Academic Performance – Influence Of Self-concept On Secondary School Students

Academic Performance – Influence Of Self-concept  On Secondary School Students In Umuahia Local Government Area Of Abia State

Academic Performance – Influence Of Self-concept  On Secondary School Students In Umuahia Local Government Area Of Abia State

During the past decade, the issue of self-concept has received increased attention in educational and psychological literature.

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Educationists and psychologists have generally agreed that self-concept has a pervasive influence on the child’s total development Bledsoe, (1964).

Until the 1980’s, self-concept and other areas of attentive development received little systematic emphasis from educationist in Nigeria. The current emphasis on affective education and personal development however suggested the need for more efficient use of staff, time and resources to promote the affective growth and adjustment of students. The term self-concept is primarily cognitive. It directs, controls and determines individual’s behaviour through what Cogers (1951) described as congruence between self as perceived and the actual experience of what constitutes the self. In congruence, between self and organism makes the individual feel threatened and organism makes the individual as a rational being has a view of what he is.

Man’s view of himself is unique to him, though it could be influenced by others view. Since the an individual has about himself or how e perceive himself is generally regarded as self-concept. It is therefore important to recognize and accommodate the existence of individual’s own unique cognitive style. Brookover, W. is and Patterson, A. (1964). A psychologist made a point that an individual’s nature and welfare is important to the nation as well as the individual, therefore the individual’s own unique cognitive style is what is known as self-concept.

Coming to the academic performance of students particularly in sciences is still at the low rate or lowest ebb, only few students nowadays could make up to five credits at one sitting. The introduction of National Examination Council (NECO) examination has not saved matters as one would have expected, rather many students seems to be satisfied since they know that they have several opportunities to write West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) examinations. Some simply dropout of school and take to anti-social activities which threatens the survival of the society. Okoye (1987) argued that our self-concept level and will-power determines how we perceive and tackle a given problem or learning task, e further said that people with low self-concept associate weak will-power make the learners finally end up school dropout and truants. Although self-concepts are not most or reality, they are correlated with the outcome that a person has obtained throughout the past and expects to obtain in the future, and they influence what the future, and they influence what the future becomes. Mischel (1993).

Statement of the Problem

The problem of this study is to find out whether or not self-concept in its various forms have any influence on academic performance among secondary school students; because some students, however refused to be convinced that their success in academic achievement depends on their level of high self-concept.

Educationists and psychologists agreed that self-concept has a pervasive influence on child’s total development. A child’s basic need to belong is reflected in his self-concept and a teacher has great opportunity to affect the way a child meets his need for belonging through his behaviour. Franke. (1975) noted that behaviour is a reflection of a person’s self-concept.

The secondary school students’ irrespective of academic problem are faced with the crisis of knowing about themselves, having a negative self-concept and being able to answer some philosophical questions like who am I? what will I be in the future; what type of life style am I expected to pursue and how can I reach my goal? Crises ensure about these secondary school students psychological perception of themselves and their views about other people think of them base on their self-concept.

It is worthy of note that some secondary school students even in an enriched and stimulating environment perform poorly in their academic work. The issue of under achievement has been assigned to it and one of the assumed causes is negative self-concept. Students with positive self concept are those that show optimum about their potential for success in future, they are competent in competence and they believe in working hard, setting realistic goals and at the end of their programme they pass with good grades. The negative self-concept ones are unable to accept praise, unwilling to accept blame, have negative expectations towards competition, they are the type which achieve nothing after the end of their program. Durojaiye (1978) a person who has a positive self-concept thinks about his successes and good qualities while negative self-concept person thinks his failures and his inadequacies.

Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to examine the influence of self-concept on academic performance of students in secondary schools. Specifically, therefore, the purpose of this study is;

1 To determine the influence of self-concept on students’ performance in internal examination

2 To determine the influence of self-concept on students’ performance in external examination.

3 To determine the influence of self-concept on students’ performance in their ability to do their take home assignment

4 To determine the influence of self concept on student’s performance in their ability to do their practical work.

Significance of the Study

The result of this research would go a long way in making the authorities concerned to continue with the importance of self-concept. If the assumptions are proved, it would help in realizing the importance of self-concept as a tool for academic performance in secondary school. In this study the students would be able to assume more responsibility for assessing learning process and outcomes, when students are able to gain more knowledge, understanding what is being taught by the teachers, the performance of student will be high and the teachers also will gain also in the sense that they will be excited to do more. This study will help to discover that higher self concept is necessary in secondary school students academic performance in school.

