Academic Performance – The Effect Of Shortage Of Qualified Teachers On The Students

Academic Performance – The Effect Of Shortage Of Qualified Teachers On The Students In Ebonyi Educational Zone

Academic Performance – The Effect Of Shortage Of Qualified Teachers On The Students In Ebonyi Educational Zone

The aim of education is to provide knowledge that will integrate individual and moved them into more meaningful individual in the society capable of solving their problems. Teachers have been seen as an effective instrument towards achieving this effective teaching.

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Teachers are recognised as the main pills of our educational system. It is pertinent to mention here that ineffective and poor teaching of some key subject in the school curriculum have continue to do some havoc by shattering the hopes and aspiration of most students, especially the very ambitious ones. Most students have desired to become specialists in the field of knowledge or the others but could not make the grade in the basic examinations that should have given them entry into higher institution such as the University.

The effort made by the government in the federation to increase the supply of qualified teachers of lack of the qualified teachers and its efforts on the academic performance of students. The Bachelor Degree in education was introduce in almost all the Nigeria university in the bid to provide more trained teachers for effective teaching and learning which will in turn influence the performance of students in both the Urban and rural area collage whose programmes were modified and enriched given way to a new certificate, National certificate of Education. These provide the trained teachers for the lower form of secondary schools and teacher training colleges.

In addition to the above mention measure, the federal government has upgraded some college of education such as Alvan Ikoku college of Education to a degree awarding institution which thus providing Nigeria Certificate of Education and degree holder simultaneously. The Phelps stroke Report of 1925, according to Fafunwa, critcised this system of teacher training as being Unsatisfactory due to the fact that the pupil-teacher was overworked and Underpaid and partly because the curriculum was poorly conceived, the supervisory system was inadequate and the missions did not understand the purpose of African education By 1926, according is Fafunwa, there are 13 Teachers Training colleges with a total population of 20 men and 30 women (Phipson 1948: 107)

It is recognised that qualified are not necessary reliable indicator of the performance of individual teachers qualification, is only indicating teaching for specific jobs (Lillis 1988: 77). This is to explain the above statement as an indication based on the fart that good teachers are those who give students what they need and not measure mainly on qualifications. Commenting on the general condition of teachers training colleges. It could be said, without exception that the provision of training centres has been inadequate and in some areas it does not exist.

To Lewis (1956) He emphasized that the most cases, the potential teachers had nothing more than a primary education and often than not, had to work under a supervising teacher already fully employed with his or her own class. There is a relationship between the quality of the teaching personnel and the quality of the education system or process (Ukeje 1978: 88) He submitted that the defeats of the present Nigeria educational system are partly as the result of teachers with poor quality. For him the real value of a sound education principle lies in its effective implementation and in the final analysis, it is the teachers who translate theory into practice. In his own words, the quality of the school and that of the teaching personnel can create a vicious circle for we cannot have good schools unless we have good teachers and we cannot have good teachers unless we have good school to produce them. One of the problems has been inequitable posting of teachers in favour of our urban secondary schools. Since the communities have been encouraged by the government to build neigbourhood secondary schools. It is only fair that adequate manpower and infrastructure should be provided in all schools and their places of location


In Ebonyi Educational Zones, the option is that the positing of teachers to various Secondary Schools varies and meanwhile stated that qualified teachers were being posted more to the Urban Secondary School more than that is in the rural areas of the state.

A possible problem resulting from the shortage of qualified teachers to our Secondary is the poor performances which arise in rural area schools in particular.

Intellectually, students from the rural areas are said to suffer backwardness and failure as a result of unqualified teachers posting in the schools.

For these reasons, the research tends to examine the effects of the problem on the academic performances of the affected Schools in Ebonyi Educational Zone, Ebonyi State.


The study is generally to identify the effect of shortage of qualified teachers in the academic performances of students in Ebonyi Educational Zone.

The study specifically seeks to:

(i) Find out the extent these shortage of qualified teachers affect students academic

(ii) Find out the extent the imbalance in the distribution of teachers affects the academic performance of the student.

(iii) Find out students performance in some examination.

(iv) And what measure could be adopted to enhance the academic performances of students.


The significance may varies for the fact that the result is going to provide necessary information to the state and federal government of Nigeria, teachers, policy makes etc on the effect shortage of qualified teachers to the schools. This study when completed will contribute some knowledge which may be of help to the state and federal government to make a policy that will help curb the high rate of shortage of qualified teachers in our country.

