Adolescent Problems And Their Counseling Strategies In Enugu State

Adolescent Problems And Their Counseling Strategies In Nkanu East Local Government Area Of Enugu State

Adolescent Problems And Their Counseling Strategies In Nkanu East Local Government Area Of Enugu State

Human development and changes in the word today are forcing mankind everywhere to accept that there is a necessity for studying the problems of adolescents, if we are to understand them and their behaviour.

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The adolescent period has been of great interest to people of all ages. This is because the period represents a dramatic physical, psychological and socio-adaptation changes in the growing child from my personal experience.

Adolescence has been viewed in different ways: as a period in physical development, as a transition period, as a socio-cultural phenomenon, as a chronological age span, as a state of mind or even behavioural terms, as an attitude toward life. Adolescence is a psychophysical and psycho-social period during which most young persons adjust to radical changes in their bodies, out grow the psychological response of child hood and begin to acquire behaviour most adults use with varying degree of sources; as a transition or link between childhood and adult stage. On the other hand an adolescent is not an adult because he can not stand totally an his own for all the needs of life like a matured adult.

Obviously, an age range of adolescence chronologically are as follows; pre adolescence 10-12 years, early adolescence 13-15 years, and late adolescence 17-21 years. This chronological expression may be distorting because neither psychological nor biological development proceeds at the same rate in all individual. However, they serve as point of reference for certain useful purpose. A Nigerian adolescent may be conceptualized as a normal growing child who may or may not during the transitional period experience certain threats, ambivalence, stresses and possible anxieties and conflicts. This may depend on the socio-economic status of the parents, conduciveness of the environment in which he/she as reared. This is a period when frustration and conflict are generated on hetero-sexual interest, a period which the aggressive and rebellious tendencies become manifest because of the eliciting influence of the sex hormones and rapid changes in the body composition. The Nigerian adolescents are not different from their western counter parts. The Nigerian adolescents are complaining about the inconsistencies in our society.

According to Agoi, J.T.T. (1986) maintained that youths are complaining bitterly and condemning the society for inconsistencies and instability of ideas at the stage of their life, interest is heightened in such social vices such as cigarette smoking, alcoholism and cheating stealing which they call tapping in school, also they indulges in excessive drug addiction, suicide and cause nuisance to their environment. They are interested in riding bicycles, motorbike, cars, with its accompanying high rate of accident and loss of life.

The Nigerian adolescents desperately search for identity, models, the society tends to worsen the adolescents plight by complicating their problems. There are many acts of indiscipline and corruption at all levels; there is a mad rush for money at the expense of other persons. Most of the adults are not showing the right examples. The values of Nigerian society are not rightly set at present. Many modifications are necessary. There is the need to reorganized the government and society so that people could do the right thing at all time. The parents keep on complaining about the unruliness of the adolescents and their awkward behaviour. The question parents failed to ask themselves is whether they have prepared these young stars to face the pressures in society. All the above features of our contemporary society increase the great. Entangling puzzles in which the adolescents find themselves in our society. The must be salvaged. They should not be allowed to parish or stay-off: We must all be concerned about their education in general, and in leading them to solve their problems in particular. Nigerian adolescents needs assistance for a great number of things. They are concerned with educational problems. Social problems, problems arising from lack of skills, they need to understand themselves and others and also need information to plan their future careers. Guidance and counseling of adolescents problems is an integral cost effective component in the education and process aimed at curbing wastage of talents and enhancing appropriate and personal adjustment.

Guidance is seen as a formulized educational service aimed at helping the individual as a unique person to understand himself well enough to be able to make appropriate decision for himself. These decisions may include educational choices, occupational interest and the solution of personal and social problems.

The term counseling is on act of assistance when a person is in difficulty and seeks out some one in who he has confidence for advice and guidance, a situation exist for counseling, it is a very common situation of older individuals, less successful persons seek the advise of more successful person. Although, the situation for counseling, where one person seeks the advice of another is very common, but the expertise for giving appropriated advise is not common. Counseling is not just on act of advising or guiding another person which is a common function performed by parents, teachers, doctors and others in our society. The act of counseling depends so much on specific knowledge, understanding, skills, attitudes and values at the counselor. Obviously, counseling as to do with person to person relationship in which one person helps another to resolve on area of conflict that has not been hither to resolved. The helper in the relationship is by virtue of his training and experience, a counselor who attempts to assist the student (client) in becoming on independent person capable of resolving his conflict situation. Conflict is refer to any block that the adolescents is experiencing in his/her development. Conflict areas include conflict with others, with self, lack of information about self and environment. Also lack of knowledge and personal achievement or advancement.