Scope of the Study

This study covers the influence of self-concept on academic performance of secondary school students in Umuahia Local Government Area of Abia State. In term of scope and content, the study covered the influence of self-concept on student performance in internal, external, ability to do assignment and practical in secondary school students in Umuahia Local Government Area of Abia State.

Research Questions

a. How does self-concept influence academic performance of students in internal examination?

b. How does self-concept influence academic performance of students in external examination?

c. How does self-concept influence academic performance of students in their ability to do assignment correctly?

d. How does self-concept influence academic performance of students in their ability to do their practical work?

LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter deals with review of related literature under the following subheadings;

 Introduction

 Definition of self-concept

 Self-concept and Academic performance

 Physical self-concept and Academic performance

 Psychological self-concept and Academic Performance

 Social self-concept and Academic Performance

Introduction

Not long ago, there has been an interest among psychologists on the concept of ‘self. A pioneer psychologist William as cited by Hall and Lindzey (1967) defined the ‘self’ as the empirical ‘Me’ he discusses the self under headings:

(1) The individual constituents (2) Self-feeling and (3) The action of self seeking and self preservation. Much of what is written today about the self and the ego comes directly or indirectly from William. According to Hall and Lindzey (1967) terms ‘self’ as used in modern psychology possess two distinct meaning namely

1. The individual attitude and feeling

2. A group psychological processes which govern behaviour and adjustment.

In this regard, Iwuji (1996) indicated that psychologists agree that self is a very significant factor in behaviour. Additionally, she sees self as the most important single factor affecting behaviour including learning and it is the factor that gives consistency and stability to behaviour.

Again, Hall and Linzey identified self as the empirical ‘the’. They rightly pointed out that the self falls into the individual constituents, self-feelings and the action of self-seeking and self-preservation.

Rogers (1951), stresses that self among others, develops out of the organizations, interaction with the environment, strives for consistency, may change as a result of maturation and learning. Juesild (1952), illustrates a person’s self as the sum to total of all he can call his. The self includes among other things, a system of ideas, attitudes, values and commit. It is the distinctive centre of experience and significance. The self constitute a person’s inner world as distinguishes from the outer world consisting of all other people and things. In education today, problems arises partly from the misconstrued self-images of students which may be remotely associated with the realities above themselves, it becomes necessary to see if their self-concept can be changed by manipulation of their environments. Sometimes these changes are affected by the children themselves by appreciating the gaps or differences existing between what they think they are and what they actually are. The set of feelings and cognition about oneself can be termed as one’s self-concept.

Definition Of Self-concept

Self-concept is being used to encompass various terms. Jegede (1983) rightly pointed out that various authors have tended to use different terminologies such as self-esteem (cooper smith 1959, Franken 1975) self-image (Hausa 1971) identity (Erikson, 1963-1968) self perception (Akinboye, 1982). Accordingly, self-concept is the reflection of an individual’s behaviour. Self-concept also comprises among other like; self-image, self-acceptance, self-perception, self-identity and self-worth. Denga (1986) maintains that self-concept is influenced by environment (parents, sisters, brothers, teachers and counselors etc.) especially when the child is young. An individual’s behaviour whether positive or negative is determined by self concept.

Onyejiaku (1987) defined self-concept as essentially the awareness of one’s behavioural abilities and qualities. He went further to say that it is what a person believes that he is which simply stated tat self-concept is the individual’s comprehensive evaluation of himself in terms of the totality of his abilities, attitudes, qualities, judgment and values. It is the self-picture of an individual’s nature of his personality.

Encyclopedia of psychology (1972) defines self-concept as the totality of attitudes, judgment s and values of an individual rating to his behaviour abilities and qualities. International dictionary of education (1977) defines self-concept as the term used in studies of personality to describe in simplified terms, the picture or image a person has of him/herself. The self-concept system in the views of Shertzer and Stone (1985) is defined as the constellation, more or less well organized of all the self-percepts. In their own remark, self-concept is defined as an object within the individual’s awareness, its assessment is usually through self-reports.

