (2008): Essential Biology for Senior Secondary Schools, Lagos, Tonad Publishers Ltd.
Sha’Ato et-al (2006): Survey of Solid Waste Generation and Composition in Rapidly Growing Urban Area in Central Nigeria. Waste Management 27(3): 352 – 358