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The study will provide the general public with information on the importance of training people who are capable of offering the best to the students in our various schools. And why it is good to employ only the professional e.g. (NCE) National Certificate on Education and Degree holder to our Secondary Schools.

Finally, the project when completed will provide the public and mostly the teachers on the best way to take in order to avoid half backed teacher.


The study is centred on some Secondary Schools in Ebonyi Educational Zone.

It limited to the effect of shortage of qualified teachers on the academic performance of students.


The following assumptions stand as the research question of the study:

(1) To what extent does shortage of qualified teacher affect students academic?

(2) To what extent does the imbalance in the distribution of teachers affect academic performance of students?

(3) To what extent does the student perform in the examination?

(4) What measure could be adopted to enhance the academic performances of students?


A lot of studies have been carried out on affect of shortage of qualified teachers in the society.

The researcher in this chapter will attempt to bring out the effect of shortage of qualified teachers on education of the affected students, by examining the interactive available.

The researcher intends to embark on this under the following headings:

(i) The place of qualified teachers as factor in effective teaching.

(ii) Influence of lack of qualified teachers in our secondary schools.

(iii) Impact of professional teachers in our educational system.

(iv) The effect of inadequate teaching/facilities on the academic performance of students.


According to Ukeje (1966) teaching is a conscious behaviour that makes learning more probable and more efficient and teachers are and will fill remain architects of all professions. This means that extra care should be taken in the recruitment and posting of teachers to our Urban and rural secondary schools. There should be equal distribution of teachers in these areas for greater productivity.

On the quality of teachers, Itotoh (1977) said quality of teachers is important in any meaningful presentation of educational transactions. Quality of teachers is essential to the achievement of the great National aspiration.

In support of the above statement, Obasi (1982) has also said “The concept of education cannot be properly defined or conceptualized without reference to those who impact the knowledge. In other words, teachers are the pillars and life wire of the educational sectors”. For that reason, extra care should be taken when recruiting them into the teaching profession.

Thomas (1988) in his book titled “Teachers for the schools of Tomorrow said that the best school is not the one that is necessarily housed or equipped though they do facilitate school work but what is most important is the quality of the teaching staff which must be plentifully staffed with well-qualified teachers.

In the National policy on Education, it was said that the purpose of teacher education should be “to provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and to make them adequate to any changing situation. If teachers and the authorities responsible for education can pay heed to this objective, the problem of staffing in our schools, both in the Urban and the rural areas will be minimal.

Emezi (1987) in one of his article “Teachers Education in post independent Nigeria” said “The teacher is in all educational system the central figure and the sources of any educational reform depends on him”. This strengthens the fact that all secondary schools in the state not only in Abakaliki Zone should be adequately staffed with the right caliber of teachers. This will make it possible for the students to be on the same footing academically not minding where the school is located.

The National policy on Education (1987) stresses this further in section 11, page 31, No 88 thus; in order that this function may be discharged efficiently, a cadre of staff is required in adequate numbers and quality at the different operational levels in the local, states, and federal institutions”. And be ensuring quality control in the school, it is necessary to have good teachers.


This question of inadequate of teachers in our secondary schools in a state like Ebonyi appears to be a paradox, when one remembers that Ebonyi state is saturated with trained teachers. The question is whether our secondary schools are well staffed with specialist in all subjects especially those schools in the rural areas in the face of “apparent enough trained teachers”. The answer is emphatically, No. Reflecting the importance of teachers in any society, Emezi (1977) said that since teachers are the backbone of the whole educational system their education therefore is perhaps the most vital factor affecting our future. We must ensure that the teacher is an educated person who possesses a firm grounding and a considerable deeper knowledge of the subject he is obliged to teach.” A teacher must be a leader, an innovator, and an enlightened person”. If teachers are not well educated the country will end up in producing half backed students.