With this fact, self-concept is cognitive and determines individual’s behaviour through what Rogers (1951) described as congruence or incongruence between self as perceived and the actual experience of the organism. It forms the nucleus of one’s personality which implies active intellectual awareness and control as part of life task self. Educationist and psychologist agreed that self-concept has a pervasive influence on child’s total development and its basic need is reflected to his self-concept. A teacher has a great opportunity to effect the way a child meets his needs of belongingness through his behaviour.

Franken (1975) noted that behaviour is a reflection of a person’s self-concept, undesirable behaviour is a provable outcome of loe self-esteem. The function of self-concept implies self-evaluation and prediction of success on failure. (Durojaiye 1978 and Manaste 1977).

Self-Concept and Academic Performance

Several correlation studies have found strong relationship between children’s self-concepts and their academic achievement. Some researchers like (Brookover, Thomas and Patterson, 1964) says that self-concept of academic ability are significantly correlated with academic performance. They also said that labeling and condition influence the way we see our abilities in any area. If many students in a school have low achievement level manipulating the school variables may improve students chances of academic success such values, climate, background, experience, peer grouping, relationship and other factors, student career influence academic self-concept and vice-versa. Therefore, in recommendation, schools literature is to raise students self-concept and academic expectations.

Snyg and Comb (1949) define self-concept as that which represent those parts of the phenomenal field which the individual has differentiated, a definite and fairly stable characteristics of himself. Sharelson, Huber and Starton (1978) Tambo (1996) described self-concept as organized, multi-faceted, hierarchical, stable, development, evaluation and differential. Atkinson et al (1974) stressed that a person in whom motive to succeed is greater, than motive towards failure is greater, that is interest in the situation is assumed to be directly perpetuate to the resultant tendency to achieve. This relationship holds for any achievement oriented activity in which an individual or group may be engaged.

Brookover, et al (1964) found that not only was there a significant relationship between academic achievement and self-concept but that self-concept was related to perception by others; this means that it people think well of themselves by so doing, they will improve their perception of academic world and this will lead them into acquiring better self-concept. Deut et al (1967) carried out a research on black and white students. They concluded that black students had more negative self-concept than the white students. The students are found to be under-achievers while those students regardless of colour who has positive self-concept were high achievers. Rosenberge, Morris and Summon (1971) carried out a study and have found that the black students have the same or high self-concept as those of white students except in an integrated school settings; here the black students tends to have low self-confidence, self-esteem and levels of aspiration that the white students in less integrated school, even though they do better, go to college more often and are more successful in finding job and receiving high income.

According to Atkinson and Raynor (1974) individuals primarily motivate to achieve success (oriented) may have substantial amount of achievement motivation aroused for academic striving. This equals or exceeds the amount aroused by extrinsic incentives which are strong or weak. To them also, failure threatened individuals to have substantial amount of inhibitory motivation aroused that which constitute resistance. They maintained that while success oriented individuals in whom the motive is to succeed is greater and the motive towards failure who is confronted by an academic achievement oriented task which have more confidence in success than a person in who the motive towards failure is greater than motive to succeed. The need for assessing self-concept in our student come to the fore by the fact that self-concept is related to academic achievement.

Lawrence (1977) in a study on organizational structure of the school; implications for adolescent self-concept development, found out that academic achievement is strongly related to all aspect of self-concept (self acceptance, self-security, social confidence, self assertion, peer and teacher affiliation and school affiliation while class position grade level, gender, physical maturation and family structure have considered less impact.

Iwuji (1996) reported that research studies like that of Conger and Miller (1996) reveal that “children who have negative or poor self-concept generally have more social behaviour problems and tend to be more delinquent than those who have high self-concept.

Bledsoe (1964) and Katzenmeyer and Stenner (1975) that revealed that high self-concept is significant associated with good academic achievement while the reverse is the case with lower or negative self-concept. Academic achievement for example is related to feeling about self and is generally measured as scholastic success shown by the comprehensive test of basic skill. Kerzner (1982) maintained that test employed in these study are standardized, thus normative data are based on large populations and assumed to have adequate reliability and validity. Therefore, low self-concept and achievement appear to go hand in hand, that is when ability indicators are equated a person with negative self-concept will do less than one with a positive self-concept; the person with a negative self-concept performing poorly which produces poorer performance, this worsens if only ability and aptitude indicator were considered.