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Statement of the Problem

The statement of the problem of this research work is to identify problems associated with adolescents people and their counseling strategies in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu state.

Purpose of the Study

This study is meant to examine some major adolescents problems and their counseling strategies specifically, this study sought to,

1. Identify some psychological problems of the adolescents.

2. Examine the sociological problems of the adolescents.

3. Determine the economic problems related to the physical development of the adolescents.

4. Proffer counseling strategies to be used in solving problems of the adolescents.

Significance of the Study

The significance of this study is to enable parents, communities, teachers and the government; to understand the psychological problems of adolescents sociological problems their economic problems related to the physical development of the adolescent. Also to proffer counseling strategies to be used in solving problems of the adolescents to enable the adolescents to adjust to their responsibilities, having the prerequisite and requisite knowledge of their mental health and to eliminate negative curiosity of their social life.

Scope of the Study

The scope of the study are geared towards ascertaining the adolescents problems and their counseling strategies in Nkanu East local government area of Enugu state.

Research Question

The study will attempt to answer the following question:

1. What are the psychological problems of the adolescents?

2. What are the sociological problems of the adolescents?

3. What are the economic problems that relate to the physical development of the adolescents?

4. What are the counseling strategies to be used in solving problems of the adolescents?

Literature Review

Concept of Adolescence

The concept adolescence is not easy to define. The explanation of the terms is generally based on the various theories and different methods of inquiry into the concept. Chauhan (1981) noted that it is the most important stage of human life. According to Chauhan adolescence comes from a Greek world ‘Adolscere meaning “to grow into maturity”. The implication of this definition is that adolescence is a process of growth and development during which time the individual learns the attitudes, skills, and beliefs of the society so as to function within the society.

Laymen tend to use the terms teenager in place of adolescence but Muuss (1975) pointed out that teenager is used only for children between the age of thirteen to nineteen Rogers D (1972) pointed out that definitions of adolescence fall into categories. Adolescence as a period of physical development, as a socio-cultural phenomenon, and as a way of life or a state of mind. Biologist defined adolescence as the period between puberty and the termination of physical all growth. Other terms associated with and some time equated wrongly with adolescence are ‘puberty’ and ‘pubsescence’. Puberty is derived from a latin word ‘pubertas’ meaning the age of manhood, while ‘pubescence is derived from a latin word ‘pubescere’ meaning ‘to grow hairy or to reach puberty.

According to Ausubel (1954) pubscene refers to only the biological and physiological changes connected with sexual maturation. The above analysis implies that adolescence is a broader concept that refers not just to the biological and physiological changes indicating sexual maturation but also to changes in behaviour and social status. Stone and church (1973) affirmed that puberty is the point at which sexual maturity is reached while pubescence is therefore the period of physiological development when the reproductive organs are matured to perform their natural function. Pubescence is witnessed by all species. At pubescence the secondary sex characteristics appear and the sex organs are physically mature pubescence is equated with early adolescence and with the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and reproductive maturity. (Muuss 1975).

The onset of pubescence is ascertained by the following physiological changes which occur in a sequence that remain farily constant for all individuals. For the girls there are skeletal growth, breast development, straight pigmented, public hair, maximum annual growth increment, kinky pigmented public hair. Boys on the other hand witness skeletal growth, and enlargement of testis, straight pigmented public hair, maximum annual growth increment, (growth spurt), appearance of downy facial hair, auxiliary hair, late voice change coarse pigmented facial hair and chest hair. The term adolescence refers to the transitional period between childhood and maturity. It is also used to denoted the physical, psychological and social development and maturation that take place.

Theoreticians tends to define adolescence as the total of all adjustments to changes and conditions beginning with puberty. They stress that puberty is a part of adolescence encompasses more than physical or sexual development. The necessity to cope with conditions of puberty brings forth a variety of modes of tension release, gratification and defense in the individual for the sometimes unusual behaviour frequently cited by adults as the major characteristics of this age. Adolescence as defined by Iwuma (1991) is a transition period between childhood and adult hood. It refers to the physiological and psychological characteristics dominant between puberty and maturity physical and sexual maturation as evidenced by change in both the primary and secondary sex characteristics results in shifts in attitude toward the proper masculine and famine sex role. Adolescence stage is a period when a child has to learn the task of co-operating and accepting opposite sex. Grinder (1978) defined the concept of adolescence as a period of storm and stress.