Teaching is not a profession for every body, there are those we regard as “born teachers”. These are people who have the urge and ability to teach and lead others alright. Such people are the caliber of men required in the profession and they will readily accept postings any where, be it in the rural area or in the urban. Writing further on the qualities of a good teacher; Nwosu (1973) in his article title who should “Teach pointed out that teachers are those who have “academic knowledge of the subject plus some instruction in the theories and strategies of teaching. And it is pertinent to add, plus interest in the profession because one can have academic knowledge of a subject but if the interest is not there, he cannot perform effectively to substantiate this point further, Ndu (1975) writing also in “who should teach” said for one to be a teacher, he has to possess the subject mater knowledge as well as the natural qualities that help the persevere in the difficult but enjoyable and rewarding task of teaching and finally one has to submit oneself to professional training where one is equipped fully with tools for job

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It is therefore an established fact the teachers are the central figure with success of any educational system, as well as important functionaries in the instruction and up bringing of the child. The 1969 National Curriculum conference in its report aptly described the teacher as “The key man in the entire educational programme. The quality of a teacher’s training makes or mars the end product of his job as a teacher. This statement proves that the important of well qualified teachers cannot be overemphasized. Lack of adequate trained staff is one of the major reasons identified as a hindrance in the effective posting of teachers in the rural areas. And it is good that both states and federal governments are aware of the important role that well qualified teachers can play in the realization of qualitative education in the country.

The policy on education (1977) refers to the teacher as “The manipulator of educational environment where learning takes place. And the preamble of Teacher Educational Planning, because no educational system can rise above the quality of its teacher.

An educationist, Olatubosun (1980) in his writing says; “Who is a teacher? A teacher should be the master of his subject. In the act of teaching, he must know the individual needs of his pupils/students and give them the kind of attention and assistance most suitable to their needs”. All these statements underscore the fact that there can never be good student’s performance without a good quality of staff. Well qualified teachers will know how best to handle students and how to tap their intellectual resources. People always trace student’s performance to their teachers. That is only it is said that if the students have not learned, then the teacher has not taught. Therefore is leach effectively and for optimum teaching to take place, the teacher must be qualified because no one can give what has not get.


The importance of professional teacher’s must be recognized. A professional teacher will do every thing possible in order to make his teaching attractive and understandable to the learners. In order words, he places their interest as his own top priority. Against the situation, the students work along with the teacher and reflect this in their academic performance. This is never so with the untrained teachers who has not learnt the rudiments or the art of impacting knowledge. So if we are to achieve our desired goals in education, emphasis must be placed on quality of teacher not on quantity.

In support of the above, Bereday and Lauwery (1983) said “The strength of an educational system must largely depend on the quality of its teachers. However, enlightened the aims, however up to rate and generous the equipment however efficient the administration, the value to the children is determined by the teachers”. There is no more important matter than that of attracting sufficient number of the right caliber of people to the profession, providing them with the requisite training and finally ensuring that their status are commensurate with the importance and responsibility of their work

Most government pays more attention to the provision of equipments to schools than they do to the training of qualified teachers and the subsequent retention of such teachers. The effect is that the equipment will not be fully utilized because of lack of trained teachers. Though equipment is necessary, a professional teacher can improvise teaching aids where none exists.

Still stressing on the needs for qualified teachers in the rural areas schools; no curriculum however well written. They may be no equipment, however costly it may be, will compensate for a poor teacher, on the other hand, a good teacher will more than off-set deficiencies in curriculum, in text book and in equipment.

For the achievement of the educational aims and objectives success or failure lies in the hands of the teachers. In supporting these views, (Overdate 1964:31) said “given the most meaningful and realistic education and training programme, which those with experience, imagination and foresight can devise, in the final analysis, no real achievement is possible without the necessary cadre of trained and motivated teachers.

Speaking also on the role that education will play in the society, Ukeje (1971) said that the role will largely depend on the teaching personnel who are to teach. He further said that any possible attempt to raise the standard of education must start with the improvement of the quality of teaching personnel.

Yeager in his book titled: Administration and the teacher, said “A competent teaching staff is one of the indispensable element of a good school. Good instruction depends on good teachers; the focus of good administration should always be securing and maintaining good teachers and good teaching”. This is in support of the view that no school can function effectively without good and well qualified teachers.

Ozigi (1977) in his write-up on “School Administration” described teaching as a team-work in which all the member of the team will have to co-operate with each other to achieve the objective of education. He further said that staffing priority is to assemble and build up a good team. In effect, he is saying that the most essential thing in the staffing process is to recruit qualified teachers who are competent and ready to co-operate with the principal and other members of the staff for the achievement of the school objective.