Pietrofesa (1980) stated that the student with high self-concept has better academic experience than the student with low self-concept. They continue to say that success in schooling is unquestionably affected by self-concept.

Academic achievement for example is related to feeling about self. Academic achievement is generally measured as scholastic success shown by the comprehensive tests of basic skill. Kerzner (1982) maintained that test employed in this study is standardized; thus normative data are based on large population and be assumed to have adequate reliability and validity. Therefore low self-concept and achievement appear to go hand in hand, that is, when ability indicators are equated, a person with negative self-concept will do less than one with a positive self-concept. The effect is probable two fold rather than unidirectional; the person with a negative self-concept performs poorly which produces poorer performance.

This deterioration would be expected if only ability and aptitude indicator were considered. Shavelson (1967) viewed that there is relationship between self-concept and achievement. Students with high self-esteem (positive self-concept) are successful in school and achieve more even in the primary schools; to them the older the student, the stronger the relationship between positive self-concept and achievement.

Physical Self-Concept and Academic Performance

Many researchers like Fink (1962) Campbell (1966) Samuel (1977), Brookover, Thomas and Patterson (1962) and Tamunoioman (1996) found a positive mutual relationship between academic achievement and various self-concept measures. In addition, higher or lower self-concept is associated with good high or low academic performance. In this, Tamunoioman (1990) carried out a research on self-concept attributes, her finding revealed that a negative relationship exists between academic performance and physical self-concept. Self-concept whether psychological or physical influences students academic achievement and mental health.

Young (1973) observed that the health of an adolescent self-esteem can be determined by how well they will do in school, the goals they set, achievement and now much of their potential they will develop. Whether the picture is accurate or not, healthy or dysfunctional a child who sees him/herself in a positive way might act positively, while the other (child) who sees him/her self as a problem child is usually in trouble. A student’s perception of his capacities becomes the baseline for performance in school. Iwuji (1996) highlighted the indicators of low self-concept on the different components of self-concept which includes self-acceptance, social confidence, self-security, school affiliation and social maturity.

In terms of self acceptance which deals with individual capabilities, one is said to have low self-concept if he sees himself as physically unattractive, incompetence in many things, unhappy and unimportant to others (Iwuji, 1996). High self-concept is a desirable behaviour and is enhancing by nature. Iwuji (1996) mentioned that healthy self-concept implies that one sees and thinks positively about himself. It involves one seeing himself having important life goal which can be achieved by careful articulation and execution of plans irrespective of obstacles that are possible. It involves one seeing self in real life situation accepting the situation and coping with the attendant obstacles.

Psychological Self-Concept and Academic Performance

Tamunoimen (1990) carried out a research on self-concept attributes, her findings revealed that a positive relationship exist between academic performance and psychological self-concept. In this self-concept influences behaviour of students in positive as well as negative ways. self-concept assists the guidance counselor to understand students better and to adjust the environment. It calls for the counselor to organize guidance programme for effective self-development of student because it will help in assisting the student in knowing, understanding, accepting and improving one’s self for further development.

Peter, Shertzer and Hoose (1965) observed that the components of the self-concept theory include the processes of self formation, exploration, self differentiation, identification, role-playing, reliability-testing and translation of self-concept into occupational terms and implementation of self-concepts. Vocational development actually has it’s starting point in childhood. The counselor could administer self-concept instrument to students in order to determine how self-concept influences an individual’s behaviour in terms of academic, physical, psychological and social perspective of an individual.

The development of self-concept is viewed and explained from different psychological theoretical orientation. Erikson (1968) viewed self-concept as having emerged from identity formation. He suggested that identity formation begins at birth and that basic identity is formulated at a very early age. Erikson further says that once formulated, a persons core identity appears to be remarkably resistance to change in a favourable direction. In the face of favourable affirming event, many people experience self doubt and dislike from a very early age and do not change their view towards self the better. Erickson suggested tat the self-image a young person acquires is heavily influenced by the attitude of his parents. Through the behaviour, the parents try to know the attitude towards their children, then the children pick up the cues and take on those attitudes for themselves. The Behaviourist and Rogerian theorist viewed the development of self-concept differently. The Behaviourist viewed the development of self-concept differently. He viewed it as developing through learning and modeling from parental or adult conditional regards. This is to say that the quality of conditional regard influences the development of self-concept.