Adolescence includes searching for emotional, social, and economics independence. It is a time for individual to operate at a more mature and complex level, the ability to give as well as to get, to communicate with others and to trust them, and to learn what is harmful and what is good for themselves and others. Some authors have sought to define adolescence in concept associated with psychological identity. For example. Learner (1986) defines it as a social process through which a clear and stable self identification is established or as the process of identification completed if and when the adolescent loses childhood identification to a new kind of identification, achieved in absorbing sociability and incompetitive apprenticeship with and among his age mates.

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Adolescence Perspective

Adolescence has been from the following perspectives;

Sociologically, this is a transition period from depended childhood to self-sustaining and sufficient adulthood. Physiologically, adolescence is a stage when the individual is able to assume reproductive roles and reproductive maturity which varies from one individual to another individual. Legally, adolescence is when the individual attains the right to sue and be sued, vote and be voted for in an election, to drop out of school the right to marry and be fully employed. According to Muuss (1975) he said that it depends on the convention prevailing in the particular society. Psychologically, adolescence could be define in terms of the degree to which adjustment is made and to which emotional and financial independence is reached. Chronologically, the period varied from culture to culture. The more industrialized the society becomes the more prolonged the age becomes while the more primitive the society becomes the less the chronologically age bracket. Mentally, adolescence is when the individual is able to carry out the following metal function. Logical reasoning, abstract think, increased understanding, ability to generalized facts and increased independent decision and reversibility (Mgboro 2004)

Problems OF Adolescence

There are so many problems facing adolescent. These problems are dynamic and not static possibly because of the nature of the society (culture). What is means is that the problems facing adolescents are partially culture-bound. The following adolescents problems will be discussed under this heading.

Psychological Problems of Adolescence

Psychology is old as human beings. In the traditional society, psychology was more of the application of common sense of the individual to ones situation. Omebe and Mgboro (2001) said that psychology is a study of the individual’s behaviour and thinking from the time, before birth through maturity, to old age; it compares and constrasts the normal and abnormal human beings. Psychological adolescence stage is the stage when new adjustment must be made. It is a period of learning process. The adolescents learns to adjust to the complex series of social roles excepted of him to which emotion al independence is reached.

The adolescents have psychological problems because at this period the adolescents think how to make new adjustment in order to live a happy life in the society, the adolescent learn to adjust to the complex series of social roles expected of him during adulthood. The adolescent also thinks how to reached his emotional and financial independent. Auusiem (1987) noted that where, the nurturance, affection and expectation of adult behaviour are clear the adolescent might witness little storm and stress. This implies that some adolescents that are not well trained have more problem of adjustment. At this period the adolescent like to know who he is, what he want to be in life and where he comes from. Inability of the adolescent to answer these questions will bring about the problem of self doubt, role confusion and diffusion which will lead to the adolescents being self destructive, lack of identity, which can also lead to withdrawal and lack of concern for oneself and others. Waterman, Geary and waterman (1974) discovered that most adolescent completed their collage years in the identity diffusion status.

Muuss (1975) pointed out that lack of commitment brings out role diffusion or confusion.

Marcia and Friedman (1970) discovered that the identity confused adolescents does not always want stressful task, he has low self esteem experiences more difficulty in interpersonal relationship because adolescent can not resolve it identity crises (that is ‘who they are’) they get lost in confusion about the roles they are to play as they get older.

(Muuss 1988). He further noted that identity diffused adolescents generally come from broken homes. Different family structures determine the level of adjustment in adolescence or even in ego development before adolescence. In authoritative families the authoritarian parent have little or no interaction with their children, they do not provide social support for the children, such children become more confused hence they lack sense of personal identity. The fathers identify achieved adolescent according to learner (1986) are more relaxed and less controlling. The adolescents struggle to free themselves from the dependence on their parent and to adjust to the social roles expected of them during adulthood. Inability of adolescent to acquired these will leads to role confusion and diffusion, some adolescents commit suicide

Sociological Problems of the Adolescent

There is diversity in definition of sociology among different authors. It is variously defined as the science of society, the scientific study of social behaviour of human beings; the study of human group life or the study of social relation or in situation (Mberu 1999). Adolescents sociological problems are the problem of unability to support oneself, the problem from depended childhood to self-sustaining and sufficient adulthood, the problem of social, personal, sexual, religious, political and vocational adjustment and emotional independence from parents. Konner (1977) and Bowlby (1978) agrees that several differences in social behaviour of adolescents are related to parent adolescent interaction. Adolescents becomes more aware of their attitudes toward themselves. This awareness of their attitudes, inturn, is reflected in their social behaviour. They strive to attain approval from those of the same sex as well as from those of the opposite sex. The emotional tensions that attend these adjustments often cause adolescents to be anxious, in sechre fearful and suspicious of others.