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Igwe (1982:76) writing on “Issues and problems of qualified and quantitative education in Nigeria said; under poor quality of teaching staff, we cannot achieve quantitative education at this level of the school system since there is intimate relationship between the quality of education in any school and the quality of teachers who operate them.

Ukeje (1991) support this view in one of his article titled “Quackery in the Teaching profession”. He had sais that there is a direct relationship between the quality of the teaching of th personnel and the quality of the educational process, the defect in quality of the present Nigerian educational systems are partly the result of poor teachers”. One observes that when there is shortage of teaching staff in schools, all grades of teachers are consequently recruited to fill in gaps. The secondary schools in Ebonyi educational zone are no exception to this practice. Such unqualified teacher includes holders of what African school certificate. It is pertinent to note that these grades of teachers have not acquired the rudiments of the teaching profession and therefore have not mastered the art and skill of impacting knowledge. They may not have gained the knowledge they are expected to impact to students.

The general claim about the falling standard and education may have stemmed partly from lack of adequate teaching personnel. In support of this, Nwadu, (1979) has this and say “the maintenance of good standard of academic achievement depends upon an adequate supply of trained teachers.

Igwe (1977) conducted a research in which he discovered that the ratio of qualified teachers to students in secondary schools in one of the neighboring state. Enugu State stood at 1.55. This proved that the number of qualified teachers in our schools as at that time was found to be deficient. The case is still the same even today and this shortage, no doubt affected the schools in the rural areas of Ebonyi Educational Zone. This sad state of affaires results in the shortage of teachers suffered by most schools in the rural areas including Abakaliki Zone.

This also results in over labouring of the qualified teacher since most of them will be assigned to subjects out side their areas of specialization. All these invariably increase inefficiency with the profession which results to poor academic performance in school by the students.

In 1979, the register of West African Examination council attributed poor performance by students in the external examinations to the shortage of staff, more unqualified teachers in schools, lack of minimum facilities and equipment necessary for maintained standard and unprecedented expansion at all level of education which has not been matched with corresponding increase with the number of qualified teachers. This presupposes that good student performance and well qualified teachers go hand in hand effective teaching yield an effective result.

Eble (1976) emphasized the attributes of good teachers when he stated that “he will be a master of these subjects, can organize and emphases, can clarify idea and point out relationship, can motivate students, can post and elicited useful questions and examples that are reasonable, imaginative and fair in managing the details of learning.


Inadequate of recreational facilities is another vital factor that makes life in the rural area monotonous and boring. This has forced some qualified teachers to refused posting in the rural places. The role that social amities play in the material aspects of the decision of where to work and live is more commonly appreciated than we can think.

Levenson (1986) Said that water as one of the social amenities has been a major factor in the sitting and development of cities through out history.

Chayter (1974) Writing an “Education in the rural areas stressed that time and time again, education of rural communities has had the disturbing effect of triggering of the migrations from the rural areas to large towns and cities without effecting the desired social and economic development of the rural areas. Most people think that education provides the means for securing a better life which can only be obtained urban areas where there are social amenities.

Nwakwo (1980) commenting on teacher’s attitudes towards posting said “Teacher are reluctant to accept postings to the rural areas.” He further noted that some of these teachers have no cogent reasons to give for refusing posting to the rural area. One can rightly deduce that these teachers are looking for amenities.

Okoro (1981) writing on the importance of health services in the rural areas, posting out that in most cases rural areas are provided with ill-equipped health centres from where serious cases are referred to big hospital in the urban areas. It is true that no one would like to risk his or her life, consequently there is the tendency for qualifies teachers to refuse living and working in the rural areas. They rather prefer the urban centre where adequate medical facilities are available and cheaper.

Academic Performance – The Effect Of Shortage Of Qualified Teachers On The Students In Ebonyi Educational Zone

To place an order for the Complete Project Material, pay N5,000 to

GTBank (Guaranty Trust Bank)
Account Name – Chudi-Oji Chukwuka
Account No – 0044157183

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  1. We have a lot to tackle in the education sector. The teachers happen to be of utmost important in the country. We need teachers to upgrade to become qualified. This upgrade could be achieved through ICT teachers’ training, workshops and seminars. Government also need to look into the education sector and motivate the teachers. They are truly disregarded in the society unlike other sectors

  2. All wat nigerians need nw are very qualified teachers so dat d intellectuality of students will b increased

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