Odoemelam (1997) asserted tat “parents who unconditionally accept their child who is dull, dirty, unrealistic or unreliable while providing him with a non judgment permissive environment, will facilitate his self actualization and functioning, and ultimately enhancing his self-esteem? The development of self-concept of a child or children should be enhanced. In the home, during the early years, the parents and significant, others should facilitate a child’s self-concept. During the school years when the child is at school, the teachers have the responsibility to facilitate or enhance the high self-concept of a child. In the school, the teacher and counselor or have a number of roles to play in the development of self-concept in learners (children). The role according to Odoemelam (1977) includes, they should observe, interview and administer self-concept scales and inventories to determine the level of learners self-concept. This should be done with the view of identifying those with low self-concept for possible placing for improvement of their low-concept. In the class, teachers should not label their students. They should try to understand them. They should accept the students unconditionally. Teachers should select content areas of the curriculum that could be self-concept enhancing and teach such with interest to the learners.

Odoemelam (1997) remarked that man is a social, as well as an emotional being. Man cannot live without these among others. In this respect, individuals with low self-concept should be taught social skills, conventional skill training and peer modeling. These will facilitate their development of friendship and effective interaction with their parents, peers, teachers and others they interact with. In the absence of all these, the individual will have a low self-concept socially which make him deviant in behaviour.

Breidenbach (1977) reported that adolescent were known to improve significantly in self-concept following assertive training of short duration of six to nine (6-9) hours in seven weeks. He asserted that adolescents who received assertive training enhance feelings of self worth, perceive themselves in a more positive manner, were better satisfied with the way they perceive their view of physical conditions.

Akinade (1990) found that assertive training and conversation skill training were effective in reducing shyness why Ugwuegbulam (1997) found tat assertive training and self management were effective in reducing shyness and indicators of low self-concept.

Social self-concept and Academic performance

Tamunoimena (1990) attributes on self-concept revealed that it is a positive relationship which exist between social self-concept and academic performance and further said that social self-concept influences students academic performance and further said that social self-concept influences students academic achievement and mental health. Iwuji (1996) highlighted the indicators of low self-concept on the different components of self-concept which include, social confidence and social maturity among others low self-concept on social confidence deals with an individuals inability to handle social situations successfully. That man is a social animal is a truism . he lives and interacts with people. At times problems emerge individuals and only high self-concept individuals see themselves in the following ways in terms of social confidence.

1. Being able to handle social situation successfully

2. Being able to participate in group activities and actually participate in them.

An individual having low self-concept in social acceptance means that such individual fined it difficult to make friends, feels that people don’t want or like his company and consequently has a feeling of being disliked by others. An individual with low self-concept in social confidence tends towards being an isolate or neglect in the social acceptance will make an individual to see himself in the following ways. Good looking, importantly happy and competent in doing many things. This individual will also have high self-concept in social confidence and such individual sees himself as being liked and respected by others as well as liking himself, having a feeling that he can make friends and actually have friends, having a feeling that others like, value and enjoy his company and being able to handle social situations successfully.

Iwuji (1996)also highlighted on social maturity which is another component of self-concept. He says that social maturity deals with social values acquired by individuals (learners) low self-concept on social maturity scale implies that such individuals “have developed some social behaviours that could be described as being self, inconsiderate, crave for money at all cost and immature thinking; in all, low self-concept is characterized by low sense of self worth, feeling of inadequacy, self doubts, inability to cope with real and unanticipated stress and unrealistic and faulty thinking among others.

High self-concept in social maturity implies that the individual or learner sees himself having acceptable in social behaviours that conform with the norms of the society. In another way, an individual with high self-concept does not feel hurt by people’s negative remarks about him, he identifies with people, friendly and non-suspicious or critical when he relate with people either at home or outside the home. Individuals with high self concept are not shy but assertive. They possess many coping strategies and wide rage of interest. They are happy often time’s self-concept creates understanding, prevent emotional crisis and interpersonal conflicts while lack of high self-concept prevents understanding and create emotional crisis and interpersonal conflict. Through it, man will be able to function efficiently in all productive and meaningful sphere of human life. Self-concept as one’s perception is subjective in nature, its measurement like the effective domain is so what difficult. In the past, when there where no instrument for assessing self-concept, its assessment was very difficult and little or no attention was paid to them.