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Kandel (1986) observed that issues and concerns of immediate relevance to adolescent’s life, example drug, sex alcohol and peers play or crucial role while parents are more effective in influencing the choice of religions, future aspirations for instance choice of occupation. He also noted that sometimes biological changes in adolescence may leads to behavioural and adjustment problems.

Adolescent tries to learn the task of co-operating with and accepting the opposite sex. Unsuccessful attempt to solve the problem of co-operating and accepting the opposite sex will lead to neurosis. The problem is worsened when the adolescent child is unable to learn the task of freeing himself from depending in his parents. The parent might therefore interfere with the selection of a heterosexual partner. The major cause of social and personality maladjustment according to pscholandystic psychologists are temporal separation and permanent loss of attachment figures (Bowlby 1978). Adolescents like to form and maintain close relationship with opposite sex, being partners in friendship, completing and cooperating with others. When the individual does not learn these vital social skills, it leads to isolation. Adolescent want to be recognized and to be important. He or she craves to achieve adult status by smoking cigarette, wearing highheel shoes, putting shoulder pads and bogus dress; they wants to be recognized indecision making by the school authorities without which there would be rits (Mgboro and Omebe 2002). A child is born with some potential, what happen to the potential which children are born with depends on their experience while growing up. The experience adolescents encounter while growing up shape here personality (Omebe and Mgboro 2002). The adolescents fear for social inadequacy, fear of adequate sexual development and fear of sexual guilt. The adolescent have sex and sexuality as a problem; consider a situation parents fell adolescents that masturbation is bas; moreover, as a child you were not to touch your genital.

On the other hand school sex education books says that masturbation is normal and you can examine your genitals. The situation brings mixed feelings to adolescents. The effects of the above problems is usually sexual dysfunction (Derlege, Winstead and Jones, 1991). According to them dysfunction is a cognitive emotional and behavioural issue, hence sexual guilt, anxiety and inability to function sexually result from the conflicting view and social forces in the society. Sexual anxieties includes performance anxiety result from fear of the acceptability of sex. This fear can be carried into marriage life of the individual. Such fear leads to personality problems.

Economics problems that relate to the physical development of the adolescents.

Development is refers to qualitative increase in the nature and organization of the organisms structure and behaviour.

Anusiem (1987) define it as a qualitative increase in an individual potentialities and physiology. Personality development is a product of maturation and experience. Omebe and Mgboro (2002) observed that the socio-economics status of the family determine whether the child takes balance diet, has good education and cared for. They point out that this affects the physical development of the adolescents. The type of food on individual takes determines to a great extent the time on individual will be matured. So much carbohydrate especially during childhood most likely will result stunted growth and reduces the rate of sexual maturity while proteinious food and balance diet will accelerate the development of sexual maturity. The whole personality of an individual depend on physical balanced diet to be provide for adolescent, but in a situation it is lacking in the family it leads to stunted growth and poor physical development of children. When a mother was unable to attended parental care it also affect the childs growth and physical development.

The adolescent thought he or she has given up, he want to live or imitate his or her father or mother he or she wants to buy cloths and takes care of her girl friend and take’s her out she want to do thing by her or his self, and this may leads the adolescent to stealing, robbering and during so many things to meet up.

Counseling Strategies to be used in solving Problems of the Adolescents.

Strategies is a plan that is intended to achieve a particular purpose, it is process of planning some time or carrying out a plan in a skillful way. A skills is a particular knowledge of understanding which distinguish the individual as the expert in accomplishing a particular task, skills are attributes and embedded in techniques,

Roll (198) defined techniques in general as a specific procedure and skills employed by counselor in securing objective. Aubrey (1979) define skill as competencies of counseling. Rational emotive technique which was proponent by Alvertsllis states that irrational and illogical ideas held and perpetuated by individual leads to self defeat and neurosis Ellis (1962).

The following conunselling strategies are useful for solving problems of adolescent.

Cognitive Restructuring

Krumboltz and Thoresen (1969) defined cognitive restructuring as a techniques design to help the counselle know himself and his environment so that he might act more appropriately in future problem. Cognitive restructuring therefore attempts to teach the adolescent how to reduce negative emotional reactions by getting him into interpret situation with greater accuracy. Adolescents thinking can be logical or illogical. Irrationality thinking in adolescents can be restructured through cognitive restructuring, the counselor do this by removing these illogical ideas and replacing them with logical ideas. Cognitive restructuring could make use of confrontation and self control.

Adolescent Problems And Their Counseling Strategies In Nkanu East Local Government Area Of Enugu State

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