Self-concept is an important concept which has to do with understanding human behaviour. The assessment of individual’s self-concept does not only provoke intervention where the self-concept is low and unhealthy, it also helps to determine the effect of the intervention given to improve and individual’s self-concept from low to high after psychological intervention. Wholeness is a required attribute of an individual. This is because an individual is expected to perform different roles as demanded by circumstances. He should be able to reason, laugh talk, shout, see, hear, drink, run etc.

These activities are carried out by an individuals using different part of his body. When one cannot perform one of the functions, a result of disability, he becomes frustrated and begins to develop low self-concept. Such a person considers his total life inadequate since he cannot perform as a normal person. There is a feeling of self-pity, inadequacy and hopelessness. He feels his life is worthless and useless. This perception of himself affects his personality. Personality is the totality of an individual which is made up of a phenomenal or perpetual field of experience plus self-concept. Inadequacies in an individual usually evoke low self-concept. High self-concept is achieved through success, intimacy, acceptance, interaction with others especially the family peer. Self-concept therefore is the perception the child forms of himself and his capacity to cope with problems.

Summary of the Review of Literature

In summary, Adediran (1986) identified self-concept variables as self criticism, identify, self satisfaction, behaviour, physical self, moral ethical self, personal self, family self, social self and positive total self (self-concept). All these attributes of self-concept influence student academic achievement. Self enhancement theorists share the view of Adediran (1986) that self-concept variables are primarily causes of achievement.

In the same way several researchers like Fink (1962) Campell (1966), Samuel (1977),Brookover et al (1962) and Tamunoioman (1996) have found a positive correlation between academic achievement and various self concept and academic achievement is reciprocal. In addition, high or low self-concept is associated with good high or low academic performance, in this regard Tamunoimen (1990) recently carried out a research of self-concept attributes, her finding reveal that a positive relationship exist between academic performance and academic, psychological social, academic or physical self-concept, it influence students’ academic achievement and mental health.

 

Discussion of Result, Implication of the Study, Suggestion for Further Studies, Limitation of the Study, and Conclusion

Discussion of Result:

This study has been designed to probe the influence of self–concept and academic performance of secondary school students in Umuahia Local Government Area of Abia State.

Discussion of Findings was done under the research question for the study.

Research Question One:

How does self-concept influence performance of students in internal examination? The study examined the influence of self-concept on students’ performance in internal examination. From the responses it was discovered that self-concept influence students’ performance in internal examination.

Iwuji (1996) reported that research studies like that of Conger and Miller (1996) found that children who have negative or poor self-concept generally have more social behavioural problems and tend to be more delinquent than those who have high self-concept and so, perform poorly in examination.

Research Question Two:

How does self-concept influence academic performance of students in external examination?

This study also examines the influence of self-concept influence academic performance of students in external examination. It was observed that how does self-concept influence students academic performance of students in external exams. In the words of Roger (1951) described congruence or incongruence between self as perceived and the actual experience of the organism. It forms the nucleus of ones personality which implies active intellectual awareness and control as part of life task self. Educationists and psychologists agree that self-concept has a pervasive influence on a Child’s total development and its basic needs reflected to his self-concept.

Research Question Three:

How does self-concept influence academic performance of students in their ability to do assignment?

Here the study tries to examine the, influence of self-concept on student’s ability to do assignment. From the responses it was discovered that self-concept influence student ability to do assignment.

According to Brooking, Thomas and Patterson (1964) said that self-concept of academic ability is significantly correlated with academic performance. They stated that labeling and condition influence the way we see our abilities in any area. If many students in a school have low achievement level it manipulate the school variable to improve their chance of academic success.

Research Question Four:

How does self-concept influence academic performance of students in their ability to do practical?

The study finally tries to examine the influence of self-concept on students ability to do practical. From the respondent it was observed that self-concept influence student’s ability to do practical.

Peters, Shertzer and Hoose (1965) observed that the components of the self-concept theory include the processes of self formation, exploration, self differentiation, identification, role-play, reality-testing and translation of self-concept into occupational terms and implementation of self-vocational development actually has it’s starting point in childhood. But where it is not, the child becomes fearful to carry out real test. All these attributes of self-concept influence students’ performance.

Summary of the Findings

This study tries to investigate the influence of self-concept on academic performance of secondary school students in Umuahia Local Government Area of Abia State. Four research questions were stated to guide the study. The following dimensions of self-concept were specified for investigation. (i) Students performance in internal examination (ii) students performance in external examination (iii) student ability to do assignment (iv) student ability to do practical.

Related literatures of self-concept were reviewed.

The survey research methodology was adopted for the study, which was conducted in 6 (six) out of 15 secondary school in the area. A random sample of 240students was used. Data was collected by means of questionnaire. The questionnaire covers the four dimension of self-concept. The analysis were done using mean.

Educational Implication of the Study

By implication, if students were helped to develop positive self-concept early in life, it will help to improve their performance academically.

When guidance and counseling services are organized periodically for both students and teachers on how to develop positive self-concept and equip teachers in the skills that will help students. This will help to reduce failure in both internal and external examinations as a result of low self-concept.. All stake holders of education, teachers, parents, government etc must do their best to improve child education.

 

Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher therefore recommended as follows that;

1. Government and non-governmental organizations should help provide science equipment and other materials to schools as they will help encourage students and improve their performance.

2. Teachers should encourage group study and group assignment even at home, after school as this will reduce stress which causes frustration on students, leading to low self-concept.

3. Parents should reduce the number of work they give to their children after school to enable them have enough time to read at home.

4. The government should discourage children hacking on the street during and after school as they will help to shape the focus of children or students.

 

Suggestions for further studies

a. More research should be carried out as they relate to self-concept and academic performance.

b. Further research be conducted to determine the influence of religious self-concept and more to them ability to do sciences.

c. Further research to know the influence of sex in sciences.

d. The research should be carried out in a wider area or in other local government area for purpose of comparison and appraisal of findings.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study the following conclusions are made.

1. Students perform creditably well when helped to cultivate positive academic self-concept.

2. All stakeholders in education, curriculum planners, guidance counselors, parents, teachers, government etc must play their part on the education of the child to boost and improve students academic performance.

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR RESPONDENT

PART A

Please fill in the space provided below and mark “X” where applicable in the box provided below.

(1) Name of school ———————————————

(2) Type of school: Boys Girls Mixed

(3) Age: Below 12-15 yrs 15-18 19 and above

(4) Sex: Male female

PART B

Instructions

Indicate your level of agreement to the statement below by ticking (√) the appropriate column given the following alternatives

Strongly agree (SA) 4 Points

Agree (A) 3 Points

Disagree (D) 2 Points

Strongly disagree (SD) 1 Point

APPENDIX

How does self-concept influence performance of students in internal examination?

1 Students with positive self-concept perform better than other students.

2 When students have positive self-concept, they are usually ambitions and goal oriented.

3 Students with good self-concept strive to pass their exams by themselves

4 Students with positive self-concept do not have exam anxiety.

5 Students with good self-concept read their book even when they are at home.

Research Question Two:

How does self-concept influence academic performance of students in external examination?

6 Students with positive self-concept initiates ideas for themselves

7 Students with positive self-concept rely on other people to pass their exam

8 Students with good self-concept make themselves comfortable in the examination hall.

9 Student with good self-concept feel assured on the ones they have written

10 Students with positive self-concept don’t engage themselves in exam malpractice.

Research Question Three

How does self-concept influence academic performance of students in their ability to do assignment?

11 Students with good self-concept research for themselves even when they are not given much examples.

12 Students with positive self-concept become anxious in getting the real answer to the question they failed.

13 Students with good self-concept have self-confidence in the answers they give.

14 Students with positive self-concept persuade their teacher in getting the right explanations to the questions.

15 Students with good self-concept do their domestic work quickly in other to do their assignment.

Research Question Four

How does self-concept influence academic performance of students in their ability to do practical?

16 Students listen attentively in order to practice even when they are at home.

17 Students try to know the name of the specimen used for the practical.

18 Students go by the rules and regulations guiding the practical laboratory.

19 Students with positive self-concept try to be the leading group in their practical work

20 Students try to be punctual in order not to miss the thing being taught.

Academic Performance – Influence Of Self-concept  On Secondary School Students In Umuahia Local Government Area Of Abia State

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